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2017-11-15mm: remove cold parameter from free_hot_cold_page*Mel Gorman
Most callers users of free_hot_cold_page claim the pages being released are cache hot. The exception is the page reclaim paths where it is likely that enough pages will be freed in the near future that the per-cpu lists are going to be recycled and the cache hotness information is lost. As no one really cares about the hotness of pages being released to the allocator, just ditch the parameter. The APIs are renamed to indicate that it's no longer about hot/cold pages. It should also be less confusing as there are subtle differences between them. __free_pages drops a reference and frees a page when the refcount reaches zero. free_hot_cold_page handled pages whose refcount was already zero which is non-obvious from the name. free_unref_page should be more obvious. No performance impact is expected as the overhead is marginal. The parameter is removed simply because it is a bit stupid to have a useless parameter copied everywhere. [mgorman@techsingularity.net: add pages to head, not tail] Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20171019154321.qtpzaeftoyyw4iey@techsingularity.net Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20171018075952.10627-8-mgorman@techsingularity.net Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net> Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@intel.com> Cc: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2017-11-02License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no licenseGreg Kroah-Hartman
Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license. By default all files without license information are under the default license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2. Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0' SPDX license identifier. The SPDX identifier is a legally binding shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text. This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and Philippe Ombredanne. How this work was done: Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of the use cases: - file had no licensing information it it. - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it, - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information, Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords. The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne. Philippe prepared the base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files. The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files assessed. Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s) to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation. Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was: - Files considered eligible had to be source code files. - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5 lines of source - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5 lines). All documentation files were explicitly excluded. The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license identifiers to apply. - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was considered to have no license information in it, and the top level COPYING file license applied. For non */uapi/* files that summary was: SPDX license identifier # files ---------------------------------------------------|------- GPL-2.0 11139 and resulted in the first patch in this series. If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0". Results of that was: SPDX license identifier # files ---------------------------------------------------|------- GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 930 and resulted in the second patch in this series. - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in it (per prior point). Results summary: SPDX license identifier # files ---------------------------------------------------|------ GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 270 GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 169 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause) 21 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 17 LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 15 GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 14 ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 5 LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 4 LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note 3 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT) 3 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT) 1 and that resulted in the third patch in this series. - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became the concluded license(s). - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a license but the other didn't, or they both detected different licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred. - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics). - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation. - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier, the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later in time. In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation. Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights. The Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so they are related. Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks in about 15000 files. In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the correct identifier. Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch version early this week with: - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected license ids and scores - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+ files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction. This worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the different types of files to be modified. These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg. Thomas wrote a script to parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the format that the file expected. This script was further refined by Greg based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different comment types.) Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to generate the patches. Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org> Reviewed-by: Philippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com> Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
2016-03-24Merge tag 'trace-v4.6' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/rostedt/linux-trace Pull tracing updates from Steven Rostedt: "Nothing major this round. Mostly small clean ups and fixes. Some visible changes: - A new flag was added to distinguish traces done in NMI context. - Preempt tracer now shows functions where preemption is disabled but interrupts are still enabled. Other notes: - Updates were done to function tracing to allow better performance with perf. - Infrastructure code has been added to allow for a new histogram feature for recording live trace event histograms that can be configured by simple user commands. The feature itself was just finished, but needs a round in linux-next before being pulled. This only includes some infrastructure changes that will be needed" * tag 'trace-v4.6' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/rostedt/linux-trace: (22 commits) tracing: Record and show NMI state tracing: Fix trace_printk() to print when not using bprintk() tracing: Remove redundant reset per-CPU buff in irqsoff tracer x86: ftrace: Fix the misleading comment for arch/x86/kernel/ftrace.c tracing: Fix crash from reading trace_pipe with sendfile tracing: Have preempt(irqs)off trace preempt disabled functions tracing: Fix return while holding a lock in register_tracer() ftrace: Use kasprintf() in ftrace_profile_tracefs() ftrace: Update dynamic ftrace calls only if necessary ftrace: Make ftrace_hash_rec_enable return update bool tracing: Fix typoes in code comment and printk in trace_nop.c tracing, writeback: Replace cgroup path to cgroup ino tracing: Use flags instead of bool in trigger structure tracing: Add an unreg_all() callback to trigger commands tracing: Add needs_rec flag to event triggers tracing: Add a per-event-trigger 'paused' field tracing: Add get_syscall_name() tracing: Add event record param to trigger_ops.func() tracing: Make event trigger functions available tracing: Make ftrace_event_field checking functions available ...
2016-03-15mm, tracing: unify mm flags handling in tracepoints and printkVlastimil Babka
In tracepoints, it's possible to print gfp flags in a human-friendly format through a macro show_gfp_flags(), which defines a translation array and passes is to __print_flags(). Since the following patch will introduce support for gfp flags printing in printk(), it would be nice to reuse the array. This is not straightforward, since __print_flags() can't simply reference an array defined in a .c file such as mm/debug.c - it has to be a macro to allow the macro magic to communicate the format to userspace tools such as trace-cmd. The solution is to create a macro __def_gfpflag_names which is used both in show_gfp_flags(), and to define the gfpflag_names[] array in mm/debug.c. On the other hand, mm/debug.c also defines translation tables for page flags and vma flags, and desire was expressed (but not implemented in this series) to use these also from tracepoints. Thus, this patch also renames the events/gfpflags.h file to events/mmflags.h and moves the table definitions there, using the same macro approach as for gfpflags. This allows translating all three kinds of mm-specific flags both in tracepoints and printk. Signed-off-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz> Reviewed-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com> Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@kernel.org> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com> Cc: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com> Cc: "Kirill A. Shutemov" <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2016-03-08tracing: Remove duplicate checks for online CPUsSteven Rostedt (Red Hat)
Some trace events have conditions that check if the current CPU is online or not before recording the tracepoint. That's because certain trace events are in locations that can be called as the CPU is going offline and when RCU no longer monitors it (like kfree and friends). The check was added because trace events require RCU to be active. This is a trace event infrastructure issue and not something that individual trace events should worry about. The tracepoint.h code now has added a check to see if the current CPU is considered online, and it only does the tracepoint if it is. There's no more need for individual trace events to also include this check. It is now redundant. Cc: Shreyas B. Prabhu <shreyas@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
2015-05-28tracing/mm: don't trace mm_page_pcpu_drain on offline cpusShreyas B. Prabhu
Since tracepoints use RCU for protection, they must not be called on offline cpus. trace_mm_page_pcpu_drain can be called on an offline cpu in this scenario caught by LOCKDEP: =============================== [ INFO: suspicious RCU usage. ] 4.1.0-rc1+ #9 Not tainted ------------------------------- include/trace/events/kmem.h:265 suspicious rcu_dereference_check() usage! other info that might help us debug this: RCU used illegally from offline CPU! rcu_scheduler_active = 1, debug_locks = 1 1 lock held by swapper/5/0: #0: (&(&zone->lock)->rlock){..-...}, at: [<c0000000002073b0>] .free_pcppages_bulk+0x70/0x920 stack backtrace: CPU: 5 PID: 0 Comm: swapper/5 Not tainted 4.1.0-rc1+ #9 Call Trace: .dump_stack+0x98/0xd4 (unreliable) .lockdep_rcu_suspicious+0x108/0x170 .free_pcppages_bulk+0x60c/0x920 .free_hot_cold_page+0x208/0x280 .destroy_context+0x90/0xd0 .__mmdrop+0x58/0x160 .idle_task_exit+0xf0/0x100 .pnv_smp_cpu_kill_self+0x58/0x2c0 .cpu_die+0x34/0x50 .arch_cpu_idle_dead+0x20/0x40 .cpu_startup_entry+0x708/0x7a0 .start_secondary+0x36c/0x3a0 start_secondary_prolog+0x10/0x14 Fix this by converting mm_page_pcpu_drain trace point into TRACE_EVENT_CONDITION where condition is cpu_online(smp_processor_id()) Signed-off-by: Shreyas B. Prabhu <shreyas@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Preeti U Murthy <preeti@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Acked-by: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-05-28tracing/mm: don't trace mm_page_free on offline cpusShreyas B. Prabhu
Since tracepoints use RCU for protection, they must not be called on offline cpus. trace_mm_page_free can be called on an offline cpu in this scenario caught by LOCKDEP: =============================== [ INFO: suspicious RCU usage. ] 4.1.0-rc1+ #9 Not tainted ------------------------------- include/trace/events/kmem.h:170 suspicious rcu_dereference_check() usage! other info that might help us debug this: RCU used illegally from offline CPU! rcu_scheduler_active = 1, debug_locks = 1 no locks held by swapper/1/0. stack backtrace: CPU: 1 PID: 0 Comm: swapper/1 Not tainted 4.1.0-rc1+ #9 Call Trace: .dump_stack+0x98/0xd4 (unreliable) .lockdep_rcu_suspicious+0x108/0x170 .free_pages_prepare+0x494/0x680 .free_hot_cold_page+0x50/0x280 .destroy_context+0x90/0xd0 .__mmdrop+0x58/0x160 .idle_task_exit+0xf0/0x100 .pnv_smp_cpu_kill_self+0x58/0x2c0 .cpu_die+0x34/0x50 .arch_cpu_idle_dead+0x20/0x40 .cpu_startup_entry+0x708/0x7a0 .start_secondary+0x36c/0x3a0 start_secondary_prolog+0x10/0x14 Fix this by converting mm_page_free trace point into TRACE_EVENT_CONDITION where condition is cpu_online(smp_processor_id()) Signed-off-by: Shreyas B. Prabhu <shreyas@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Preeti U Murthy <preeti@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Acked-by: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-05-28tracing/mm: don't trace kmem_cache_free on offline cpusShreyas B. Prabhu
Since tracepoints use RCU for protection, they must not be called on offline cpus. trace_kmem_cache_free can be called on an offline cpu in this scenario caught by LOCKDEP: =============================== [ INFO: suspicious RCU usage. ] 4.1.0-rc1+ #9 Not tainted ------------------------------- include/trace/events/kmem.h:148 suspicious rcu_dereference_check() usage! other info that might help us debug this: RCU used illegally from offline CPU! rcu_scheduler_active = 1, debug_locks = 1 no locks held by swapper/1/0. stack backtrace: CPU: 1 PID: 0 Comm: swapper/1 Not tainted 4.1.0-rc1+ #9 Call Trace: .dump_stack+0x98/0xd4 (unreliable) .lockdep_rcu_suspicious+0x108/0x170 .kmem_cache_free+0x344/0x4b0 .__mmdrop+0x4c/0x160 .idle_task_exit+0xf0/0x100 .pnv_smp_cpu_kill_self+0x58/0x2c0 .cpu_die+0x34/0x50 .arch_cpu_idle_dead+0x20/0x40 .cpu_startup_entry+0x708/0x7a0 .start_secondary+0x36c/0x3a0 start_secondary_prolog+0x10/0x14 Fix this by converting kmem_cache_free trace point into TRACE_EVENT_CONDITION where condition is cpu_online(smp_processor_id()) Signed-off-by: Shreyas B. Prabhu <shreyas@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reported-by: Aneesh Kumar K.V <aneesh.kumar@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Preeti U Murthy <preeti@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Acked-by: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-04-13tracing, mm: Record pfn instead of pointer to struct pageNamhyung Kim
The struct page is opaque for userspace tools, so it'd be better to save pfn in order to identify page frames. The textual output of $debugfs/tracing/trace file remains unchanged and only raw (binary) data format is changed - but thanks to libtraceevent, userspace tools which deal with the raw data (like perf and trace-cmd) can parse the format easily. So impact on the userspace will also be minimal. Signed-off-by: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@kernel.org> Based-on-patch-by: Joonsoo Kim <js1304@gmail.com> Acked-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org> Acked-by: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Cc: David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com> Cc: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@redhat.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: linux-mm@kvack.org Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1428298576-9785-3-git-send-email-namhyung@kernel.org Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>
2015-02-11mm: when stealing freepages, also take pages created by splitting buddy pageVlastimil Babka
When studying page stealing, I noticed some weird looking decisions in try_to_steal_freepages(). The first I assume is a bug (Patch 1), the following two patches were driven by evaluation. Testing was done with stress-highalloc of mmtests, using the mm_page_alloc_extfrag tracepoint and postprocessing to get counts of how often page stealing occurs for individual migratetypes, and what migratetypes are used for fallbacks. Arguably, the worst case of page stealing is when UNMOVABLE allocation steals from MOVABLE pageblock. RECLAIMABLE allocation stealing from MOVABLE allocation is also not ideal, so the goal is to minimize these two cases. The evaluation of v2 wasn't always clear win and Joonsoo questioned the results. Here I used different baseline which includes RFC compaction improvements from [1]. I found that the compaction improvements reduce variability of stress-highalloc, so there's less noise in the data. First, let's look at stress-highalloc configured to do sync compaction, and how these patches reduce page stealing events during the test. First column is after fresh reboot, other two are reiterations of test without reboot. That was all accumulater over 5 re-iterations (so the benchmark was run 5x3 times with 5 fresh restarts). Baseline: 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 5-nothp-1 5-nothp-2 5-nothp-3 Page alloc extfrag event 10264225 8702233 10244125 Extfrag fragmenting 10263271 8701552 10243473 Extfrag fragmenting for unmovable 13595 17616 15960 Extfrag fragmenting unmovable placed with movable 7989 12193 8447 Extfrag fragmenting for reclaimable 658 1840 1817 Extfrag fragmenting reclaimable placed with movable 558 1677 1679 Extfrag fragmenting for movable 10249018 8682096 10225696 With Patch 1: 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 6-nothp-1 6-nothp-2 6-nothp-3 Page alloc extfrag event 11834954 9877523 9774860 Extfrag fragmenting 11833993 9876880 9774245 Extfrag fragmenting for unmovable 7342 16129 11712 Extfrag fragmenting unmovable placed with movable 4191 10547 6270 Extfrag fragmenting for reclaimable 373 1130 923 Extfrag fragmenting reclaimable placed with movable 302 906 738 Extfrag fragmenting for movable 11826278 9859621 9761610 With Patch 2: 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 7-nothp-1 7-nothp-2 7-nothp-3 Page alloc extfrag event 4725990 3668793 3807436 Extfrag fragmenting 4725104 3668252 3806898 Extfrag fragmenting for unmovable 6678 7974 7281 Extfrag fragmenting unmovable placed with movable 2051 3829 4017 Extfrag fragmenting for reclaimable 429 1208 1278 Extfrag fragmenting reclaimable placed with movable 369 976 1034 Extfrag fragmenting for movable 4717997 3659070 3798339 With Patch 3: 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 8-nothp-1 8-nothp-2 8-nothp-3 Page alloc extfrag event 5016183 4700142 3850633 Extfrag fragmenting 5015325 4699613 3850072 Extfrag fragmenting for unmovable 1312 3154 3088 Extfrag fragmenting unmovable placed with movable 1115 2777 2714 Extfrag fragmenting for reclaimable 437 1193 1097 Extfrag fragmenting reclaimable placed with movable 330 969 879 Extfrag fragmenting for movable 5013576 4695266 3845887 In v2 we've seen apparent regression with Patch 1 for unmovable events, this is now gone, suggesting it was indeed noise. Here, each patch improves the situation for unmovable events. Reclaimable is improved by patch 1 and then either the same modulo noise, or perhaps sligtly worse - a small price for unmovable improvements, IMHO. The number of movable allocations falling back to other migratetypes is most noisy, but it's reduced to half at Patch 2 nevertheless. These are least critical as compaction can move them around. If we look at success rates, the patches don't affect them, that didn't change. Baseline: 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 5-nothp-1 5-nothp-2 5-nothp-3 Success 1 Min 49.00 ( 0.00%) 42.00 ( 14.29%) 41.00 ( 16.33%) Success 1 Mean 51.00 ( 0.00%) 45.00 ( 11.76%) 42.60 ( 16.47%) Success 1 Max 55.00 ( 0.00%) 51.00 ( 7.27%) 46.00 ( 16.36%) Success 2 Min 53.00 ( 0.00%) 47.00 ( 11.32%) 44.00 ( 16.98%) Success 2 Mean 59.60 ( 0.00%) 50.80 ( 14.77%) 48.20 ( 19.13%) Success 2 Max 64.00 ( 0.00%) 56.00 ( 12.50%) 52.00 ( 18.75%) Success 3 Min 84.00 ( 0.00%) 82.00 ( 2.38%) 78.00 ( 7.14%) Success 3 Mean 85.60 ( 0.00%) 82.80 ( 3.27%) 79.40 ( 7.24%) Success 3 Max 86.00 ( 0.00%) 83.00 ( 3.49%) 80.00 ( 6.98%) Patch 1: 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 6-nothp-1 6-nothp-2 6-nothp-3 Success 1 Min 49.00 ( 0.00%) 44.00 ( 10.20%) 44.00 ( 10.20%) Success 1 Mean 51.80 ( 0.00%) 46.00 ( 11.20%) 45.80 ( 11.58%) Success 1 Max 54.00 ( 0.00%) 49.00 ( 9.26%) 49.00 ( 9.26%) Success 2 Min 58.00 ( 0.00%) 49.00 ( 15.52%) 48.00 ( 17.24%) Success 2 Mean 60.40 ( 0.00%) 51.80 ( 14.24%) 50.80 ( 15.89%) Success 2 Max 63.00 ( 0.00%) 54.00 ( 14.29%) 55.00 ( 12.70%) Success 3 Min 84.00 ( 0.00%) 81.00 ( 3.57%) 79.00 ( 5.95%) Success 3 Mean 85.00 ( 0.00%) 81.60 ( 4.00%) 79.80 ( 6.12%) Success 3 Max 86.00 ( 0.00%) 82.00 ( 4.65%) 82.00 ( 4.65%) Patch 2: 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 7-nothp-1 7-nothp-2 7-nothp-3 Success 1 Min 50.00 ( 0.00%) 44.00 ( 12.00%) 39.00 ( 22.00%) Success 1 Mean 52.80 ( 0.00%) 45.60 ( 13.64%) 42.40 ( 19.70%) Success 1 Max 55.00 ( 0.00%) 46.00 ( 16.36%) 47.00 ( 14.55%) Success 2 Min 52.00 ( 0.00%) 48.00 ( 7.69%) 45.00 ( 13.46%) Success 2 Mean 53.40 ( 0.00%) 49.80 ( 6.74%) 48.80 ( 8.61%) Success 2 Max 57.00 ( 0.00%) 52.00 ( 8.77%) 52.00 ( 8.77%) Success 3 Min 84.00 ( 0.00%) 81.00 ( 3.57%) 79.00 ( 5.95%) Success 3 Mean 85.00 ( 0.00%) 82.40 ( 3.06%) 79.60 ( 6.35%) Success 3 Max 86.00 ( 0.00%) 83.00 ( 3.49%) 80.00 ( 6.98%) Patch 3: 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 8-nothp-1 8-nothp-2 8-nothp-3 Success 1 Min 46.00 ( 0.00%) 44.00 ( 4.35%) 42.00 ( 8.70%) Success 1 Mean 50.20 ( 0.00%) 45.60 ( 9.16%) 44.00 ( 12.35%) Success 1 Max 52.00 ( 0.00%) 47.00 ( 9.62%) 47.00 ( 9.62%) Success 2 Min 53.00 ( 0.00%) 49.00 ( 7.55%) 48.00 ( 9.43%) Success 2 Mean 55.80 ( 0.00%) 50.60 ( 9.32%) 49.00 ( 12.19%) Success 2 Max 59.00 ( 0.00%) 52.00 ( 11.86%) 51.00 ( 13.56%) Success 3 Min 84.00 ( 0.00%) 80.00 ( 4.76%) 79.00 ( 5.95%) Success 3 Mean 85.40 ( 0.00%) 81.60 ( 4.45%) 80.40 ( 5.85%) Success 3 Max 87.00 ( 0.00%) 83.00 ( 4.60%) 82.00 ( 5.75%) While there's no improvement here, I consider reduced fragmentation events to be worth on its own. Patch 2 also seems to reduce scanning for free pages, and migrations in compaction, suggesting it has somewhat less work to do: Patch 1: Compaction stalls 4153 3959 3978 Compaction success 1523 1441 1446 Compaction failures 2630 2517 2531 Page migrate success 4600827 4943120 5104348 Page migrate failure 19763 16656 17806 Compaction pages isolated 9597640 10305617 10653541 Compaction migrate scanned 77828948 86533283 87137064 Compaction free scanned 517758295 521312840 521462251 Compaction cost 5503 5932 6110 Patch 2: Compaction stalls 3800 3450 3518 Compaction success 1421 1316 1317 Compaction failures 2379 2134 2201 Page migrate success 4160421 4502708 4752148 Page migrate failure 19705 14340 14911 Compaction pages isolated 8731983 9382374 9910043 Compaction migrate scanned 98362797 96349194 98609686 Compaction free scanned 496512560 469502017 480442545 Compaction cost 5173 5526 5811 As with v2, /proc/pagetypeinfo appears unaffected with respect to numbers of unmovable and reclaimable pageblocks. Configuring the benchmark to allocate like THP page fault (i.e. no sync compaction) gives much noisier results for iterations 2 and 3 after reboot. This is not so surprising given how [1] offers lower improvements in this scenario due to less restarts after deferred compaction which would change compaction pivot. Baseline: 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 5-thp-1 5-thp-2 5-thp-3 Page alloc extfrag event 8148965 6227815 6646741 Extfrag fragmenting 8147872 6227130 6646117 Extfrag fragmenting for unmovable 10324 12942 15975 Extfrag fragmenting unmovable placed with movable 5972 8495 10907 Extfrag fragmenting for reclaimable 601 1707 2210 Extfrag fragmenting reclaimable placed with movable 520 1570 2000 Extfrag fragmenting for movable 8136947 6212481 6627932 Patch 1: 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 6-thp-1 6-thp-2 6-thp-3 Page alloc extfrag event 8345457 7574471 7020419 Extfrag fragmenting 8343546 7573777 7019718 Extfrag fragmenting for unmovable 10256 18535 30716 Extfrag fragmenting unmovable placed with movable 6893 11726 22181 Extfrag fragmenting for reclaimable 465 1208 1023 Extfrag fragmenting reclaimable placed with movable 353 996 843 Extfrag fragmenting for movable 8332825 7554034 6987979 Patch 2: 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 7-thp-1 7-thp-2 7-thp-3 Page alloc extfrag event 3512847 3020756 2891625 Extfrag fragmenting 3511940 3020185 2891059 Extfrag fragmenting for unmovable 9017 6892 6191 Extfrag fragmenting unmovable placed with movable 1524 3053 2435 Extfrag fragmenting for reclaimable 445 1081 1160 Extfrag fragmenting reclaimable placed with movable 375 918 986 Extfrag fragmenting for movable 3502478 3012212 2883708 Patch 3: 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 3.19-rc4 8-thp-1 8-thp-2 8-thp-3 Page alloc extfrag event 3181699 3082881 2674164 Extfrag fragmenting 3180812 3082303 2673611 Extfrag fragmenting for unmovable 1201 4031 4040 Extfrag fragmenting unmovable placed with movable 974 3611 3645 Extfrag fragmenting for reclaimable 478 1165 1294 Extfrag fragmenting reclaimable placed with movable 387 985 1030 Extfrag fragmenting for movable 3179133 3077107 2668277 The improvements for first iteration are clear, the rest is much noisier and can appear like regression for Patch 1. Anyway, patch 2 rectifies it. Allocation success rates are again unaffected so there's no point in making this e-mail any longer. [1] http://marc.info/?l=linux-mm&m=142166196321125&w=2 This patch (of 3): When __rmqueue_fallback() is called to allocate a page of order X, it will find a page of order Y >= X of a fallback migratetype, which is different from the desired migratetype. With the help of try_to_steal_freepages(), it may change the migratetype (to the desired one) also of: 1) all currently free pages in the pageblock containing the fallback page 2) the fallback pageblock itself 3) buddy pages created by splitting the fallback page (when Y > X) These decisions take the order Y into account, as well as the desired migratetype, with the goal of preventing multiple fallback allocations that could e.g. distribute UNMOVABLE allocations among multiple pageblocks. Originally, decision for 1) has implied the decision for 3). Commit 47118af076f6 ("mm: mmzone: MIGRATE_CMA migration type added") changed that (probably unintentionally) so that the buddy pages in case 3) are always changed to the desired migratetype, except for CMA pageblocks. Commit fef903efcf0c ("mm/page_allo.c: restructure free-page stealing code and fix a bug") did some refactoring and added a comment that the case of 3) is intended. Commit 0cbef29a7821 ("mm: __rmqueue_fallback() should respect pageblock type") removed the comment and tried to restore the original behavior where 1) implies 3), but due to the previous refactoring, the result is instead that only 2) implies 3) - and the conditions for 2) are less frequently met than conditions for 1). This may increase fragmentation in situations where the code decides to steal all free pages from the pageblock (case 1)), but then gives back the buddy pages produced by splitting. This patch restores the original intended logic where 1) implies 3). During testing with stress-highalloc from mmtests, this has shown to decrease the number of events where UNMOVABLE and RECLAIMABLE allocations steal from MOVABLE pageblocks, which can lead to permanent fragmentation. In some cases it has increased the number of events when MOVABLE allocations steal from UNMOVABLE or RECLAIMABLE pageblocks, but these are fixable by sync compaction and thus less harmful. Note that evaluation has shown that the behavior introduced by 47118af076f6 for buddy pages in case 3) is actually even better than the original logic, so the following patch will introduce it properly once again. For stable backports of this patch it makes thus sense to only fix versions containing 0cbef29a7821. [iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com: tracepoint fix] Signed-off-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: Zhang Yanfei <zhangyanfei@cn.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: "Aneesh Kumar K.V" <aneesh.kumar@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: "Kirill A. Shutemov" <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com> Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> [3.13+ containing 0cbef29a7821] Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-11-13mm: get rid of unnecessary overhead of trace_mm_page_alloc_extfrag()KOSAKI Motohiro
In general, every tracepoint should be zero overhead if it is disabled. However, trace_mm_page_alloc_extfrag() is one of exception. It evaluate "new_type == start_migratetype" even if tracepoint is disabled. However, the code can be moved into tracepoint's TP_fast_assign() and TP_fast_assign exist exactly such purpose. This patch does it. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-09-11mm/page_alloc.c: fix the value of fallback_migratetype in alloc_extfrag ↵Srivatsa S. Bhat
tracepoint() In the current code, the value of fallback_migratetype that is printed using the mm_page_alloc_extfrag tracepoint, is the value of the migratetype *after* it has been set to the preferred migratetype (if the ownership was changed). Obviously that wouldn't have been the original intent. (We already have a separate 'change_ownership' field to tell whether the ownership of the pageblock was changed from the fallback_migratetype to the preferred type.) The intent of the fallback_migratetype field is to show the migratetype from which we borrowed pages in order to satisfy the allocation request. So fix the code to print that value correctly. Signed-off-by: Srivatsa S. Bhat <srivatsa.bhat@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Cody P Schafer <cody@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-02UAPI: (Scripted) Convert #include "..." to #include <path/...> in kernel ↵David Howells
system headers Convert #include "..." to #include <path/...> in kernel system headers. Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Acked-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de> Acked-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Acked-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Acked-by: Dave Jones <davej@redhat.com>
2012-09-20tracing: Don't call page_to_pfn() if page is NULLWen Congyang
When allocating memory fails, page is NULL. page_to_pfn() will cause the kernel panicked if we don't use sparsemem vmemmap. Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/505AB1FF.8020104@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: stable <stable@vger.kernel.org> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Wen Congyang <wency@cn.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>
2012-01-10mm-tracepoint: rename page-free eventsKonstantin Khlebnikov
Rename mm_page_free_direct into mm_page_free and mm_pagevec_free into mm_page_free_batched Since v2.6.33-5426-gc475dab the kernel triggers mm_page_free_direct for all freed pages, not only for directly freed. So, let's name it properly. For pages freed via page-list we also trigger mm_page_free_batched event. Signed-off-by: Konstantin Khlebnikov <khlebnikov@openvz.org> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-09vmscan: tracing: add trace events for kswapd wakeup, sleeping and direct reclaimMel Gorman
Add two trace events for kswapd waking up and going asleep for the purposes of tracking kswapd activity and two trace events for direct reclaim beginning and ending. The information can be used to work out how much time a process or the system is spending on the reclamation of pages and in the case of direct reclaim, how many pages were reclaimed for that process. High frequency triggering of these events could point to memory pressure problems. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-11-26tracing: Convert some kmem events to DEFINE_EVENTLi Zefan
Use DECLARE_EVENT_CLASS to remove duplicate code: text data bss dec hex filename 333987 69800 27228 431015 693a7 mm/built-in.o.old 330030 69800 27228 427058 68432 mm/built-in.o 8 events are converted: kmem_alloc: kmalloc, kmem_cache_alloc kmem_alloc_node: kmalloc_node, kmem_cache_alloc_node kmem_free: kfree, kmem_cache_free mm_page: mm_page_alloc_zone_locked, mm_page_pcpu_drain No change in functionality. Signed-off-by: Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Pekka Enberg <penberg@cs.helsinki.fi> Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> LKML-Reference: <4B0E286A.2000405@cn.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-09-22tracing, page-allocator: add trace event for page traffic related to the ↵Mel Gorman
buddy lists The page allocation trace event reports that a page was successfully allocated but it does not specify where it came from. When analysing performance, it can be important to distinguish between pages coming from the per-cpu allocator and pages coming from the buddy lists as the latter requires the zone lock to the taken and more data structures to be examined. This patch adds a trace event for __rmqueue reporting when a page is being allocated from the buddy lists. It distinguishes between being called to refill the per-cpu lists or whether it is a high-order allocation. Similarly, this patch adds an event to catch when the PCP lists are being drained a little and pages are going back to the buddy lists. This is trickier to draw conclusions from but high activity on those events could explain why there were a large number of cache misses on a page-allocator-intensive workload. The coalescing and splitting of buddies involves a lot of writing of page metadata and cache line bounces not to mention the acquisition of an interrupt-safe lock necessary to enter this path. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix build] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Li Ming Chun <macli@brc.ubc.ca> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-09-22tracing, page-allocator: add trace events for anti-fragmentation falling ↵Mel Gorman
back to other migratetypes Fragmentation avoidance depends on being able to use free pages from lists of the appropriate migrate type. In the event this is not possible, __rmqueue_fallback() selects a different list and in some circumstances change the migratetype of the pageblock. Simplistically, the more times this event occurs, the more likely that fragmentation will be a problem later for hugepage allocation at least but there are other considerations such as the order of page being split to satisfy the allocation. This patch adds a trace event for __rmqueue_fallback() that reports what page is being used for the fallback, the orders of relevant pages, the desired migratetype and the migratetype of the lists being used, whether the pageblock changed type and whether this event is important with respect to fragmentation avoidance or not. This information can be used to help analyse fragmentation avoidance and help decide whether min_free_kbytes should be increased or not. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Li Ming Chun <macli@brc.ubc.ca> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-09-22tracing, page-allocator: add trace events for page allocation and page freeingMel Gorman
This patch adds trace events for the allocation and freeing of pages, including the freeing of pagevecs. Using the events, it will be known what struct page and pfns are being allocated and freed and what the call site was in many cases. The page alloc tracepoints be used as an indicator as to whether the workload was heavily dependant on the page allocator or not. You can make a guess based on vmstat but you can't get a per-process breakdown. Depending on the call path, the call_site for page allocation may be __get_free_pages() instead of a useful callsite. Instead of passing down a return address similar to slab debugging, the user should enable the stacktrace and seg-addr options to get a proper stack trace. The pagevec free tracepoint has a different usecase. It can be used to get a idea of how many pages are being dumped off the LRU and whether it is kswapd doing the work or a process doing direct reclaim. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Li Ming Chun <macli@brc.ubc.ca> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-07-13tracing/events: Move TRACE_SYSTEM outside of include guardLi Zefan
If TRACE_INCLDUE_FILE is defined, <trace/events/TRACE_INCLUDE_FILE.h> will be included and compiled, otherwise it will be <trace/events/TRACE_SYSTEM.h> So TRACE_SYSTEM should be defined outside of #if proctection, just like TRACE_INCLUDE_FILE. Imaging this scenario: #include <trace/events/foo.h> -> TRACE_SYSTEM == foo ... #include <trace/events/bar.h> -> TRACE_SYSTEM == bar ... #define CREATE_TRACE_POINTS #include <trace/events/foo.h> -> TRACE_SYSTEM == bar !!! and then bar.h will be included and compiled. Signed-off-by: Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com> LKML-Reference: <4A5A9CF1.2010007@cn.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-05-26tracing: add flag output for kmem eventsSteven Rostedt
This patch changes the output for gfp_flags from being a simple hex value to the actual names. gfp_flags=GFP_ATOMIC instead of gfp_flags=00000020 And even gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL instead of gfp_flags=000000d0 (Thanks to Frederic Weisbecker for pointing out that the first version had a bad order of GFP masks) [ Impact: more human readable output from tracer ] Acked-by: Eduard - Gabriel Munteanu <eduard.munteanu@linux360.ro> Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Signed-off-by: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com>
2009-04-14tracing/events: move trace point headers into include/trace/eventsSteven Rostedt
Impact: clean up Create a sub directory in include/trace called events to keep the trace point headers in their own separate directory. Only headers that declare trace points should be defined in this directory. Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Cc: Zhao Lei <zhaolei@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: Eduard - Gabriel Munteanu <eduard.munteanu@linux360.ro> Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@cs.helsinki.fi> Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org>