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authorDave Hansen <dave.hansen@linux.intel.com>2018-04-06 13:55:18 -0700
committerIngo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>2018-04-12 09:06:00 +0200
commit8c06c7740d191b9055cb9be920579d5ecdd26303 (patch)
treedf1e3e869969f4b7ee92e28840c26cffda376351 /arch/x86/mm/pti.c
parent39114b7a743e6759bab4d96b7d9651d44d17e3f9 (diff)
downloadlinux-stericsson-8c06c7740d191b9055cb9be920579d5ecdd26303.tar.gz
x86/pti: Leave kernel text global for !PCID
Global pages are bad for hardening because they potentially let an exploit read the kernel image via a Meltdown-style attack which makes it easier to find gadgets. But, global pages are good for performance because they reduce TLB misses when making user/kernel transitions, especially when PCIDs are not available, such as on older hardware, or where a hypervisor has disabled them for some reason. This patch implements a basic, sane policy: If you have PCIDs, you only map a minimal amount of kernel text global. If you do not have PCIDs, you map all kernel text global. This policy effectively makes PCIDs something that not only adds performance but a little bit of hardening as well. I ran a simple "lseek" microbenchmark[1] to test the benefit on a modern Atom microserver. Most of the benefit comes from applying the series before this patch ("entry only"), but there is still a signifiant benefit from this patch. No Global Lines (baseline ): 6077741 lseeks/sec 88 Global Lines (entry only): 7528609 lseeks/sec (+23.9%) 94 Global Lines (this patch): 8433111 lseeks/sec (+38.8%) [1.] https://github.com/antonblanchard/will-it-scale/blob/master/tests/lseek1.c Signed-off-by: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org> Cc: Arjan van de Ven <arjan@linux.intel.com> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de> Cc: Dan Williams <dan.j.williams@intel.com> Cc: David Woodhouse <dwmw2@infradead.org> Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com> Cc: Juergen Gross <jgross@suse.com> Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@google.com> Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Nadav Amit <namit@vmware.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: linux-mm@kvack.org Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20180406205518.E3D989EB@viggo.jf.intel.com Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'arch/x86/mm/pti.c')
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/mm/pti.c78
1 files changed, 74 insertions, 4 deletions
diff --git a/arch/x86/mm/pti.c b/arch/x86/mm/pti.c
index 1470b173963f..f1fd52f449e0 100644
--- a/arch/x86/mm/pti.c
+++ b/arch/x86/mm/pti.c
@@ -66,12 +66,22 @@ static void __init pti_print_if_secure(const char *reason)
pr_info("%s\n", reason);
}
+enum pti_mode {
+ PTI_AUTO = 0,
+ PTI_FORCE_OFF,
+ PTI_FORCE_ON
+} pti_mode;
+
void __init pti_check_boottime_disable(void)
{
char arg[5];
int ret;
+ /* Assume mode is auto unless overridden. */
+ pti_mode = PTI_AUTO;
+
if (hypervisor_is_type(X86_HYPER_XEN_PV)) {
+ pti_mode = PTI_FORCE_OFF;
pti_print_if_insecure("disabled on XEN PV.");
return;
}
@@ -79,18 +89,23 @@ void __init pti_check_boottime_disable(void)
ret = cmdline_find_option(boot_command_line, "pti", arg, sizeof(arg));
if (ret > 0) {
if (ret == 3 && !strncmp(arg, "off", 3)) {
+ pti_mode = PTI_FORCE_OFF;
pti_print_if_insecure("disabled on command line.");
return;
}
if (ret == 2 && !strncmp(arg, "on", 2)) {
+ pti_mode = PTI_FORCE_ON;
pti_print_if_secure("force enabled on command line.");
goto enable;
}
- if (ret == 4 && !strncmp(arg, "auto", 4))
+ if (ret == 4 && !strncmp(arg, "auto", 4)) {
+ pti_mode = PTI_AUTO;
goto autosel;
+ }
}
if (cmdline_find_option_bool(boot_command_line, "nopti")) {
+ pti_mode = PTI_FORCE_OFF;
pti_print_if_insecure("disabled on command line.");
return;
}
@@ -149,7 +164,7 @@ pgd_t __pti_set_user_pgd(pgd_t *pgdp, pgd_t pgd)
*
* Returns a pointer to a P4D on success, or NULL on failure.
*/
-static __init p4d_t *pti_user_pagetable_walk_p4d(unsigned long address)
+static p4d_t *pti_user_pagetable_walk_p4d(unsigned long address)
{
pgd_t *pgd = kernel_to_user_pgdp(pgd_offset_k(address));
gfp_t gfp = (GFP_KERNEL | __GFP_NOTRACK | __GFP_ZERO);
@@ -177,7 +192,7 @@ static __init p4d_t *pti_user_pagetable_walk_p4d(unsigned long address)
*
* Returns a pointer to a PMD on success, or NULL on failure.
*/
-static __init pmd_t *pti_user_pagetable_walk_pmd(unsigned long address)
+static pmd_t *pti_user_pagetable_walk_pmd(unsigned long address)
{
gfp_t gfp = (GFP_KERNEL | __GFP_NOTRACK | __GFP_ZERO);
p4d_t *p4d = pti_user_pagetable_walk_p4d(address);
@@ -267,7 +282,7 @@ static void __init pti_setup_vsyscall(void)
static void __init pti_setup_vsyscall(void) { }
#endif
-static void __init
+static void
pti_clone_pmds(unsigned long start, unsigned long end, pmdval_t clear)
{
unsigned long addr;
@@ -373,6 +388,58 @@ static void __init pti_clone_entry_text(void)
}
/*
+ * Global pages and PCIDs are both ways to make kernel TLB entries
+ * live longer, reduce TLB misses and improve kernel performance.
+ * But, leaving all kernel text Global makes it potentially accessible
+ * to Meltdown-style attacks which make it trivial to find gadgets or
+ * defeat KASLR.
+ *
+ * Only use global pages when it is really worth it.
+ */
+static inline bool pti_kernel_image_global_ok(void)
+{
+ /*
+ * Systems with PCIDs get litlle benefit from global
+ * kernel text and are not worth the downsides.
+ */
+ if (cpu_feature_enabled(X86_FEATURE_PCID))
+ return false;
+
+ /*
+ * Only do global kernel image for pti=auto. Do the most
+ * secure thing (not global) if pti=on specified.
+ */
+ if (pti_mode != PTI_AUTO)
+ return false;
+
+ /*
+ * K8 may not tolerate the cleared _PAGE_RW on the userspace
+ * global kernel image pages. Do the safe thing (disable
+ * global kernel image). This is unlikely to ever be
+ * noticed because PTI is disabled by default on AMD CPUs.
+ */
+ if (boot_cpu_has(X86_FEATURE_K8))
+ return false;
+
+ return true;
+}
+
+/*
+ * For some configurations, map all of kernel text into the user page
+ * tables. This reduces TLB misses, especially on non-PCID systems.
+ */
+void pti_clone_kernel_text(void)
+{
+ unsigned long start = PFN_ALIGN(_text);
+ unsigned long end = ALIGN((unsigned long)_end, PMD_PAGE_SIZE);
+
+ if (!pti_kernel_image_global_ok())
+ return;
+
+ pti_clone_pmds(start, end, _PAGE_RW);
+}
+
+/*
* This is the only user for it and it is not arch-generic like
* the other set_memory.h functions. Just extern it.
*/
@@ -388,6 +455,9 @@ void pti_set_kernel_image_nonglobal(void)
unsigned long start = PFN_ALIGN(_text);
unsigned long end = ALIGN((unsigned long)_end, PMD_PAGE_SIZE);
+ if (pti_kernel_image_global_ok())
+ return;
+
pr_debug("set kernel image non-global\n");
set_memory_nonglobal(start, (end - start) >> PAGE_SHIFT);