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+NOTE: See also arcnet-hardware.txt in this directory for jumper-setting
+and cabling information if you're like many of us and didn't happen to get a
+manual with your ARCnet card.
+Since no one seems to listen to me otherwise, perhaps a poem will get your
+ This driver's getting fat and beefy,
+ But my cat is still named Fifi.
+Hmm, I think I'm allowed to call that a poem, even though it's only two
+lines. Hey, I'm in Computer Science, not English. Give me a break.
+The point is: I REALLY REALLY REALLY REALLY REALLY want to hear from you if
+you test this and get it working. Or if you don't. Or anything.
+ARCnet 0.32 ALPHA first made it into the Linux kernel 1.1.80 - this was
+nice, but after that even FEWER people started writing to me because they
+didn't even have to install the patch. <sigh>
+Come on, be a sport! Send me a success report!
+(hey, that was even better than my original poem... this is getting bad!)
+If you don't e-mail me about your success/failure soon, I may be forced to
+start SINGING. And we don't want that, do we?
+(You know, it might be argued that I'm pushing this point a little too much.
+If you think so, why not flame me in a quick little e-mail? Please also
+include the type of card(s) you're using, software, size of network, and
+whether it's working or not.)
+My e-mail address is: apenwarr@worldvisions.ca
+These are the ARCnet drivers for Linux.
+This new release (2.91) has been put together by David Woodhouse
+<dwmw2@cam.ac.uk>, in an attempt to tidy up the driver after adding support
+for yet another chipset. Now the generic support has been separated from the
+individual chipset drivers, and the source files aren't quite so packed with
+#ifdefs! I've changed this file a bit, but kept it in the first person from
+Avery, because I didn't want to completely rewrite it.
+The previous release resulted from many months of on-and-off effort from me
+(Avery Pennarun), many bug reports/fixes and suggestions from others, and in
+particular a lot of input and coding from Tomasz Motylewski. Starting with
+ARCnet 2.10 ALPHA, Tomasz's all-new-and-improved RFC1051 support has been
+included and seems to be working fine!
+Where do I discuss these drivers?
+Tomasz has been so kind as to set up a new and improved mailing list.
+Subscribe by sending a message with the BODY "subscribe linux-arcnet YOUR
+REAL NAME" to listserv@tichy.ch.uj.edu.pl. Then, to submit messages to the
+list, mail to linux-arcnet@tichy.ch.uj.edu.pl.
+There are archives of the mailing list at:
+ http://tichy.ch.uj.edu.pl/lists/linux-arcnet
+The people on linux-net@vger.kernel.org have also been known to be very
+helpful, especially when we're talking about ALPHA Linux kernels that may or
+may not work right in the first place.
+Other Drivers and Info
+You can try my ARCNET page on the World Wide Web at:
+ http://www.worldvisions.ca/~apenwarr/arcnet/
+Also, SMC (one of the companies that makes ARCnet cards) has a WWW site you
+might be interested in, which includes several drivers for various cards
+including ARCnet. Try:
+ http://www.smc.com/
+Performance Technologies makes various network software that supports
+ http://www.perftech.com/ or ftp to ftp.perftech.com.
+Novell makes a networking stack for DOS which includes ARCnet drivers. Try
+FTPing to ftp.novell.com.
+You can get the Crynwr packet driver collection (including arcether.com, the
+one you'll want to use with ARCnet cards) from
+oak.oakland.edu:/simtel/msdos/pktdrvr. It won't work perfectly on a 386+
+without patches, though, and also doesn't like several cards. Fixed
+versions are available on my WWW page, or via e-mail if you don't have WWW
+Installing the Driver
+All you will need to do in order to install the driver is:
+ make config
+ (be sure to choose ARCnet in the network devices
+ and at least one chipset driver.)
+ make clean
+ make zImage
+If you obtained this ARCnet package as an upgrade to the ARCnet driver in
+your current kernel, you will need to first copy arcnet.c over the one in
+the linux/drivers/net directory.
+You will know the driver is installed properly if you get some ARCnet
+messages when you reboot into the new Linux kernel.
+There are four chipset options:
+ 1. Standard ARCnet COM90xx chipset.
+This is the normal ARCnet card, which you've probably got. This is the only
+chipset driver which will autoprobe if not told where the card is.
+It following options on the command line:
+ com90xx=[<io>[,<irq>[,<shmem>]]][,<name>] | <name>
+If you load the chipset support as a module, the options are:
+ io=<io> irq=<irq> shmem=<shmem> device=<name>
+To disable the autoprobe, just specify "com90xx=" on the kernel command line.
+To specify the name alone, but allow autoprobe, just put "com90xx=<name>"
+ 2. ARCnet COM20020 chipset.
+This is the new chipset from SMC with support for promiscuous mode (packet
+sniffing), extra diagnostic information, etc. Unfortunately, there is no
+sensible method of autoprobing for these cards. You must specify the I/O
+address on the kernel command line.
+The command line options are:
+ com20020=<io>[,<irq>[,<node_ID>[,backplane[,CKP[,timeout]]]]][,name]
+If you load the chipset support as a module, the options are:
+ io=<io> irq=<irq> node=<node_ID> backplane=<backplane> clock=<CKP>
+ timeout=<timeout> device=<name>
+The COM20020 chipset allows you to set the node ID in software, overriding the
+default which is still set in DIP switches on the card. If you don't have the
+COM20020 data sheets, and you don't know what the other three options refer
+to, then they won't interest you - forget them.
+ 3. ARCnet COM90xx chipset in IO-mapped mode.
+This will also work with the normal ARCnet cards, but doesn't use the shared
+memory. It performs less well than the above driver, but is provided in case
+you have a card which doesn't support shared memory, or (strangely) in case
+you have so many ARCnet cards in your machine that you run out of shmem slots.
+If you don't give the IO address on the kernel command line, then the driver
+will not find the card.
+The command line options are:
+ com90io=<io>[,<irq>][,<name>]
+If you load the chipset support as a module, the options are:
+ io=<io> irq=<irq> device=<name>
+ 4. ARCnet RIM I cards.
+These are COM90xx chips which are _completely_ memory mapped. The support for
+these is not tested. If you have one, please mail the author with a success
+report. All options must be specified, except the device name.
+Command line options:
+ arcrimi=<shmem>,<irq>,<node_ID>[,<name>]
+If you load the chipset support as a module, the options are:
+ shmem=<shmem> irq=<irq> node=<node_ID> device=<name>
+Loadable Module Support
+Configure and rebuild Linux. When asked, answer 'm' to "Generic ARCnet
+support" and to support for your ARCnet chipset if you want to use the
+loadable module. You can also say 'y' to "Generic ARCnet support" and 'm'
+to the chipset support if you wish.
+ make config
+ make clean
+ make zImage
+ make modules
+If you're using a loadable module, you need to use insmod to load it, and
+you can specify various characteristics of your card on the command
+line. (In recent versions of the driver, autoprobing is much more reliable
+and works as a module, so most of this is now unnecessary.)
+For example:
+ cd /usr/src/linux/modules
+ insmod arcnet.o
+ insmod com90xx.o
+ insmod com20020.o io=0x2e0 device=eth1
+Using the Driver
+If you build your kernel with ARCnet COM90xx support included, it should
+probe for your card automatically when you boot. If you use a different
+chipset driver complied into the kernel, you must give the necessary options
+on the kernel command line, as detailed above.
+Go read the NET-2-HOWTO and ETHERNET-HOWTO for Linux; they should be
+available where you picked up this driver. Think of your ARCnet as a
+souped-up (or down, as the case may be) Ethernet card.
+By the way, be sure to change all references from "eth0" to "arc0" in the
+HOWTOs. Remember that ARCnet isn't a "true" Ethernet, and the device name
+Multiple Cards in One Computer
+Linux has pretty good support for this now, but since I've been busy, the
+ARCnet driver has somewhat suffered in this respect. COM90xx support, if
+compiled into the kernel, will (try to) autodetect all the installed cards.
+If you have other cards, with support compiled into the kernel, then you can
+just repeat the options on the kernel command line, e.g.:
+LILO: linux com20020=0x2e0 com20020=0x380 com90io=0x260
+If you have the chipset support built as a loadable module, then you need to
+do something like this:
+ insmod -o arc0 com90xx
+ insmod -o arc1 com20020 io=0x2e0
+ insmod -o arc2 com90xx
+The ARCnet drivers will now sort out their names automatically.
+How do I get it to work with...?
+NFS: Should be fine linux->linux, just pretend you're using Ethernet cards.
+ oak.oakland.edu:/simtel/msdos/nfs has some nice DOS clients. There
+ is also a DOS-based NFS server called SOSS. It doesn't multitask
+ quite the way Linux does (actually, it doesn't multitask AT ALL) but
+ you never know what you might need.
+ With AmiTCP (and possibly others), you may need to set the following
+ options in your Amiga nfstab: MD 1024 MR 1024 MW 1024
+ (Thanks to Christian Gottschling <ferksy@indigo.tng.oche.de>
+ for this.)
+ Probably these refer to maximum NFS data/read/write block sizes. I
+ don't know why the defaults on the Amiga didn't work; write to me if
+ you know more.
+DOS: If you're using the freeware arcether.com, you might want to install
+ the driver patch from my web page. It helps with PC/TCP, and also
+ can get arcether to load if it timed out too quickly during
+ initialization. In fact, if you use it on a 386+ you REALLY need
+ the patch, really.
+Windows: See DOS :) Trumpet Winsock works fine with either the Novell or
+ Arcether client, assuming you remember to load winpkt of course.
+LAN Manager and Windows for Workgroups: These programs use protocols that
+ are incompatible with the Internet standard. They try to pretend
+ the cards are Ethernet, and confuse everyone else on the network.
+ However, v2.00 and higher of the Linux ARCnet driver supports this
+ protocol via the 'arc0e' device. See the section on "Multiprotocol
+ Support" for more information.
+ Using the freeware Samba server and clients for Linux, you can now
+ interface quite nicely with TCP/IP-based WfWg or Lan Manager
+ networks.
+Windows 95: Tools are included with Win95 that let you use either the LANMAN
+ style network drivers (NDIS) or Novell drivers (ODI) to handle your
+ ARCnet packets. If you use ODI, you'll need to use the 'arc0'
+ device with Linux. If you use NDIS, then try the 'arc0e' device.
+ See the "Multiprotocol Support" section below if you need arc0e,
+ you're completely insane, and/or you need to build some kind of
+ hybrid network that uses both encapsulation types.
+OS/2: I've been told it works under Warp Connect with an ARCnet driver from
+ SMC. You need to use the 'arc0e' interface for this. If you get
+ the SMC driver to work with the TCP/IP stuff included in the
+ "normal" Warp Bonus Pack, let me know.
+ ftp.microsoft.com also has a freeware "Lan Manager for OS/2" client
+ which should use the same protocol as WfWg does. I had no luck
+ installing it under Warp, however. Please mail me with any results.
+NetBSD/AmiTCP: These use an old version of the Internet standard ARCnet
+ protocol (RFC1051) which is compatible with the Linux driver v2.10
+ ALPHA and above using the arc0s device. (See "Multiprotocol ARCnet"
+ below.) ** Newer versions of NetBSD apparently support RFC1201.
+Using Multiprotocol ARCnet
+The ARCnet driver v2.10 ALPHA supports three protocols, each on its own
+"virtual network device":
+ arc0 - RFC1201 protocol, the official Internet standard which just
+ happens to be 100% compatible with Novell's TRXNET driver.
+ Version 1.00 of the ARCnet driver supported _only_ this
+ protocol. arc0 is the fastest of the three protocols (for
+ whatever reason), and allows larger packets to be used
+ because it supports RFC1201 "packet splitting" operations.
+ Unless you have a specific need to use a different protocol,
+ I strongly suggest that you stick with this one.
+ arc0e - "Ethernet-Encapsulation" which sends packets over ARCnet
+ that are actually a lot like Ethernet packets, including the
+ 6-byte hardware addresses. This protocol is compatible with
+ Microsoft's NDIS ARCnet driver, like the one in WfWg and
+ LANMAN. Because the MTU of 493 is actually smaller than the
+ one "required" by TCP/IP (576), there is a chance that some
+ network operations will not function properly. The Linux
+ TCP/IP layer can compensate in most cases, however, by
+ automatically fragmenting the TCP/IP packets to make them
+ fit. arc0e also works slightly more slowly than arc0, for
+ reasons yet to be determined. (Probably it's the smaller
+ MTU that does it.)
+ arc0s - The "[s]imple" RFC1051 protocol is the "previous" Internet
+ standard that is completely incompatible with the new
+ standard. Some software today, however, continues to
+ support the old standard (and only the old standard)
+ including NetBSD and AmiTCP. RFC1051 also does not support
+ RFC1201's packet splitting, and the MTU of 507 is still
+ smaller than the Internet "requirement," so it's quite
+ possible that you may run into problems. It's also slower
+ than RFC1201 by about 25%, for the same reason as arc0e.
+ The arc0s support was contributed by Tomasz Motylewski
+ and modified somewhat by me. Bugs are probably my fault.
+You can choose not to compile arc0e and arc0s into the driver if you want -
+this will save you a bit of memory and avoid confusion when eg. trying to
+use the "NFS-root" stuff in recent Linux kernels.
+The arc0e and arc0s devices are created automatically when you first
+ifconfig the arc0 device. To actually use them, though, you need to also
+ifconfig the other virtual devices you need. There are a number of ways you
+can set up your network then:
+1. Single Protocol.
+ This is the simplest way to configure your network: use just one of the
+ two available protocols. As mentioned above, it's a good idea to use
+ only arc0 unless you have a good reason (like some other software, ie.
+ WfWg, that only works with arc0e).
+ If you need only arc0, then the following commands should get you going:
+ ifconfig arc0 MY.IP.ADD.RESS
+ route add MY.IP.ADD.RESS arc0
+ route add -net SUB.NET.ADD.RESS arc0
+ [add other local routes here]
+ If you need arc0e (and only arc0e), it's a little different:
+ ifconfig arc0 MY.IP.ADD.RESS
+ ifconfig arc0e MY.IP.ADD.RESS
+ route add MY.IP.ADD.RESS arc0e
+ route add -net SUB.NET.ADD.RESS arc0e
+ arc0s works much the same way as arc0e.
+2. More than one protocol on the same wire.
+ Now things start getting confusing. To even try it, you may need to be
+ partly crazy. Here's what *I* did. :) Note that I don't include arc0s in
+ my home network; I don't have any NetBSD or AmiTCP computers, so I only
+ use arc0s during limited testing.
+ I have three computers on my home network; two Linux boxes (which prefer
+ RFC1201 protocol, for reasons listed above), and one XT that can't run
+ Linux but runs the free Microsoft LANMAN Client instead.
+ Worse, one of the Linux computers (freedom) also has a modem and acts as
+ a router to my Internet provider. The other Linux box (insight) also has
+ its own IP address and needs to use freedom as its default gateway. The
+ XT (patience), however, does not have its own Internet IP address and so
+ I assigned it one on a "private subnet" (as defined by RFC1597).
+ To start with, take a simple network with just insight and freedom.
+ Insight needs to:
+ - talk to freedom via RFC1201 (arc0) protocol, because I like it
+ more and it's faster.
+ - use freedom as its Internet gateway.
+ That's pretty easy to do. Set up insight like this:
+ ifconfig arc0 insight
+ route add insight arc0
+ route add freedom arc0 /* I would use the subnet here (like I said
+ to to in "single protocol" above),
+ but the rest of the subnet
+ unfortunately lies across the PPP
+ link on freedom, which confuses
+ things. */
+ route add default gw freedom
+ And freedom gets configured like so:
+ ifconfig arc0 freedom
+ route add freedom arc0
+ route add insight arc0
+ /* and default gateway is configured by pppd */
+ Great, now insight talks to freedom directly on arc0, and sends packets
+ to the Internet through freedom. If you didn't know how to do the above,
+ you should probably stop reading this section now because it only gets
+ worse.
+ Now, how do I add patience into the network? It will be using LANMAN
+ Client, which means I need the arc0e device. It needs to be able to talk
+ to both insight and freedom, and also use freedom as a gateway to the
+ Internet. (Recall that patience has a "private IP address" which won't
+ work on the Internet; that's okay, I configured Linux IP masquerading on
+ freedom for this subnet).
+ So patience (necessarily; I don't have another IP number from my
+ provider) has an IP address on a different subnet than freedom and
+ insight, but needs to use freedom as an Internet gateway. Worse, most
+ DOS networking programs, including LANMAN, have braindead networking
+ schemes that rely completely on the netmask and a 'default gateway' to
+ determine how to route packets. This means that to get to freedom or
+ insight, patience WILL send through its default gateway, regardless of
+ the fact that both freedom and insight (courtesy of the arc0e device)
+ could understand a direct transmission.
+ I compensate by giving freedom an extra IP address - aliased 'gatekeeper'
+ - that is on my private subnet, the same subnet that patience is on. I
+ then define gatekeeper to be the default gateway for patience.
+ To configure freedom (in addition to the commands above):
+ ifconfig arc0e gatekeeper
+ route add gatekeeper arc0e
+ route add patience arc0e
+ This way, freedom will send all packets for patience through arc0e,
+ giving its IP address as gatekeeper (on the private subnet). When it
+ talks to insight or the Internet, it will use its "freedom" Internet IP
+ address.
+ You will notice that we haven't configured the arc0e device on insight.
+ This would work, but is not really necessary, and would require me to
+ assign insight another special IP number from my private subnet. Since
+ both insight and patience are using freedom as their default gateway, the
+ two can already talk to each other.
+ It's quite fortunate that I set things up like this the first time (cough
+ cough) because it's really handy when I boot insight into DOS. There, it
+ runs the Novell ODI protocol stack, which only works with RFC1201 ARCnet.
+ In this mode it would be impossible for insight to communicate directly
+ with patience, since the Novell stack is incompatible with Microsoft's
+ Ethernet-Encap. Without changing any settings on freedom or patience, I
+ simply set freedom as the default gateway for insight (now in DOS,
+ remember) and all the forwarding happens "automagically" between the two
+ hosts that would normally not be able to communicate at all.
+ For those who like diagrams, I have created two "virtual subnets" on the
+ same physical ARCnet wire. You can picture it like this:
+ (registered Internet subnet) (RFC1597 private subnet)
+ (IP Masquerade)
+ /---------------\ * /---------------\
+ | | * | |
+ | +-Freedom-*-Gatekeeper-+ |
+ | | | * | |
+ \-------+-------/ | * \-------+-------/
+ | | |
+ Insight | Patience
+ (Internet)
+It works: what now?
+Send mail describing your setup, preferably including driver version, kernel
+version, ARCnet card model, CPU type, number of systems on your network, and
+list of software in use to me at the following address:
+ apenwarr@worldvisions.ca
+I do send (sometimes automated) replies to all messages I receive. My email
+can be weird (and also usually gets forwarded all over the place along the
+way to me), so if you don't get a reply within a reasonable time, please
+It doesn't work: what now?
+Do the same as above, but also include the output of the ifconfig and route
+commands, as well as any pertinent log entries (ie. anything that starts
+with "arcnet:" and has shown up since the last reboot) in your mail.
+If you want to try fixing it yourself (I strongly recommend that you mail me
+about the problem first, since it might already have been solved) you may
+want to try some of the debug levels available. For heavy testing on
+D_DURING or more, it would be a REALLY good idea to kill your klogd daemon
+first! D_DURING displays 4-5 lines for each packet sent or received. D_TX,
+D_RX, and D_SKB actually DISPLAY each packet as it is sent or received,
+which is obviously quite big.
+Starting with v2.40 ALPHA, the autoprobe routines have changed
+significantly. In particular, they won't tell you why the card was not
+found unless you turn on the D_INIT_REASONS debugging flag.
+Once the driver is running, you can run the arcdump shell script (available
+from me or in the full ARCnet package, if you have it) as root to list the
+contents of the arcnet buffers at any time. To make any sense at all out of
+this, you should grab the pertinent RFCs. (some are listed near the top of
+arcnet.c). arcdump assumes your card is at 0xD0000. If it isn't, edit the
+Buffers 0 and 1 are used for receiving, and Buffers 2 and 3 are for sending.
+Ping-pong buffers are implemented both ways.
+If your debug level includes D_DURING and you did NOT define SLOW_XMIT_COPY,
+the buffers are cleared to a constant value of 0x42 every time the card is
+reset (which should only happen when you do an ifconfig up, or when Linux
+decides that the driver is broken). During a transmit, unused parts of the
+buffer will be cleared to 0x42 as well. This is to make it easier to figure
+out which bytes are being used by a packet.
+You can change the debug level without recompiling the kernel by typing:
+ ifconfig arc0 down metric 1xxx
+ /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1
+where "xxx" is the debug level you want. For example, "metric 1015" would put
+you at debug level 15. Debug level 7 is currently the default.
+Note that the debug level is (starting with v1.90 ALPHA) a binary
+combination of different debug flags; so debug level 7 is really 1+2+4 or
+D_NORMAL+D_EXTRA+D_INIT. To include D_DURING, you would add 16 to this,
+resulting in debug level 23.
+If you don't understand that, you probably don't want to know anyway.
+E-mail me about your problem.
+I want to send money: what now?
+Go take a nap or something. You'll feel better in the morning.