path: root/kernel/signal.c
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2013-01-05signals: set_current_blocked() can use __set_current_blocked()Oleg Nesterov
Cleanup. And I think we need more cleanups, in particular __set_current_blocked() and sigprocmask() should die. Nobody should ever block SIGKILL or SIGSTOP. - Change set_current_blocked() to use __set_current_blocked() - Change sys_sigprocmask() to use set_current_blocked(), this way it should not worry about SIGKILL/SIGSTOP. Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-01-05signals: sys_ssetmask() uses uninitialized newmaskOleg Nesterov
Commit 77097ae503b1 ("most of set_current_blocked() callers want SIGKILL/SIGSTOP removed from set") removed the initialization of newmask by accident, causing ltp to complain like this: ssetmask01 1 TFAIL : sgetmask() failed: TEST_ERRNO=???(0): Success Restore the proper initialization. Reported-and-tested-by: CAI Qian <caiqian@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Cc: stable@kernel.org # v3.5+ Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-20Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/signal Pull signal handling cleanups from Al Viro: "sigaltstack infrastructure + conversion for x86, alpha and um, COMPAT_SYSCALL_DEFINE infrastructure. Note that there are several conflicts between "unify SS_ONSTACK/SS_DISABLE definitions" and UAPI patches in mainline; resolution is trivial - just remove definitions of SS_ONSTACK and SS_DISABLED from arch/*/uapi/asm/signal.h; they are all identical and include/uapi/linux/signal.h contains the unified variant." Fixed up conflicts as per Al. * 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/signal: alpha: switch to generic sigaltstack new helpers: __save_altstack/__compat_save_altstack, switch x86 and um to those generic compat_sys_sigaltstack() introduce generic sys_sigaltstack(), switch x86 and um to it new helper: compat_user_stack_pointer() new helper: restore_altstack() unify SS_ONSTACK/SS_DISABLE definitions new helper: current_user_stack_pointer() missing user_stack_pointer() instances Bury the conditionals from kernel_thread/kernel_execve series COMPAT_SYSCALL_DEFINE: infrastructure
2012-12-19new helpers: __save_altstack/__compat_save_altstack, switch x86 and um to thoseAl Viro
note that they are relying on access_ok() already checked by caller. Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-12-19generic compat_sys_sigaltstack()Al Viro
Again, conditional on CONFIG_GENERIC_SIGALTSTACK Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-12-19introduce generic sys_sigaltstack(), switch x86 and um to itAl Viro
Conditional on CONFIG_GENERIC_SIGALTSTACK; architectures that do not select it are completely unaffected Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-12-19new helper: restore_altstack()Al Viro
to be used by rt_sigreturn instances Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-12-17Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/ebiederm/user-namespace Pull user namespace changes from Eric Biederman: "While small this set of changes is very significant with respect to containers in general and user namespaces in particular. The user space interface is now complete. This set of changes adds support for unprivileged users to create user namespaces and as a user namespace root to create other namespaces. The tyranny of supporting suid root preventing unprivileged users from using cool new kernel features is broken. This set of changes completes the work on setns, adding support for the pid, user, mount namespaces. This set of changes includes a bunch of basic pid namespace cleanups/simplifications. Of particular significance is the rework of the pid namespace cleanup so it no longer requires sending out tendrils into all kinds of unexpected cleanup paths for operation. At least one case of broken error handling is fixed by this cleanup. The files under /proc/<pid>/ns/ have been converted from regular files to magic symlinks which prevents incorrect caching by the VFS, ensuring the files always refer to the namespace the process is currently using and ensuring that the ptrace_mayaccess permission checks are always applied. The files under /proc/<pid>/ns/ have been given stable inode numbers so it is now possible to see if different processes share the same namespaces. Through the David Miller's net tree are changes to relax many of the permission checks in the networking stack to allowing the user namespace root to usefully use the networking stack. Similar changes for the mount namespace and the pid namespace are coming through my tree. Two small changes to add user namespace support were commited here adn in David Miller's -net tree so that I could complete the work on the /proc/<pid>/ns/ files in this tree. Work remains to make it safe to build user namespaces and 9p, afs, ceph, cifs, coda, gfs2, ncpfs, nfs, nfsd, ocfs2, and xfs so the Kconfig guard remains in place preventing that user namespaces from being built when any of those filesystems are enabled. Future design work remains to allow root users outside of the initial user namespace to mount more than just /proc and /sys." * 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/ebiederm/user-namespace: (38 commits) proc: Usable inode numbers for the namespace file descriptors. proc: Fix the namespace inode permission checks. proc: Generalize proc inode allocation userns: Allow unprivilged mounts of proc and sysfs userns: For /proc/self/{uid,gid}_map derive the lower userns from the struct file procfs: Print task uids and gids in the userns that opened the proc file userns: Implement unshare of the user namespace userns: Implent proc namespace operations userns: Kill task_user_ns userns: Make create_new_namespaces take a user_ns parameter userns: Allow unprivileged use of setns. userns: Allow unprivileged users to create new namespaces userns: Allow setting a userns mapping to your current uid. userns: Allow chown and setgid preservation userns: Allow unprivileged users to create user namespaces. userns: Ignore suid and sgid on binaries if the uid or gid can not be mapped userns: fix return value on mntns_install() failure vfs: Allow unprivileged manipulation of the mount namespace. vfs: Only support slave subtrees across different user namespaces vfs: Add a user namespace reference from struct mnt_namespace ...
2012-12-12Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/signal Pull big execve/kernel_thread/fork unification series from Al Viro: "All architectures are converted to new model. Quite a bit of that stuff is actually shared with architecture trees; in such cases it's literally shared branch pulled by both, not a cherry-pick. A lot of ugliness and black magic is gone (-3KLoC total in this one): - kernel_thread()/kernel_execve()/sys_execve() redesign. We don't do syscalls from kernel anymore for either kernel_thread() or kernel_execve(): kernel_thread() is essentially clone(2) with callback run before we return to userland, the callbacks either never return or do successful do_execve() before returning. kernel_execve() is a wrapper for do_execve() - it doesn't need to do transition to user mode anymore. As a result kernel_thread() and kernel_execve() are arch-independent now - they live in kernel/fork.c and fs/exec.c resp. sys_execve() is also in fs/exec.c and it's completely architecture-independent. - daemonize() is gone, along with its parts in fs/*.c - struct pt_regs * is no longer passed to do_fork/copy_process/ copy_thread/do_execve/search_binary_handler/->load_binary/do_coredump. - sys_fork()/sys_vfork()/sys_clone() unified; some architectures still need wrappers (ones with callee-saved registers not saved in pt_regs on syscall entry), but the main part of those suckers is in kernel/fork.c now." * 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/signal: (113 commits) do_coredump(): get rid of pt_regs argument print_fatal_signal(): get rid of pt_regs argument ptrace_signal(): get rid of unused arguments get rid of ptrace_signal_deliver() arguments new helper: signal_pt_regs() unify default ptrace_signal_deliver flagday: kill pt_regs argument of do_fork() death to idle_regs() don't pass regs to copy_process() flagday: don't pass regs to copy_thread() bfin: switch to generic vfork, get rid of pointless wrappers xtensa: switch to generic clone() openrisc: switch to use of generic fork and clone unicore32: switch to generic clone(2) score: switch to generic fork/vfork/clone c6x: sanitize copy_thread(), get rid of clone(2) wrapper, switch to generic clone() take sys_fork/sys_vfork/sys_clone prototypes to linux/syscalls.h mn10300: switch to generic fork/vfork/clone h8300: switch to generic fork/vfork/clone tile: switch to generic clone() ... Conflicts: arch/microblaze/include/asm/Kbuild
2012-11-29do_coredump(): get rid of pt_regs argumentAl Viro
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-11-29print_fatal_signal(): get rid of pt_regs argumentAl Viro
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-11-29ptrace_signal(): get rid of unused argumentsAl Viro
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-11-29get rid of ptrace_signal_deliver() argumentsAl Viro
the first one is equal to signal_pt_regs(), the second is never used (and always NULL, while we are at it). Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-11-19pidns: Use task_active_pid_ns where appropriateEric W. Biederman
The expressions tsk->nsproxy->pid_ns and task_active_pid_ns aka ns_of_pid(task_pid(tsk)) should have the same number of cache line misses with the practical difference that ns_of_pid(task_pid(tsk)) is released later in a processes life. Furthermore by using task_active_pid_ns it becomes trivial to write an unshare implementation for the the pid namespace. So I have used task_active_pid_ns everywhere I can. In fork since the pid has not yet been attached to the process I use ns_of_pid, to achieve the same effect. Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
2012-10-26freezer: change ptrace_stop/do_signal_stop to use freezable_schedule()Oleg Nesterov
try_to_freeze_tasks() and cgroup_freezer rely on scheduler locks to ensure that a task doing STOPPED/TRACED -> RUNNING transition can't escape freezing. This mostly works, but ptrace_stop() does not necessarily call schedule(), it can change task->state back to RUNNING and check freezing() without any lock/barrier in between. We could add the necessary barrier, but this patch changes ptrace_stop() and do_signal_stop() to use freezable_schedule(). This fixes the race, freezer_count() and freezer_should_skip() carefully avoid the race. And this simplifies the code, try_to_freeze_tasks/update_if_frozen no longer need to use task_is_stopped_or_traced() checks with the non trivial assumptions. We can rely on the mechanism which was specially designed to mark the sleeping task as "frozen enough". v2: As Tejun pointed out, we can also change get_signal_to_deliver() and move try_to_freeze() up before 'relock' label. Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
2012-10-06coredump: pass siginfo_t* to do_coredump() and below, not merely signrDenys Vlasenko
This is a preparatory patch for the introduction of NT_SIGINFO elf note. With this patch we pass "siginfo_t *siginfo" instead of "int signr" to do_coredump() and put it into coredump_params. It will be used by the next patch. Most changes are simple s/signr/siginfo->si_signo/. Signed-off-by: Denys Vlasenko <vda.linux@googlemail.com> Reviewed-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Cc: Amerigo Wang <amwang@redhat.com> Cc: "Jonathan M. Foote" <jmfoote@cert.org> Cc: Roland McGrath <roland@hack.frob.com> Cc: Pedro Alves <palves@redhat.com> Cc: Fengguang Wu <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-06coredump: update coredump-related headersAlex Kelly
Create a new header file, fs/coredump.h, which contains functions only used by the new coredump.c. It also moves do_coredump to the include/linux/coredump.h header file, for consistency. Signed-off-by: Alex Kelly <alex.page.kelly@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org> Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Acked-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-09-13task_work: Simplify the usage in ptrace_notify() and get_signal_to_deliver()Oleg Nesterov
ptrace_notify() and get_signal_to_deliver() do unnecessary things before task_work_run(): 1. smp_mb__after_clear_bit() is not needed, test_and_clear_bit() implies mb(). 2. And we do not need the barrier at all, in this case we only care about the "synchronous" works added by the task itself. 3. No need to clear TIF_NOTIFY_RESUME, and we should not assume task_works is the only user of this flag. Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk> Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20120826191217.GA4238@redhat.com Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2012-07-22signal: make sure we don't get stopped with pending task_workAl Viro
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-06-01new helper: signal_delivered()Al Viro
Does block_sigmask() + tracehook_signal_handler(); called when sigframe has been successfully built. All architectures converted to it; block_sigmask() itself is gone now (merged into this one). I'm still not too happy with the signature, but that's a separate story (IMO we need a structure that would contain signal number + siginfo + k_sigaction, so that get_signal_to_deliver() would fill one, signal_delivered(), handle_signal() and probably setup...frame() - take one). Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-06-01most of set_current_blocked() callers want SIGKILL/SIGSTOP removed from setAl Viro
Only 3 out of 63 do not. Renamed the current variant to __set_current_blocked(), added set_current_blocked() that will exclude unblockable signals, switched open-coded instances to it. Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-06-01pull clearing RESTORE_SIGMASK into block_sigmask()Al Viro
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-06-01HAVE_RESTORE_SIGMASK is defined on all architectures nowAl Viro
Everyone either defines it in arch thread_info.h or has TIF_RESTORE_SIGMASK and picks default set_restore_sigmask() in linux/thread_info.h. Kill the ifdefs, slap #error in linux/thread_info.h to catch breakage when new ones get merged. Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-05-31pidns: use task_active_pid_ns in do_notify_parentEric W. Biederman
Using task_active_pid_ns is more robust because it works even after we have called exit_namespaces. This change allows us to have parent processes that are zombies. Normally a zombie parent processes is crazy and the last thing you would want to have but in the case of not letting the init process of a pid namespace be reaped until all of it's children are dead and reaped a zombie parent process is exactly what we want. Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Cc: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@parallels.com> Cc: Cyrill Gorcunov <gorcunov@openvz.org> Cc: Louis Rilling <louis.rilling@kerlabs.com> Cc: Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-05-24Merge branch 'perf-uprobes-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip Pull user-space probe instrumentation from Ingo Molnar: "The uprobes code originates from SystemTap and has been used for years in Fedora and RHEL kernels. This version is much rewritten, reviews from PeterZ, Oleg and myself shaped the end result. This tree includes uprobes support in 'perf probe' - but SystemTap (and other tools) can take advantage of user probe points as well. Sample usage of uprobes via perf, for example to profile malloc() calls without modifying user-space binaries. First boot a new kernel with CONFIG_UPROBE_EVENT=y enabled. If you don't know which function you want to probe you can pick one from 'perf top' or can get a list all functions that can be probed within libc (binaries can be specified as well): $ perf probe -F -x /lib/libc.so.6 To probe libc's malloc(): $ perf probe -x /lib64/libc.so.6 malloc Added new event: probe_libc:malloc (on 0x7eac0) You can now use it in all perf tools, such as: perf record -e probe_libc:malloc -aR sleep 1 Make use of it to create a call graph (as the flat profile is going to look very boring): $ perf record -e probe_libc:malloc -gR make [ perf record: Woken up 173 times to write data ] [ perf record: Captured and wrote 44.190 MB perf.data (~1930712 $ perf report | less 32.03% git libc-2.15.so [.] malloc | --- malloc 29.49% cc1 libc-2.15.so [.] malloc | --- malloc | |--0.95%-- 0x208eb1000000000 | |--0.63%-- htab_traverse_noresize 11.04% as libc-2.15.so [.] malloc | --- malloc | 7.15% ld libc-2.15.so [.] malloc | --- malloc | 5.07% sh libc-2.15.so [.] malloc | --- malloc | 4.99% python-config libc-2.15.so [.] malloc | --- malloc | 4.54% make libc-2.15.so [.] malloc | --- malloc | |--7.34%-- glob | | | |--93.18%-- 0x41588f | | | --6.82%-- glob | 0x41588f ... Or: $ perf report -g flat | less # Overhead Command Shared Object Symbol # ........ ............. ............. .......... # 32.03% git libc-2.15.so [.] malloc 27.19% malloc 29.49% cc1 libc-2.15.so [.] malloc 24.77% malloc 11.04% as libc-2.15.so [.] malloc 11.02% malloc 7.15% ld libc-2.15.so [.] malloc 6.57% malloc ... The core uprobes design is fairly straightforward: uprobes probe points register themselves at (inode:offset) addresses of libraries/binaries, after which all existing (or new) vmas that map that address will have a software breakpoint injected at that address. vmas are COW-ed to preserve original content. The probe points are kept in an rbtree. If user-space executes the probed inode:offset instruction address then an event is generated which can be recovered from the regular perf event channels and mmap-ed ring-buffer. Multiple probes at the same address are supported, they create a dynamic callback list of event consumers. The basic model is further complicated by the XOL speedup: the original instruction that is probed is copied (in an architecture specific fashion) and executed out of line when the probe triggers. The XOL area is a single vma per process, with a fixed number of entries (which limits probe execution parallelism). The API: uprobes are installed/removed via /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/uprobe_events, the API is integrated to align with the kprobes interface as much as possible, but is separate to it. Injecting a probe point is privileged operation, which can be relaxed by setting perf_paranoid to -1. You can use multiple probes as well and mix them with kprobes and regular PMU events or tracepoints, when instrumenting a task." Fix up trivial conflicts in mm/memory.c due to previous cleanup of unmap_single_vma(). * 'perf-uprobes-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: (21 commits) perf probe: Detect probe target when m/x options are absent perf probe: Provide perf interface for uprobes tracing: Fix kconfig warning due to a typo tracing: Provide trace events interface for uprobes tracing: Extract out common code for kprobes/uprobes trace events tracing: Modify is_delete, is_return from int to bool uprobes/core: Decrement uprobe count before the pages are unmapped uprobes/core: Make background page replacement logic account for rss_stat counters uprobes/core: Optimize probe hits with the help of a counter uprobes/core: Allocate XOL slots for uprobes use uprobes/core: Handle breakpoint and singlestep exceptions uprobes/core: Rename bkpt to swbp uprobes/core: Make order of function parameters consistent across functions uprobes/core: Make macro names consistent uprobes: Update copyright notices uprobes/core: Move insn to arch specific structure uprobes/core: Remove uprobe_opcode_sz uprobes/core: Make instruction tables volatile uprobes: Move to kernel/events/ uprobes/core: Clean up, refactor and improve the code ...
2012-05-23Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/signal Pull first series of signal handling cleanups from Al Viro: "This is just the first part of the queue (about a half of it); assorted fixes all over the place in signal handling. This one ends with all sigsuspend() implementations switched to generic one (->saved_sigmask-based). With this, a bunch of assorted old buglets are fixed and most of the missing bits of NOTIFY_RESUME hookup are in place. Two more fixes sit in arm and um trees respectively, and there's a couple of broken ones that need obvious fixes - parisc and avr32 check TIF_NOTIFY_RESUME only on one of two codepaths; fixes for that will happen in the next series" * 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/signal: (55 commits) unicore32: if there's no handler we need to restore sigmask, syscall or no syscall xtensa: add handling of TIF_NOTIFY_RESUME microblaze: drop 'oldset' argument of do_notify_resume() microblaze: handle TIF_NOTIFY_RESUME score: add handling of NOTIFY_RESUME to do_notify_resume() m68k: add TIF_NOTIFY_RESUME and handle it. sparc: kill ancient comment in sparc_sigaction() h8300: missing checks of __get_user()/__put_user() return values frv: missing checks of __get_user()/__put_user() return values cris: missing checks of __get_user()/__put_user() return values powerpc: missing checks of __get_user()/__put_user() return values sh: missing checks of __get_user()/__put_user() return values sparc: missing checks of __get_user()/__put_user() return values avr32: struct old_sigaction is never used m32r: struct old_sigaction is never used xtensa: xtensa_sigaction doesn't exist alpha: tidy signal delivery up score: don't open-code force_sigsegv() cris: don't open-code force_sigsegv() blackfin: don't open-code force_sigsegv() ...
2012-05-23Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/ebiederm/user-namespace Pull user namespace enhancements from Eric Biederman: "This is a course correction for the user namespace, so that we can reach an inexpensive, maintainable, and reasonably complete implementation. Highlights: - Config guards make it impossible to enable the user namespace and code that has not been converted to be user namespace safe. - Use of the new kuid_t type ensures the if you somehow get past the config guards the kernel will encounter type errors if you enable user namespaces and attempt to compile in code whose permission checks have not been updated to be user namespace safe. - All uids from child user namespaces are mapped into the initial user namespace before they are processed. Removing the need to add an additional check to see if the user namespace of the compared uids remains the same. - With the user namespaces compiled out the performance is as good or better than it is today. - For most operations absolutely nothing changes performance or operationally with the user namespace enabled. - The worst case performance I could come up with was timing 1 billion cache cold stat operations with the user namespace code enabled. This went from 156s to 164s on my laptop (or 156ns to 164ns per stat operation). - (uid_t)-1 and (gid_t)-1 are reserved as an internal error value. Most uid/gid setting system calls treat these value specially anyway so attempting to use -1 as a uid would likely cause entertaining failures in userspace. - If setuid is called with a uid that can not be mapped setuid fails. I have looked at sendmail, login, ssh and every other program I could think of that would call setuid and they all check for and handle the case where setuid fails. - If stat or a similar system call is called from a context in which we can not map a uid we lie and return overflowuid. The LFS experience suggests not lying and returning an error code might be better, but the historical precedent with uids is different and I can not think of anything that would break by lying about a uid we can't map. - Capabilities are localized to the current user namespace making it safe to give the initial user in a user namespace all capabilities. My git tree covers all of the modifications needed to convert the core kernel and enough changes to make a system bootable to runlevel 1." Fix up trivial conflicts due to nearby independent changes in fs/stat.c * 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/ebiederm/user-namespace: (46 commits) userns: Silence silly gcc warning. cred: use correct cred accessor with regards to rcu read lock userns: Convert the move_pages, and migrate_pages permission checks to use uid_eq userns: Convert cgroup permission checks to use uid_eq userns: Convert tmpfs to use kuid and kgid where appropriate userns: Convert sysfs to use kgid/kuid where appropriate userns: Convert sysctl permission checks to use kuid and kgids. userns: Convert proc to use kuid/kgid where appropriate userns: Convert ext4 to user kuid/kgid where appropriate userns: Convert ext3 to use kuid/kgid where appropriate userns: Convert ext2 to use kuid/kgid where appropriate. userns: Convert devpts to use kuid/kgid where appropriate userns: Convert binary formats to use kuid/kgid where appropriate userns: Add negative depends on entries to avoid building code that is userns unsafe userns: signal remove unnecessary map_cred_ns userns: Teach inode_capable to understand inodes whose uids map to other namespaces. userns: Fail exec for suid and sgid binaries with ids outside our user namespace. userns: Convert stat to return values mapped from kuids and kgids userns: Convert user specfied uids and gids in chown into kuids and kgid userns: Use uid_eq gid_eq helpers when comparing kuids and kgids in the vfs ...
2012-05-21new helper: sigsuspend()Al Viro
guts of saved_sigmask-based sigsuspend/rt_sigsuspend. Takes kernel sigset_t *. Open-coded instances replaced with calling it. Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-05-15userns: signal remove unnecessary map_cred_nsEric W. Biederman
map_cred_ns is a light wrapper around from_kuid with the order of the arguments reversed. Replace map_cred_ns with from_kuid and remove map_cred_ns. Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
2012-05-03userns: Convert ptrace, kill, set_priority permission checks to work with ↵Eric W. Biederman
kuids and kgids Update the permission checks to use the new uid_eq and gid_eq helpers and remove the now unnecessary user_ns equality comparison. Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
2012-05-03userns: Replace user_ns_map_uid and user_ns_map_gid with from_kuid and from_kgidEric W. Biederman
These function are no longer needed replace them with their more useful equivalents. Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
2012-05-03userns: Store uid and gid values in struct cred with kuid_t and kgid_t typesEric W. Biederman
cred.h and a few trivial users of struct cred are changed. The rest of the users of struct cred are left for other patches as there are too many changes to make in one go and leave the change reviewable. If the user namespace is disabled and CONFIG_UIDGID_STRICT_TYPE_CHECKS are disabled the code will contiue to compile and behave correctly. Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
2012-04-14Merge branch 'perf/core' into perf/uprobesIngo Molnar
Merge in latest upstream (and the latest perf development tree), to prepare for tooling changes, and also to pick up v3.4 MM changes that the uprobes code needs to take care of. Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2012-04-14signal, x86: add SIGSYS info and make it synchronous.Will Drewry
This change enables SIGSYS, defines _sigfields._sigsys, and adds x86 (compat) arch support. _sigsys defines fields which allow a signal handler to receive the triggering system call number, the relevant AUDIT_ARCH_* value for that number, and the address of the callsite. SIGSYS is added to the SYNCHRONOUS_MASK because it is desirable for it to have setup_frame() called for it. The goal is to ensure that ucontext_t reflects the machine state from the time-of-syscall and not from another signal handler. The first consumer of SIGSYS would be seccomp filter. In particular, a filter program could specify a new return value, SECCOMP_RET_TRAP, which would result in the system call being denied and the calling thread signaled. This also means that implementing arch-specific support can be dependent upon HAVE_ARCH_SECCOMP_FILTER. Suggested-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com> Signed-off-by: Will Drewry <wad@chromium.org> Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Reviewed-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com> Acked-by: Eric Paris <eparis@redhat.com> v18: - added acked by, rebase v17: - rebase and reviewed-by addition v14: - rebase/nochanges v13: - rebase on to 88ebdda6159ffc15699f204c33feb3e431bf9bdc v12: - reworded changelog (oleg@redhat.com) v11: - fix dropped words in the change description - added fallback copy_siginfo support. - added __ARCH_SIGSYS define to allow stepped arch support. v10: - first version based on suggestion Signed-off-by: James Morris <james.l.morris@oracle.com>
2012-04-07userns: Use cred->user_ns instead of cred->user->user_nsEric W. Biederman
Optimize performance and prepare for the removal of the user_ns reference from user_struct. Remove the slow long walk through cred->user->user_ns and instead go straight to cred->user_ns. Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Signed-off-by: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
2012-03-28Merge tag 'split-asm_system_h-for-linus-20120328' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/dhowells/linux-asm_system Pull "Disintegrate and delete asm/system.h" from David Howells: "Here are a bunch of patches to disintegrate asm/system.h into a set of separate bits to relieve the problem of circular inclusion dependencies. I've built all the working defconfigs from all the arches that I can and made sure that they don't break. The reason for these patches is that I recently encountered a circular dependency problem that came about when I produced some patches to optimise get_order() by rewriting it to use ilog2(). This uses bitops - and on the SH arch asm/bitops.h drags in asm-generic/get_order.h by a circuituous route involving asm/system.h. The main difficulty seems to be asm/system.h. It holds a number of low level bits with no/few dependencies that are commonly used (eg. memory barriers) and a number of bits with more dependencies that aren't used in many places (eg. switch_to()). These patches break asm/system.h up into the following core pieces: (1) asm/barrier.h Move memory barriers here. This already done for MIPS and Alpha. (2) asm/switch_to.h Move switch_to() and related stuff here. (3) asm/exec.h Move arch_align_stack() here. Other process execution related bits could perhaps go here from asm/processor.h. (4) asm/cmpxchg.h Move xchg() and cmpxchg() here as they're full word atomic ops and frequently used by atomic_xchg() and atomic_cmpxchg(). (5) asm/bug.h Move die() and related bits. (6) asm/auxvec.h Move AT_VECTOR_SIZE_ARCH here. Other arch headers are created as needed on a per-arch basis." Fixed up some conflicts from other header file cleanups and moving code around that has happened in the meantime, so David's testing is somewhat weakened by that. We'll find out anything that got broken and fix it.. * tag 'split-asm_system_h-for-linus-20120328' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/dhowells/linux-asm_system: (38 commits) Delete all instances of asm/system.h Remove all #inclusions of asm/system.h Add #includes needed to permit the removal of asm/system.h Move all declarations of free_initmem() to linux/mm.h Disintegrate asm/system.h for OpenRISC Split arch_align_stack() out from asm-generic/system.h Split the switch_to() wrapper out of asm-generic/system.h Move the asm-generic/system.h xchg() implementation to asm-generic/cmpxchg.h Create asm-generic/barrier.h Make asm-generic/cmpxchg.h #include asm-generic/cmpxchg-local.h Disintegrate asm/system.h for Xtensa Disintegrate asm/system.h for Unicore32 [based on ver #3, changed by gxt] Disintegrate asm/system.h for Tile Disintegrate asm/system.h for Sparc Disintegrate asm/system.h for SH Disintegrate asm/system.h for Score Disintegrate asm/system.h for S390 Disintegrate asm/system.h for PowerPC Disintegrate asm/system.h for PA-RISC Disintegrate asm/system.h for MN10300 ...
2012-03-28Disintegrate asm/system.h for SparcDavid Howells
Disintegrate asm/system.h for Sparc. Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> cc: sparclinux@vger.kernel.org
2012-03-23signal: cosmetic, s/from_ancestor_ns/force/ in prepare_signal() pathsOleg Nesterov
Cosmetic, rename the from_ancestor_ns argument in prepare_signal() paths. After the previous change it doesn't match the reality. Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Cc: Anton Vorontsov <anton.vorontsov@linaro.org> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@gmail.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-03-23signal: give SEND_SIG_FORCED more power to beat SIGNAL_UNKILLABLEOleg Nesterov
force_sig_info() and friends have the special semantics for synchronous signals, this interface should not be used if the target is not current. And it needs the fixes, in particular the clearing of SIGNAL_UNKILLABLE is not exactly right. However there are callers which have to use force_ exactly because it clears SIGNAL_UNKILLABLE and thus it can kill the CLONE_NEWPID tasks, although this is almost always is wrong by various reasons. With this patch SEND_SIG_FORCED ignores SIGNAL_UNKILLABLE, like we do if the signal comes from the ancestor namespace. This makes the naming in prepare_signal() paths insane, fixed by the next cleanup. Note: this only affects SIGKILL/SIGSTOP, but this is enough for force_sig() abusers. Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Cc: Anton Vorontsov <anton.vorontsov@linaro.org> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@gmail.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-03-20exit_signal: fix the "parent has changed security domain" logicOleg Nesterov
exit_notify() changes ->exit_signal if the parent already did exec. This doesn't really work, we are not going to send the signal now if there is another live thread or the exiting task is traced. The parent can exec before the last dies or the tracer detaches. Move this check into do_notify_parent() which actually sends the signal. The user-visible change is that we do not change ->exit_signal, and thus the exiting task is still "clone children" for do_wait()->eligible_child(__WCLONE). Hopefully this is fine, the current logic is racy anyway. Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-03-14uprobes/core: Handle breakpoint and singlestep exceptionsSrikar Dronamraju
Uprobes uses exception notifiers to get to know if a thread hit a breakpoint or a singlestep exception. When a thread hits a uprobe or is singlestepping post a uprobe hit, the uprobe exception notifier sets its TIF_UPROBE bit, which will then be checked on its return to userspace path (do_notify_resume() ->uprobe_notify_resume()), where the consumers handlers are run (in task context) based on the defined filters. Uprobe hits are thread specific and hence we need to maintain information about if a task hit a uprobe, what uprobe was hit, the slot where the original instruction was copied for xol so that it can be singlestepped with appropriate fixups. In some cases, special care is needed for instructions that are executed out of line (xol). These are architecture specific artefacts, such as handling RIP relative instructions on x86_64. Since the instruction at which the uprobe was inserted is executed out of line, architecture specific fixups are added so that the thread continues normal execution in the presence of a uprobe. Postpone the signals until we execute the probed insn. post_xol() path does a recalc_sigpending() before return to user-mode, this ensures the signal can't be lost. Uprobes relies on DIE_DEBUG notification to notify if a singlestep is complete. Adds x86 specific uprobe exception notifiers and appropriate hooks needed to determine a uprobe hit and subsequent post processing. Add requisite x86 fixups for xol for uprobes. Specific cases needing fixups include relative jumps (x86_64), calls, etc. Where possible, we check and skip singlestepping the breakpointed instructions. For now we skip single byte as well as few multibyte nop instructions. However this can be extended to other instructions too. Credits to Oleg Nesterov for suggestions/patches related to signal, breakpoint, singlestep handling code. Signed-off-by: Srikar Dronamraju <srikar@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Ananth N Mavinakayanahalli <ananth@in.ibm.com> Cc: Jim Keniston <jkenisto@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Linux-mm <linux-mm@kvack.org> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@infradead.org> Cc: Masami Hiramatsu <masami.hiramatsu.pt@hitachi.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20120313180011.29771.89027.sendpatchset@srdronam.in.ibm.com [ Performed various cleanliness edits ] Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2012-01-13tracing: send_sigqueue() needs trace_signal_generate() tooOleg Nesterov
Add trace_signal_generate() into send_sigqueue(). send_sigqueue() is very similar to __send_signal(), just it uses the preallocated info. It should do the same wrt tracing. Reported-by: Seiji Aguchi <saguchi@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Seiji Aguchi <seiji.aguchi@hds.com> Acked-by: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
2012-01-13tracing: let trace_signal_generate() report more info, kill ↵Oleg Nesterov
overflow_fail/lose_info __send_signal()->trace_signal_generate() doesn't report enough info. The users want to know was the signal actually delivered or not, and they also need the shared/private info. The patch moves trace_signal_generate() at the end of __send_signal() and adds the 2 additional arguments. This also allows us to kill trace_signal_overflow_fail/lose_info, we can simply add the appropriate TRACE_SIGNAL_ "result" codes. Reported-by: Seiji Aguchi <saguchi@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Seiji Aguchi <seiji.aguchi@hds.com> Acked-by: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
2012-01-10user namespace: make signal.c respect user namespacesSerge E. Hallyn
ipc/mqueue.c: for __SI_MESQ, convert the uid being sent to recipient's user namespace. (new, thanks Oleg) __send_signal: convert current's uid to the recipient's user namespace for any siginfo which is not SI_FROMKERNEL (patch from Oleg, thanks again :) do_notify_parent and do_notify_parent_cldstop: map task's uid to parent's user namespace ptrace_signal maps parent's uid into current's user namespace before including in signal to current. IIUC Oleg has argued that this shouldn't matter as the debugger will play with it, but it seems like not converting the value currently being set is misleading. Changelog: Sep 20: Inspired by Oleg's suggestion, define map_cred_ns() helper to simplify callers and help make clear what we are translating (which uid into which namespace). Passing the target task would make callers even easier to read, but we pass in user_ns because current_user_ns() != task_cred_xxx(current, user_ns). Sep 20: As recommended by Oleg, also put task_pid_vnr() under rcu_read_lock in ptrace_signal(). Sep 23: In send_signal(), detect when (user) signal is coming from an ancestor or unrelated user namespace. Pass that on to __send_signal, which sets si_uid to 0 or overflowuid if needed. Oct 12: Base on Oleg's fixup_uid() patch. On top of that, handle all SI_FROMKERNEL cases at callers, because we can't assume sender is current in those cases. Nov 10: (mhelsley) rename fixup_uid to more meaningful usern_fixup_signal_uid Nov 10: (akpm) make the !CONFIG_USER_NS case clearer Signed-off-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Cc: Matt Helsley <matthltc@us.ibm.com> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> From: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Subject: __send_signal: pass q->info, not info, to userns_fixup_signal_uid (v2) Eric Biederman pointed out that passing info is a bug and could lead to a NULL pointer deref to boot. A collection of signal, securebits, filecaps, cap_bounds, and a few other ltp tests passed with this kernel. Changelog: Nov 18: previous patch missed a leading '&' Signed-off-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> From: Dan Carpenter <dan.carpenter@oracle.com> Subject: ipc/mqueue: lock() => unlock() typo There was a double lock typo introduced in b085f4bd6b21 "user namespace: make signal.c respect user namespaces" Signed-off-by: Dan Carpenter <dan.carpenter@oracle.com> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Cc: Matt Helsley <matthltc@us.ibm.com> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge@hallyn.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-01-10signal: add block_sigmask() for adding sigmask to current->blockedMatt Fleming
Abstract the code sequence for adding a signal handler's sa_mask to current->blocked because the sequence is identical for all architectures. Furthermore, in the past some architectures actually got this code wrong, so introduce a wrapper that all architectures can use. Signed-off-by: Matt Fleming <matt.fleming@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com> Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Cc: "David S. Miller" <davem@davemloft.net> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-01-09Merge branch 'for-3.3' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/cgroup * 'for-3.3' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/cgroup: (21 commits) cgroup: fix to allow mounting a hierarchy by name cgroup: move assignement out of condition in cgroup_attach_proc() cgroup: Remove task_lock() from cgroup_post_fork() cgroup: add sparse annotation to cgroup_iter_start() and cgroup_iter_end() cgroup: mark cgroup_rmdir_waitq and cgroup_attach_proc() as static cgroup: only need to check oldcgrp==newgrp once cgroup: remove redundant get/put of task struct cgroup: remove redundant get/put of old css_set from migrate cgroup: Remove unnecessary task_lock before fetching css_set on migration cgroup: Drop task_lock(parent) on cgroup_fork() cgroups: remove redundant get/put of css_set from css_set_check_fetched() resource cgroups: remove bogus cast cgroup: kill subsys->can_attach_task(), pre_attach() and attach_task() cgroup, cpuset: don't use ss->pre_attach() cgroup: don't use subsys->can_attach_task() or ->attach_task() cgroup: introduce cgroup_taskset and use it in subsys->can_attach(), cancel_attach() and attach() cgroup: improve old cgroup handling in cgroup_attach_proc() cgroup: always lock threadgroup during migration threadgroup: extend threadgroup_lock() to cover exit and exec threadgroup: rename signal->threadgroup_fork_lock to ->group_rwsem ... Fix up conflict in kernel/cgroup.c due to commit e0197aae59e5: "cgroups: fix a css_set not found bug in cgroup_attach_proc" that already mentioned that the bug is fixed (differently) in Tejun's cgroup patchset. This one, in other words.
2012-01-06Merge branch 'sched-core-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip * 'sched-core-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: (40 commits) sched/tracing: Add a new tracepoint for sleeptime sched: Disable scheduler warnings during oopses sched: Fix cgroup movement of waking process sched: Fix cgroup movement of newly created process sched: Fix cgroup movement of forking process sched: Remove cfs bandwidth period check in tg_set_cfs_period() sched: Fix load-balance lock-breaking sched: Replace all_pinned with a generic flags field sched: Only queue remote wakeups when crossing cache boundaries sched: Add missing rcu_dereference() around ->real_parent usage [S390] fix cputime overflow in uptime_proc_show [S390] cputime: add sparse checking and cleanup sched: Mark parent and real_parent as __rcu sched, nohz: Fix missing RCU read lock sched, nohz: Set the NOHZ_BALANCE_KICK flag for idle load balancer sched, nohz: Fix the idle cpu check in nohz_idle_balance sched: Use jump_labels for sched_feat sched/accounting: Fix parameter passing in task_group_account_field sched/accounting: Fix user/system tick double accounting sched/accounting: Re-use scheduler statistics for the root cgroup ... Fix up conflicts in - arch/ia64/include/asm/cputime.h, include/asm-generic/cputime.h usecs_to_cputime64() vs the sparse cleanups - kernel/sched/fair.c, kernel/time/tick-sched.c scheduler changes in multiple branches
2012-01-04ptrace: ensure JOBCTL_STOP_SIGMASK is not zero after detachOleg Nesterov
This is the temporary simple fix for 3.2, we need more changes in this area. 1. do_signal_stop() assumes that the running untraced thread in the stopped thread group is not possible. This was our goal but it is not yet achieved: a stopped-but-resumed tracee can clone the running thread which can initiate another group-stop. Remove WARN_ON_ONCE(!current->ptrace). 2. A new thread always starts with ->jobctl = 0. If it is auto-attached and this group is stopped, __ptrace_unlink() sets JOBCTL_STOP_PENDING but JOBCTL_STOP_SIGMASK part is zero, this triggers WANR_ON(!signr) in do_jobctl_trap() if another debugger attaches. Change __ptrace_unlink() to set the artificial SIGSTOP for report. Alternatively we could change ptrace_init_task() to copy signr from current, but this means we can copy it for no reason and hide the possible similar problems. Acked-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Cc: <stable@kernel.org> [3.1] Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-12-15[S390] cputime: add sparse checking and cleanupMartin Schwidefsky
Make cputime_t and cputime64_t nocast to enable sparse checking to detect incorrect use of cputime. Drop the cputime macros for simple scalar operations. The conversion macros are still needed. Signed-off-by: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com>
2011-12-12threadgroup: extend threadgroup_lock() to cover exit and execTejun Heo
threadgroup_lock() protected only protected against new addition to the threadgroup, which was inherently somewhat incomplete and problematic for its only user cgroup. On-going migration could race against exec and exit leading to interesting problems - the symmetry between various attach methods, task exiting during method execution, ->exit() racing against attach methods, migrating task switching basic properties during exec and so on. This patch extends threadgroup_lock() such that it protects against all three threadgroup altering operations - fork, exit and exec. For exit, threadgroup_change_begin/end() calls are added to exit_signals around assertion of PF_EXITING. For exec, threadgroup_[un]lock() are updated to also grab and release cred_guard_mutex. With this change, threadgroup_lock() guarantees that the target threadgroup will remain stable - no new task will be added, no new PF_EXITING will be set and exec won't happen. The next patch will update cgroup so that it can take full advantage of this change. -v2: beefed up comment as suggested by Frederic. -v3: narrowed scope of protection in exit path as suggested by Frederic. Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Paul Menage <paul@paulmenage.org> Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>