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+ NOTES ON KERNEL OSS-EMULATION
+ Jan. 22, 2004 Takashi Iwai <firstname.lastname@example.org>
+ALSA provides a powerful OSS emulation on the kernel.
+The OSS emulation for PCM, mixer and sequencer devices is implemented
+as add-on kernel modules, snd-pcm-oss, snd-mixer-oss and snd-seq-oss.
+When you need to access the OSS PCM, mixer or sequencer devices, the
+corresponding module has to be loaded.
+These modules are loaded automatically when the corresponding service
+is called. The alias is defined sound-service-x-y, where x and y are
+the card number and the minor unit number. Usually you don't have to
+define these aliases by yourself.
+Only necessary step for auto-loading of OSS modules is to define the
+card alias in /etc/modprobe.conf, such as
+ alias sound-slot-0 snd-emu10k1
+As the second card, define sound-slot-1 as well.
+Note that you can't use the aliased name as the target name (i.e.
+"alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0" doesn't work any more like the old
+The currently available OSS configuration is shown in
+/proc/asound/oss/sndstat. This shows in the same syntax of
+/dev/sndstat, which is available on the commercial OSS driver.
+On ALSA, you can symlink /dev/sndstat to this proc file.
+Please note that the devices listed in this proc file appear only
+after the corresponding OSS-emulation module is loaded. Don't worry
+even if "NOT ENABLED IN CONFIG" is shown in it.
+ALSA supports the following OSS device files:
+ /dev/sequencer2 (aka /dev/music)
+where X is the card number from 0 to 7.
+(NOTE: Some distributions have the device files like /dev/midi0 and
+ /dev/midi1. They are NOT for OSS but for tclmidi, which is
+ a totally different thing.)
+Unlike the real OSS, ALSA cannot use the device files more than the
+assigned ones. For example, the first card cannot use /dev/dsp1 or
+/dev/dsp2, but only /dev/dsp0 and /dev/adsp0.
+As seen above, PCM and MIDI may have two devices. Usually, the first
+PCM device (hw:0,0 in ALSA) is mapped to /dev/dsp and the secondary
+device (hw:0,1) to /dev/adsp (if available). For MIDI, /dev/midi and
+You can change this device mapping via the module options of
+snd-pcm-oss and snd-rawmidi. In the case of PCM, the following
+options are available for snd-pcm-oss:
+ dsp_map PCM device number assigned to /dev/dspX
+ (default = 0)
+ adsp_map PCM device number assigned to /dev/adspX
+ (default = 1)
+For example, to map the third PCM device (hw:0,2) to /dev/adsp0,
+define like this:
+ options snd-pcm-oss adsp_map=2
+The options take arrays. For configuring the second card, specify
+two entries separated by comma. For example, to map the third PCM
+device on the second card to /dev/adsp1, define like below:
+ options snd-pcm-oss adsp_map=0,2
+To change the mapping of MIDI devices, the following options are
+available for snd-rawmidi:
+ midi_map MIDI device number assigned to /dev/midi0X
+ (default = 0)
+ amidi_map MIDI device number assigned to /dev/amidi0X
+ (default = 1)
+For example, to assign the third MIDI device on the first card to
+/dev/midi00, define as follows:
+ options snd-rawmidi midi_map=2
+As default, ALSA emulates the OSS PCM with so-called plugin layer,
+i.e. tries to convert the sample format, rate or channels
+automatically when the card doesn't support it natively.
+This will lead to some problems for some applications like quake or
+wine, especially if they use the card only in the MMAP mode.
+In such a case, you can change the behavior of PCM per application by
+writing a command to the proc file. There is a proc file for each PCM
+stream, /proc/asound/cardX/pcmY[cp]/oss, where X is the card number
+(zero-based), Y the PCM device number (zero-based), and 'p' is for
+playback and 'c' for capture, respectively. Note that this proc file
+exists only after snd-pcm-oss module is loaded.
+The command sequence has the following syntax:
+ app_name fragments fragment_size [options]
+app_name is the name of application with (higher priority) or without
+fragments specifies the number of fragments or zero if no specific
+number is given.
+fragment_size is the size of fragment in bytes or zero if not given.
+options is the optional parameters. The following options are
+ disable the application tries to open a pcm device for
+ this channel but does not want to use it.
+ direct don't use plugins
+ block force block open mode
+ non-block force non-block open mode
+ partial-frag write also partial fragments (affects playback only)
+ no-silence do not fill silence ahead to avoid clicks
+The disable option is useful when one stream direction (playback or
+capture) is not handled correctly by the application although the
+hardware itself does support both directions.
+The direct option is used, as mentioned above, to bypass the automatic
+conversion and useful for MMAP-applications.
+For example, to playback the first PCM device without plugins for
+quake, send a command via echo like the following:
+ % echo "quake 0 0 direct" > /proc/asound/card0/pcm0p/oss
+While quake wants only playback, you may append the second command
+to notify driver that only this direction is about to be allocated:
+ % echo "quake 0 0 disable" > /proc/asound/card0/pcm0c/oss
+The permission of proc files depend on the module options of snd.
+As default it's set as root, so you'll likely need to be superuser for
+sending the command above.
+The block and non-block options are used to change the behavior of
+opening the device file.
+As default, ALSA behaves as original OSS drivers, i.e. does not block
+the file when it's busy. The -EBUSY error is returned in this case.
+This blocking behavior can be changed globally via nonblock_open
+module option of snd-pcm-oss. For using the blocking mode as default
+for OSS devices, define like the following:
+ options snd-pcm-oss nonblock_open=0
+The partial-frag and no-silence commands have been added recently.
+Both commands are for optimization use only. The former command
+specifies to invoke the write transfer only when the whole fragment is
+filled. The latter stops writing the silence data ahead
+automatically. Both are disabled as default.
+You can check the currently defined configuration by reading the proc
+file. The read image can be sent to the proc file again, hence you
+can save the current configuration
+ % cat /proc/asound/card0/pcm0p/oss > /somewhere/oss-cfg
+and restore it like
+ % cat /somewhere/oss-cfg > /proc/asound/card0/pcm0p/oss
+Also, for clearing all the current configuration, send "erase" command
+ % echo "erase" > /proc/asound/card0/pcm0p/oss
+Since ALSA has completely different mixer interface, the emulation of
+OSS mixer is relatively complicated. ALSA builds up a mixer element
+from several different ALSA (mixer) controls based on the name
+string. For example, the volume element SOUND_MIXER_PCM is composed
+from "PCM Playback Volume" and "PCM Playback Switch" controls for the
+playback direction and from "PCM Capture Volume" and "PCM Capture
+Switch" for the capture directory (if exists). When the PCM volume of
+OSS is changed, all the volume and switch controls above are adjusted
+As default, ALSA uses the following control for OSS volumes:
+ OSS volume ALSA control Index
+ SOUND_MIXER_VOLUME Master 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_BASS Tone Control - Bass 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_TREBLE Tone Control - Treble 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_SYNTH Synth 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_PCM PCM 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_SPEAKER PC Speaker 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_LINE Line 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_MIC Mic 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_CD CD 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_IMIX Monitor Mix 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_ALTPCM PCM 1
+ SOUND_MIXER_RECLEV (not assigned)
+ SOUND_MIXER_IGAIN Capture 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_OGAIN Playback 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_LINE1 Aux 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_LINE2 Aux 1
+ SOUND_MIXER_LINE3 Aux 2
+ SOUND_MIXER_DIGITAL1 Digital 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_DIGITAL2 Digital 1
+ SOUND_MIXER_DIGITAL3 Digital 2
+ SOUND_MIXER_PHONEIN Phone 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_PHONEOUT Phone 1
+ SOUND_MIXER_VIDEO Video 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_RADIO Radio 0
+ SOUND_MIXER_MONITOR Monitor 0
+The second column is the base-string of the corresponding ALSA
+control. In fact, the controls with "XXX [Playback|Capture]
+[Volume|Switch]" will be checked in addition.
+The current assignment of these mixer elements is listed in the proc
+file, /proc/asound/cardX/oss_mixer, which will be like the following
+ VOLUME "Master" 0
+ BASS "" 0
+ TREBLE "" 0
+ SYNTH "" 0
+ PCM "PCM" 0
+where the first column is the OSS volume element, the second column
+the base-string of the corresponding ALSA control, and the third the
+control index. When the string is empty, it means that the
+corresponding OSS control is not available.
+For changing the assignment, you can write the configuration to this
+proc file. For example, to map "Wave Playback" to the PCM volume,
+send the command like the following:
+ % echo 'VOLUME "Wave Playback" 0' > /proc/asound/card0/oss_mixer
+The command is exactly as same as listed in the proc file. You can
+change one or more elements, one volume per line. In the last
+example, both "Wave Playback Volume" and "Wave Playback Switch" will
+be affected when PCM volume is changed.
+Like the case of PCM proc file, the permission of proc files depend on
+the module options of snd. you'll likely need to be superuser for
+sending the command above.
+As well as in the case of PCM proc file, you can save and restore the
+current mixer configuration by reading and writing the whole file
+MMAP on ICE1712 driver
+ICE1712 supports only the unconventional format, interleaved
+10-channels 24bit (packed in 32bit) format. Therefore you cannot mmap
+the buffer as the conventional (mono or 2-channels, 8 or 16bit) format
+Some USB devices support only 24bit format packed in 3bytes. This
+format is not supported by OSS and no conversion is provided by kernel
+OSS emulation. You can use the user-space OSS emulation via libaoss