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2017-11-02License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no licenseGreg Kroah-Hartman
Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license. By default all files without license information are under the default license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2. Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0' SPDX license identifier. The SPDX identifier is a legally binding shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text. This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and Philippe Ombredanne. How this work was done: Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of the use cases: - file had no licensing information it it. - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it, - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information, Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords. The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne. Philippe prepared the base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files. The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files assessed. Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s) to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation. Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was: - Files considered eligible had to be source code files. - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5 lines of source - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5 lines). All documentation files were explicitly excluded. The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license identifiers to apply. - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was considered to have no license information in it, and the top level COPYING file license applied. For non */uapi/* files that summary was: SPDX license identifier # files ---------------------------------------------------|------- GPL-2.0 11139 and resulted in the first patch in this series. If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0". Results of that was: SPDX license identifier # files ---------------------------------------------------|------- GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 930 and resulted in the second patch in this series. - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in it (per prior point). Results summary: SPDX license identifier # files ---------------------------------------------------|------ GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 270 GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 169 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause) 21 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 17 LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 15 GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 14 ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 5 LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 4 LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note 3 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT) 3 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT) 1 and that resulted in the third patch in this series. - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became the concluded license(s). - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a license but the other didn't, or they both detected different licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred. - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics). - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation. - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier, the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later in time. In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation. Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights. The Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so they are related. Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks in about 15000 files. In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the correct identifier. Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch version early this week with: - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected license ids and scores - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+ files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction. This worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the different types of files to be modified. These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg. Thomas wrote a script to parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the format that the file expected. This script was further refined by Greg based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different comment types.) Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to generate the patches. Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org> Reviewed-by: Philippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com> Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
2013-11-13gen_init_cpio: avoid NULL pointer dereference and rework env expandingMichal Nazarewicz
getenv() may return NULL if given environment variable does not exist which leads to NULL dereference when calling strncat. Besides that, the environment variable name was copied to a temporary env_var buffer, but this copying can be avoided by simply using the input string. Lastly, the whole loop can be greatly simplified by using the snprintf function instead of the playing with strncat. By the way, the current implementation allows a recursive variable expansion, as in: $ echo 'out ${A} out ' | A='a ${B} a' B=b /tmp/a out a b a out I'm assuming this is just a side effect and not a conscious decision (especially as this may lead to infinite loop), but I didn't want to change this behaviour without consulting. If the current behaviour is deamed incorrect, I'll be happy to send a patch without recursive processing. Signed-off-by: Michal Nazarewicz <mina86@mina86.com> Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Cc: Jiri Kosina <jkosina@suse.cz> Cc: Jesper Juhl <jj@codesealer.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-11-19gen_init_cpio: remove redundant empty lineJesper Juhl
Just a completely trivial patch to remove a completely redundant blank line from usr/gen_init_cpio.c Signed-off-by: Jesper Juhl <jj@codesealer.com> Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <jkosina@suse.cz>
2012-10-25gen_init_cpio: avoid stack overflow when expandingKees Cook
Fix possible overflow of the buffer used for expanding environment variables when building file list. In the extremely unlikely case of an attacker having control over the environment variables visible to gen_init_cpio, control over the contents of the file gen_init_cpio parses, and gen_init_cpio was built without compiler hardening, the attacker can gain arbitrary execution control via a stack buffer overflow. $ cat usr/crash.list file foo ${BIG}${BIG}${BIG}${BIG}${BIG}${BIG} 0755 0 0 $ BIG=$(perl -e 'print "A" x 4096;') ./usr/gen_init_cpio usr/crash.list *** buffer overflow detected ***: ./usr/gen_init_cpio terminated This also replaces the space-indenting with tabs. Patch based on existing fix extracted from grsecurity. Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Cc: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz> Cc: Brad Spengler <spender@grsecurity.net> Cc: PaX Team <pageexec@freemail.hu> Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-04-18initramfs: Use KBUILD_BUILD_TIMESTAMP for generated entriesMichal Marek
gen_init_cpio gets the current time and uses it for each symlink, special file, and directory. Grab the current time once and make it possible to override it with the KBUILD_BUILD_TIMESTAMP variable for reproducible builds. Signed-off-by: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz>
2011-01-05gen_init_cpio: checkpatch fixesAndrew Morton
Cc: Jesper Juhl <jj@chaosbits.net> Cc: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz>
2010-12-29gen_init_cpio: Avoid race between call to stat() and call to open()Jesper Juhl
In usr/gen_init_cpio.c::cpio_mkfile() a call to stat() is made based on pathname, subsequently the file is open()'ed and then the value of the initial stat() call is used to allocate a buffer. This is not safe since the file may change between the call to stat() and the call to open(). Safer to just open() the file and then do fstat() using the filedescriptor returned by open. Signed-off-by: Jesper Juhl <jj@chaosbits.net> Acked-by: Jeff Garzik <jgarzik@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz>
2010-12-02gen_init_cpio: remove leading `/' from file namesThomas Chou
When we extracted the generated cpio archive using "cpio -id" command, it complained, cpio: Removing leading `/' from member names var/run cpio: Removing leading `/' from member names var/lib cpio: Removing leading `/' from member names var/lib/misc It is worse with the latest "cpio" or "pax", which tries to overwrite the host file system with the leading '/'. So the leading '/' of file names should be removed. This is consistent with the initramfs come with major distributions such as Fedora or Debian, etc. Signed-off-by: Thomas Chou <thomas@wytron.com.tw> Acked-by: Mike Frysinger<vapier@gentoo.org> Signed-off-by: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz>
2009-12-12gen_init_cpio: fixed fwrite warningMike Frysinger
On compilers with security warnings enabled by default, we get: usr/gen_init_cpio.c: In function ‘cpio_mkfile’: usr/gen_init_cpio.c:357: warning: ignoring return value of ‘fwrite’, declared with attribute warn_unused_result So check the return value and handle errors accordingly. Signed-off-by: Mike Frysinger <vapier@gentoo.org> Signed-off-by: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz>
2009-09-23Fix all -Wmissing-prototypes warnings in x86 defconfigTrevor Keith
Signed-off-by: Trevor Keith <tsrk@tsrk.net> Cc: Sam Ravnborg <sam@ravnborg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-12-03kbuild: gen_init_cpio expands shell variables in file namesSally, Gene
Modify gen_init_cpio so that lines that specify files can contain what looks like a shell variable that's expanded during processing. For example: file /sbin/kinit ${RFS_BASE}/usr/src/klibc/kinit/kinit 0755 0 0 given RFS_BASE is "/some/directory" in the environment would be expanded to file /sbin/kinit /some/directory/usr/src/klibc/kinit/kinit 0755 0 0 If several environment variables appear in a line, they are all expanded with processing happening from left to right. Undefined variables expand to a null string. Syntax errors stop processing, letting the existing error handling show the user offending line. This patch helps embedded folks who frequently create several RFS directories and then switch between them as they're tuning an initramfs. Signed-off-by: gene.sally@timesys.com Signed-off-by: Sam Ravnborg <sam@ravnborg.org>
2007-07-16kbuild: add support for reading stdin with gen_init_cpioMike Frysinger
Treat an argument of "-" as meaning "read stdin for cpio files" so gen_init_cpio can be piped into. Signed-off-by: Mike Frysinger <vapier@gentoo.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Sam Ravnborg <sam@ravnborg.org>
2007-02-11[PATCH] usr/gen_init_cpio.c: support for hard linksLuciano Rocha
Extend usr/gen_init_cpio.c "file" entry, adding support for hard links. Previous format: file <name> <location> <mode> <uid> <gid> New format: file <name> <location> <mode> <uid> <gid> [<hard links>] The hard links specification is optional, keeping the previous behaviour. All hard links are defined sequentially in the resulting cpio and the file data is present only in the last link. This is the behaviour of GNU's cpio and is supported by the kernel initramfs extractor. Signed-off-by: Luciano Rocha <strange@nsk.no-ip.org> Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2006-04-19[PATCH] Fix potential NULL pointer deref in gen_init_cpioJesper Juhl
Fix potential NULL pointer deref in gen_init_cpio.c spotted by coverity checker. This fixes coverity bug #86 Without this patch we risk dereferencing a NULL `type' in the "if ('\n' == *type) {" line. Signed-off-by: Jesper Juhl <jesper.juhl@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
2005-04-16Linux-2.6.12-rc2v2.6.12-rc2Linus Torvalds
Initial git repository build. I'm not bothering with the full history, even though we have it. We can create a separate "historical" git archive of that later if we want to, and in the meantime it's about 3.2GB when imported into git - space that would just make the early git days unnecessarily complicated, when we don't have a lot of good infrastructure for it. Let it rip!