To use the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 4.0 International
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Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International
Creative Commons Corporation ("Creative Commons") is not a law firm and
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Using Creative Commons Public Licenses
Creative Commons public licenses provide a standard set of terms and
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works of authorship and other material subject to copyright and certain
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Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License
By exercising the Licensed Rights (defined below), You accept and agree to
be bound by the terms and conditions of this Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License ("Public
License"). To the extent this Public License may be interpreted as a
contract, You are granted the Licensed Rights in consideration of Your
acceptance of these terms and conditions, and the Licensor grants You such
rights in consideration of benefits the Licensor receives from making the
Licensed Material available under these terms and conditions.
Section 1 - Definitions.
a. Adapted Material means material subject to Copyright and Similar
Rights that is derived from or based upon the Licensed Material and
in which the Licensed Material is translated, altered, arranged,
transformed, or otherwise modified in a manner requiring permission
under the Copyright and Similar Rights held by the Licensor. For
purposes of this Public License, where the Licensed Material is a
musical work, performance, or sound recording, Adapted Material is
always produced where the Licensed Material is synched in timed
relation with a moving image.
b. Adapter's License means the license You apply to Your Copyright and
Similar Rights in Your contributions to Adapted Material in
accordance with the terms and conditions of this Public License.
c. BY-SA Compatible License means a license listed at
creativecommons.org/compatiblelicenses, approved by Creative Commons
as essentially the equivalent of this Public License.
d. Copyright and Similar Rights means copyright and/or similar rights
closely related to copyright including, without limitation,
performance, broadcast, sound recording, and Sui Generis Database
Rights, without regard to how the rights are labeled or
categorized. For purposes of this Public License, the rights
specified in Section 2(b)(1)-(2) are not Copyright and Similar
e. Effective Technological Measures means those measures that, in the
absence of proper authority, may not be circumvented under laws
fulfilling obligations under Article 11 of the WIPO Copyright Treaty
adopted on December 20, 1996, and/or similar international
f. Exceptions and Limitations means fair use, fair dealing, and/or any
other exception or limitation to Copyright and Similar Rights that
applies to Your use of the Licensed Material.
g. License Elements means the license attributes listed in the name of
a Creative Commons Public License. The License Elements of this
Public License are Attribution and ShareAlike.
h. Licensed Material means the artistic or literary work, database, or
other material to which the Licensor applied this Public License.
i. Licensed Rights means the rights granted to You subject to the terms
and conditions of this Public License, which are limited to all
Copyright and Similar Rights that apply to Your use of the Licensed
Material and that the Licensor has authority to license.
j. Licensor means the individual(s) or entity(ies) granting rights
under this Public License.
k. Share means to provide material to the public by any means or
process that requires permission under the Licensed Rights, such as
reproduction, public display, public performance, distribution,
dissemination, communication, or importation, and to make material
available to the public including in ways that members of the public
may access the material from a place and at a time individually
chosen by them.
l. Sui Generis Database Rights means rights other than copyright
resulting from Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of
the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases,
as amended and/or succeeded, as well as other essentially equivalent
rights anywhere in the world. m. You means the individual or entity
exercising the Licensed Rights under this Public License. Your has a
Section 2 - Scope.
a. License grant.
1. Subject to the terms and conditions of this Public License, the
Licensor hereby grants You a worldwide, royalty-free,
non-sublicensable, non-exclusive, irrevocable license to
exercise the Licensed Rights in the Licensed Material to:
A. reproduce and Share the Licensed Material, in whole or in part; and
B. produce, reproduce, and Share Adapted Material.
2. Exceptions and Limitations. For the avoidance of doubt, where
Exceptions and Limitations apply to Your use, this Public
License does not apply, and You do not need to comply with its
terms and conditions.
3. Term. The term of this Public License is specified in Section 6(a).
4. Media and formats; technical modifications allowed. The Licensor
authorizes You to exercise the Licensed Rights in all media and
formats whether now known or hereafter created, and to make
technical modifications necessary to do so. The Licensor waives
and/or agrees not to assert any right or authority to forbid You
from making technical modifications necessary to exercise the
Licensed Rights, including technical modifications necessary to
circumvent Effective Technological Measures. For purposes of
this Public License, simply making modifications authorized by
this Section 2(a)(4) never produces Adapted Material.
5. Downstream recipients.
A. Offer from the Licensor - Licensed Material. Every recipient
of the Licensed Material automatically receives an offer
from the Licensor to exercise the Licensed Rights under the
terms and conditions of this Public License.
B. Additional offer from the Licensor - Adapted Material. Every
recipient of Adapted Material from You automatically
receives an offer from the Licensor to exercise the Licensed
Rights in the Adapted Material under the conditions of the
Adapter's License You apply.
C. No downstream restrictions. You may not offer or impose any
additional or different terms or conditions on, or apply any
Effective Technological Measures to, the Licensed Material
if doing so restricts exercise of the Licensed Rights by any
recipient of the Licensed Material.
6. No endorsement. Nothing in this Public License constitutes or
may be construed as permission to assert or imply that You are,
or that Your use of the Licensed Material is, connected with, or
sponsored, endorsed, or granted official status by, the Licensor
or others designated to receive attribution as provided in
b. Other rights.
1. Moral rights, such as the right of integrity, are not licensed
under this Public License, nor are publicity, privacy, and/or
other similar personality rights; however, to the extent
possible, the Licensor waives and/or agrees not to assert any
such rights held by the Licensor to the limited extent necessary
to allow You to exercise the Licensed Rights, but not otherwise.
2. Patent and trademark rights are not licensed under this Public
3. To the extent possible, the Licensor waives any right to collect
royalties from You for the exercise of the Licensed Rights,
whether directly or through a collecting society under any
voluntary or waivable statutory or compulsory licensing
scheme. In all other cases the Licensor expressly reserves any
right to collect such royalties.
Section 3 - License Conditions.
Your exercise of the Licensed Rights is expressly made subject to the
1. If You Share the Licensed Material (including in modified form),
A. retain the following if it is supplied by the Licensor with
the Licensed Material:
i. identification of the creator(s) of the Licensed
Material and any others designated to receive
attribution, in any reasonable manner requested by the
Licensor (including by pseudonym if designated);
ii. a copyright notice;
iii. a notice that refers to this Public License;
iv. a notice that refers to the disclaimer of warranties;
v. a URI or hyperlink to the Licensed Material to the extent reasonably practicable;
B. indicate if You modified the Licensed Material and retain an
indication of any previous modifications; and
C. indicate the Licensed Material is licensed under this Public
License, and include the text of, or the URI or hyperlink to,
this Public License.
2. You may satisfy the conditions in Section 3(a)(1) in any
reasonable manner based on the medium, means, and context in
which You Share the Licensed Material. For example, it may be
reasonable to satisfy the conditions by providing a URI or
hyperlink to a resource that includes the required information.
3. If requested by the Licensor, You must remove any of the
information required by Section 3(a)(1)(A) to the extent
reasonably practicable. b. ShareAlike.In addition to the
conditions in Section 3(a), if You Share Adapted Material You
produce, the following conditions also apply.
1. The Adapter's License You apply must be a Creative Commons
license with the same License Elements, this version or
later, or a BY-SA Compatible License.
2. You must include the text of, or the URI or hyperlink to, the
Adapter's License You apply. You may satisfy this condition
in any reasonable manner based on the medium, means, and
context in which You Share Adapted Material.
3. You may not offer or impose any additional or different terms
or conditions on, or apply any Effective Technological
Measures to, Adapted Material that restrict exercise of the
rights granted under the Adapter's License You apply.
Section 4 - Sui Generis Database Rights.
Where the Licensed Rights include Sui Generis Database Rights that apply to
Your use of the Licensed Material:
a. for the avoidance of doubt, Section 2(a)(1) grants You the right to
extract, reuse, reproduce, and Share all or a substantial portion of
the contents of the database;
b. if You include all or a substantial portion of the database contents
in a database in which You have Sui Generis Database Rights, then
the database in which You have Sui Generis Database Rights (but not
its individual contents) is Adapted Material, including for purposes
of Section 3(b); and
c. You must comply with the conditions in Section 3(a) if You Share all
or a substantial portion of the contents of the database.
For the avoidance of doubt, this Section 4 supplements and does not
replace Your obligations under this Public License where the Licensed
Rights include other Copyright and Similar Rights.
Section 5 - Disclaimer of Warranties and Limitation of Liability.
a. Unless otherwise separately undertaken by the Licensor, to the
extent possible, the Licensor offers the Licensed Material as-is and
as-available, and makes no representations or warranties of any kind
concerning the Licensed Material, whether express, implied,
statutory, or other. This includes, without limitation, warranties
of title, merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose,
non-infringement, absence of latent or other defects, accuracy, or
the presence or absence of errors, whether or not known or
discoverable. Where disclaimers of warranties are not allowed in
full or in part, this disclaimer may not apply to You.
b. To the extent possible, in no event will the Licensor be liable to
You on any legal theory (including, without limitation, negligence)
or otherwise for any direct, special, indirect, incidental,
consequential, punitive, exemplary, or other losses, costs,
expenses, or damages arising out of this Public License or use of
the Licensed Material, even if the Licensor has been advised of the
possibility of such losses, costs, expenses, or damages. Where a
limitation of liability is not allowed in full or in part, this
limitation may not apply to You.
c. The disclaimer of warranties and limitation of liability provided
above shall be interpreted in a manner that, to the extent possible,
most closely approximates an absolute disclaimer and waiver of all
Section 6 - Term and Termination.
a. This Public License applies for the term of the Copyright and
Similar Rights licensed here. However, if You fail to comply with
this Public License, then Your rights under this Public License
b. Where Your right to use the Licensed Material has terminated under
Section 6(a), it reinstates:
1. automatically as of the date the violation is cured, provided it
is cured within 30 days of Your discovery of the violation; or
2. upon express reinstatement by the Licensor.
c. For the avoidance of doubt, this Section 6(b) does not affect any
right the Licensor may have to seek remedies for Your violations of
this Public License.
d. For the avoidance of doubt, the Licensor may also offer the Licensed
Material under separate terms or conditions or stop distributing the
Licensed Material at any time; however, doing so will not terminate
this Public License.
e. Sections 1, 5, 6, 7, and 8 survive termination of this Public License.
Section 7 - Other Terms and Conditions.
a. The Licensor shall not be bound by any additional or different terms
or conditions communicated by You unless expressly agreed.
b. Any arrangements, understandings, or agreements regarding the
Licensed Material not stated herein are separate from and
independent of the terms and conditions of this Public License.
Section 8 - Interpretation.
a. For the avoidance of doubt, this Public License does not, and shall
not be interpreted to, reduce, limit, restrict, or impose conditions
on any use of the Licensed Material that could lawfully be made
without permission under this Public License.
b. To the extent possible, if any provision of this Public License is
deemed unenforceable, it shall be automatically reformed to the
minimum extent necessary to make it enforceable. If the provision
cannot be reformed, it shall be severed from this Public License
without affecting the enforceability of the remaining terms and
c. No term or condition of this Public License will be waived and no
failure to comply consented to unless expressly agreed to by the
d. Nothing in this Public License constitutes or may be interpreted as
a limitation upon, or waiver of, any privileges and immunities that
apply to the Licensor or You, including from the legal processes of
any jurisdiction or authority.
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it publishes and in those instances will be considered the "Licensor." The
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