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2012-09-23KVM: Add resampling irqfds for level triggered interruptsAlex Williamson
To emulate level triggered interrupts, add a resample option to KVM_IRQFD. When specified, a new resamplefd is provided that notifies the user when the irqchip has been resampled by the VM. This may, for instance, indicate an EOI. Also in this mode, posting of an interrupt through an irqfd only asserts the interrupt. On resampling, the interrupt is automatically de-asserted prior to user notification. This enables level triggered interrupts to be posted and re-enabled from vfio with no userspace intervention. All resampling irqfds can make use of a single irq source ID, so we reserve a new one for this interface. Signed-off-by: Alex Williamson <alex.williamson@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-09-20KVM: optimize apic interrupt deliveryGleb Natapov
Most interrupt are delivered to only one vcpu. Use pre-build tables to find interrupt destination instead of looping through all vcpus. In case of logical mode loop only through vcpus in a logical cluster irq is sent to. Signed-off-by: Gleb Natapov <gleb@redhat.com> Acked-by: Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-09-17KVM: make processes waiting on vcpu mutex killableMichael S. Tsirkin
vcpu mutex can be held for unlimited time so taking it with mutex_lock on an ioctl is wrong: one process could be passed a vcpu fd and call this ioctl on the vcpu used by another process, it will then be unkillable until the owner exits. Call mutex_lock_killable instead and return status. Note: mutex_lock_interruptible would be even nicer, but I am not sure all users are prepared to handle EINTR from these ioctls. They might misinterpret it as an error. Cleanup paths expect a vcpu that can't be used by any userspace so this will always succeed - catch bugs by calling BUG_ON. Catch callers that don't check return state by adding __must_check. Signed-off-by: Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-09-06KVM: move postcommit flush to x86, as mmio sptes are x86 specificMarcelo Tosatti
Other arches do not need this. Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com> v2: fix incorrect deletion of mmio sptes on gpa move (noticed by Takuya) Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-09-06KVM: perform an invalid memslot step for gpa base changeMarcelo Tosatti
PPC must flush all translations before the new memory slot is visible. Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-09-06KVM: split kvm_arch_flush_shadowMarcelo Tosatti
Introducing kvm_arch_flush_shadow_memslot, to invalidate the translations of a single memory slot. Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-27KVM: PPC: book3s: fix build error caused by gfn_to_hva_memslot()Gavin Shan
The build error was caused by that builtin functions are calling the functions implemented in modules. This error was introduced by commit 4d8b81abc4 ("KVM: introduce readonly memslot"). The patch fixes the build error by moving function __gfn_to_hva_memslot() from kvm_main.c to kvm_host.h and making that "inline" so that the builtin function (kvmppc_h_enter) can use that. Acked-by: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> Signed-off-by: Gavin Shan <shangw@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-08-22KVM: introduce readonly memslotXiao Guangrong
In current code, if we map a readonly memory space from host to guest and the page is not currently mapped in the host, we will get a fault pfn and async is not allowed, then the vm will crash We introduce readonly memory region to map ROM/ROMD to the guest, read access is happy for readonly memslot, write access on readonly memslot will cause KVM_EXIT_MMIO exit Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-22KVM: introduce KVM_HVA_ERR_BADXiao Guangrong
Then, remove bad_hva and inline kvm_is_error_hva Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-22KVM: use 'writable' as a hint to map writable pfnXiao Guangrong
In current code, we always map writable pfn for the read fault, in order to support readonly memslot, we map writable pfn only if 'writable' is not NULL Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-22KVM: reorganize hva_to_pfnXiao Guangrong
We do too many things in hva_to_pfn, this patch reorganize the code, let it be better readable Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-22KVM: introduce gfn_to_hva_read/kvm_read_hva/kvm_read_hva_atomicXiao Guangrong
This set of functions is only used to read data from host space, in the later patch, we will only get a readonly hva in gfn_to_hva_read, and the function name is a good hint to let gfn_to_hva_read to pair with kvm_read_hva()/kvm_read_hva_atomic() Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-22KVM: introduce gfn_to_pfn_memslot_atomicXiao Guangrong
It can instead of hva_to_pfn_atomic Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-22KVM: fix missing check for memslot flagsXiao Guangrong
Check flags when memslot is registered from userspace as Avi's suggestion Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-14KVM: x86: drop parameter validation in ioapic/picMichael S. Tsirkin
We validate irq pin number when routing is setup, so code handling illegal irq # in pic and ioapic on each injection is never called. Drop it, replace with BUG_ON to catch out of bounds access bugs. Signed-off-by: Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-08-06KVM: do not release the error pageXiao Guangrong
After commit a2766325cf9f9, the error page is replaced by the error code, it need not be released anymore [ The patch has been compiling tested for powerpc ] Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-06KVM: do not release the error pfnXiao Guangrong
After commit a2766325cf9f9, the error pfn is replaced by the error code, it need not be released anymore [ The patch has been compiling tested for powerpc ] Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-06KVM: introduce KVM_ERR_PTR_BAD_PAGEXiao Guangrong
It is used to eliminate the overload of function call and cleanup the code Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-06KVM: inline is_*_pfn functionsXiao Guangrong
These functions are exported and can not inline, move them to kvm_host.h to eliminate the overload of function call Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-06KVM: introduce KVM_PFN_ERR_BADXiao Guangrong
Then, remove get_bad_pfn Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-06KVM: introduce KVM_PFN_ERR_HWPOISONXiao Guangrong
Then, get_hwpoison_pfn and is_hwpoison_pfn can be removed Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-06KVM: introduce KVM_PFN_ERR_FAULTXiao Guangrong
After that, the exported and un-inline function, get_fault_pfn, can be removed Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-06KVM: iommu: fix releasing unmapped pageXiao Guangrong
There are two bugs: - the 'error page' is forgot to be released [ it is unneeded after commit a2766325cf9f9, for backport, we still do kvm_release_pfn_clean for the error pfn ] - guest pages are always released regardless of the unmapped page (e,g, caused by hwpoison) Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-08-06KVM: Push rmap into kvm_arch_memory_slotTakuya Yoshikawa
Two reasons: - x86 can integrate rmap and rmap_pde and remove heuristics in __gfn_to_rmap(). - Some architectures do not need rmap. Since rmap is one of the most memory consuming stuff in KVM, ppc'd better restrict the allocation to Book3S HV. Signed-off-by: Takuya Yoshikawa <yoshikawa.takuya@oss.ntt.co.jp> Acked-by: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-07-26KVM: Move KVM_IRQ_LINE to arch-generic codeChristoffer Dall
Handle KVM_IRQ_LINE and KVM_IRQ_LINE_STATUS in the generic kvm_vm_ioctl() function and call into kvm_vm_ioctl_irq_line(). This is even more relevant when KVM/ARM also uses this ioctl. Signed-off-by: Christoffer Dall <c.dall@virtualopensystems.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-07-26KVM: remove dummy pagesXiao Guangrong
Currently, kvm allocates some pages and use them as error indicators, it wastes memory and is not good for scalability Base on Avi's suggestion, we use the error codes instead of these pages to indicate the error conditions Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-07-26KVM: use kvm_release_page_clean to release the pageXiao Guangrong
In kvm_async_pf_wakeup_all, it uses bad_page to generate broadcast wakeup, and uses put_page to release bad_page, the work depends on the fact that bad_page is the normal page. But we will use the error code instead of bad_page, so use kvm_release_page_clean to release the page which will release the error code properly Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-07-26Merge branch 'queue' into nextAvi Kivity
Merge patches queued during the run-up to the merge window. * queue: (25 commits) KVM: Choose better candidate for directed yield KVM: Note down when cpu relax intercepted or pause loop exited KVM: Add config to support ple or cpu relax optimzation KVM: switch to symbolic name for irq_states size KVM: x86: Fix typos in pmu.c KVM: x86: Fix typos in lapic.c KVM: x86: Fix typos in cpuid.c KVM: x86: Fix typos in emulate.c KVM: x86: Fix typos in x86.c KVM: SVM: Fix typos KVM: VMX: Fix typos KVM: remove the unused parameter of gfn_to_pfn_memslot KVM: remove is_error_hpa KVM: make bad_pfn static to kvm_main.c KVM: using get_fault_pfn to get the fault pfn KVM: MMU: track the refcount when unmap the page KVM: x86: remove unnecessary mark_page_dirty KVM: MMU: Avoid handling same rmap_pde in kvm_handle_hva_range() KVM: MMU: Push trace_kvm_age_page() into kvm_age_rmapp() KVM: MMU: Add memslot parameter to hva handlers ... Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-07-24Merge tag 'kvm-3.6-1' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/virt/kvm/kvmLinus Torvalds
Pull KVM updates from Avi Kivity: "Highlights include - full big real mode emulation on pre-Westmere Intel hosts (can be disabled with emulate_invalid_guest_state=0) - relatively small ppc and s390 updates - PCID/INVPCID support in guests - EOI avoidance; 3.6 guests should perform better on 3.6 hosts on interrupt intensive workloads) - Lockless write faults during live migration - EPT accessed/dirty bits support for new Intel processors" Fix up conflicts in: - Documentation/virtual/kvm/api.txt: Stupid subchapter numbering, added next to each other. - arch/powerpc/kvm/booke_interrupts.S: PPC asm changes clashing with the KVM fixes - arch/s390/include/asm/sigp.h, arch/s390/kvm/sigp.c: Duplicated commits through the kvm tree and the s390 tree, with subsequent edits in the KVM tree. * tag 'kvm-3.6-1' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/virt/kvm/kvm: (93 commits) KVM: fix race with level interrupts x86, hyper: fix build with !CONFIG_KVM_GUEST Revert "apic: fix kvm build on UP without IOAPIC" KVM guest: switch to apic_set_eoi_write, apic_write apic: add apic_set_eoi_write for PV use KVM: VMX: Implement PCID/INVPCID for guests with EPT KVM: Add x86_hyper_kvm to complete detect_hypervisor_platform check KVM: PPC: Critical interrupt emulation support KVM: PPC: e500mc: Fix tlbilx emulation for 64-bit guests KVM: PPC64: booke: Set interrupt computation mode for 64-bit host KVM: PPC: bookehv: Add ESR flag to Data Storage Interrupt KVM: PPC: bookehv64: Add support for std/ld emulation. booke: Added crit/mc exception handler for e500v2 booke/bookehv: Add host crit-watchdog exception support KVM: MMU: document mmu-lock and fast page fault KVM: MMU: fix kvm_mmu_pagetable_walk tracepoint KVM: MMU: trace fast page fault KVM: MMU: fast path of handling guest page fault KVM: MMU: introduce SPTE_MMU_WRITEABLE bit KVM: MMU: fold tlb flush judgement into mmu_spte_update ...
2012-07-23KVM: Choose better candidate for directed yieldRaghavendra K T
Currently, on a large vcpu guests, there is a high probability of yielding to the same vcpu who had recently done a pause-loop exit or cpu relax intercepted. Such a yield can lead to the vcpu spinning again and hence degrade the performance. The patchset keeps track of the pause loop exit/cpu relax interception and gives chance to a vcpu which: (a) Has not done pause loop exit or cpu relax intercepted at all (probably he is preempted lock-holder) (b) Was skipped in last iteration because it did pause loop exit or cpu relax intercepted, and probably has become eligible now (next eligible lock holder) Signed-off-by: Raghavendra K T <raghavendra.kt@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Tested-by: Christian Borntraeger <borntraeger@de.ibm.com> # on s390x Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-07-23KVM: Note down when cpu relax intercepted or pause loop exitedRaghavendra K T
Noting pause loop exited vcpu or cpu relax intercepted helps in filtering right candidate to yield. Wrong selection of vcpu; i.e., a vcpu that just did a pl-exit or cpu relax intercepted may contribute to performance degradation. Signed-off-by: Raghavendra K T <raghavendra.kt@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Tested-by: Christian Borntraeger <borntraeger@de.ibm.com> # on s390x Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-07-23KVM: Add config to support ple or cpu relax optimzationRaghavendra K T
Suggested-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Raghavendra K T <raghavendra.kt@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Tested-by: Christian Borntraeger <borntraeger@de.ibm.com> # on s390x Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-07-20KVM: switch to symbolic name for irq_states sizeMichael S. Tsirkin
Use PIC_NUM_PINS instead of hard-coded 16 for pic pins. Signed-off-by: Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-07-20KVM: fix race with level interruptsMichael S. Tsirkin
When more than 1 source id is in use for the same GSI, we have the following race related to handling irq_states race: CPU 0 clears bit 0. CPU 0 read irq_state as 0. CPU 1 sets level to 1. CPU 1 calls kvm_ioapic_set_irq(1). CPU 0 calls kvm_ioapic_set_irq(0). Now ioapic thinks the level is 0 but irq_state is not 0. Fix by performing all irq_states bitmap handling under pic/ioapic lock. This also removes the need for atomics with irq_states handling. Reported-by: Gleb Natapov <gleb@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-07-19KVM: remove the unused parameter of gfn_to_pfn_memslotXiao Guangrong
The parameter, 'kvm', is not used in gfn_to_pfn_memslot, we can happily remove it Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-07-19KVM: make bad_pfn static to kvm_main.cXiao Guangrong
bad_pfn is not used out of kvm_main.c, so mark it static, also move it near hwpoison_pfn and fault_pfn Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-07-19KVM: using get_fault_pfn to get the fault pfnXiao Guangrong
Using get_fault_pfn to cleanup the code Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-07-18KVM: Introduce kvm_unmap_hva_range() for ↵Takuya Yoshikawa
kvm_mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_start() When we tested KVM under memory pressure, with THP enabled on the host, we noticed that MMU notifier took a long time to invalidate huge pages. Since the invalidation was done with mmu_lock held, it not only wasted the CPU but also made the host harder to respond. This patch mitigates this by using kvm_handle_hva_range(). Signed-off-by: Takuya Yoshikawa <yoshikawa.takuya@oss.ntt.co.jp> Cc: Alexander Graf <agraf@suse.de> Cc: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-07-11KVM: Fix device assignment threaded irq handlerAlex Williamson
The kernel no longer allows us to pass NULL for the hard handler without also specifying IRQF_ONESHOT. IRQF_ONESHOT imposes latency in the exit path that we don't need for MSI interrupts. Long term we'd like to inject these interrupts from the hard handler when possible. In the short term, we can create dummy hard handlers that return us to the previous behavior. Credit to Michael for original patch. Fixes: https://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=43328 Signed-off-by: Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Alex Williamson <alex.williamson@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-07-06KVM: handle last_boosted_vcpu = 0 caseRik van Riel
If last_boosted_vcpu == 0, then we fall through all test cases and may end up with all VCPUs pouncing on vcpu 0. With a large enough guest, this can result in enormous runqueue lock contention, which can prevent vcpu0 from running, leading to a livelock. Changing < to <= makes sure we properly handle that case. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-07-03KVM: fix fault page leakXiao Guangrong
fault_page is forgot to be freed Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-07-02KVM: Sanitize KVM_IRQFD flagsAlex Williamson
We only know of one so far. Signed-off-by: Alex Williamson <alex.williamson@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-07-02KVM: Pass kvm_irqfd to functionsAlex Williamson
Prune this down to just the struct kvm_irqfd so we can avoid changing function definition for every flag or field we use. Signed-off-by: Alex Williamson <alex.williamson@redhat.com> Acked-by: Cornelia Huck <cornelia.huck@de.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-06-18KVM: use KVM_CAP_IRQ_ROUTING to protect the routing related codeMarc Zyngier
The KVM code sometimes uses CONFIG_HAVE_KVM_IRQCHIP to protect code that is related to IRQ routing, which not all in-kernel irqchips may support. Use KVM_CAP_IRQ_ROUTING instead. Signed-off-by: Marc Zyngier <marc.zyngier@arm.com> Signed-off-by: Christoffer Dall <c.dall@virtualopensystems.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-06-15KVM: Fix PCI header check on device assignmentJan Kiszka
The masking was wrong (must have been 0x7f), and there is no need to re-read the value as pci_setup_device already does this for us. Bugzilla: https://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=43339 Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Acked-by: Alex Williamson <alex.williamson@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-06-05KVM: Fix buffer overflow in kvm_set_irq()Avi Kivity
kvm_set_irq() has an internal buffer of three irq routing entries, allowing connecting a GSI to three IRQ chips or on MSI. However setup_routing_entry() does not properly enforce this, allowing three irqchip routes followed by an MSI route to overflow the buffer. Fix by ensuring that an MSI entry is added to an empty list. Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-06-05KVM: Avoid wasting pages for small lpage_info arraysTakuya Yoshikawa
lpage_info is created for each large level even when the memory slot is not for RAM. This means that when we add one slot for a PCI device, we end up allocating at least KVM_NR_PAGE_SIZES - 1 pages by vmalloc(). To make things worse, there is an increasing number of devices which would result in more pages being wasted this way. This patch mitigates this problem by using kvm_kvzalloc(). Signed-off-by: Takuya Yoshikawa <yoshikawa.takuya@oss.ntt.co.jp> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-06-05KVM: Separate out dirty_bitmap allocation code as kvm_kvzalloc()Takuya Yoshikawa
Will be used for lpage_info allocation later. Signed-off-by: Takuya Yoshikawa <yoshikawa.takuya@oss.ntt.co.jp> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>
2012-04-30KVM: s390: Implement the directed yield (diag 9c) hypervisor call for KVMKonstantin Weitz
This patch implements the directed yield hypercall found on other System z hypervisors. It delegates execution time to the virtual cpu specified in the instruction's parameter. Useful to avoid long spinlock waits in the guest. Christian Borntraeger: moved common code in virt/kvm/ Signed-off-by: Konstantin Weitz <WEITZKON@de.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Christian Borntraeger <borntraeger@de.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Marcelo Tosatti <mtosatti@redhat.com>
2012-04-24KVM: Introduce direct MSI message injection for in-kernel irqchipsJan Kiszka
Currently, MSI messages can only be injected to in-kernel irqchips by defining a corresponding IRQ route for each message. This is not only unhandy if the MSI messages are generated "on the fly" by user space, IRQ routes are a limited resource that user space has to manage carefully. By providing a direct injection path, we can both avoid using up limited resources and simplify the necessary steps for user land. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Signed-off-by: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com>