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authorLinus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org>2005-04-16 15:20:36 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org>2005-04-16 15:20:36 -0700
commit1da177e4c3f41524e886b7f1b8a0c1fc7321cac2 (patch)
tree0bba044c4ce775e45a88a51686b5d9f90697ea9d /Documentation/driver-model/bus.txt
downloadlinux-stericsson-1da177e4c3f41524e886b7f1b8a0c1fc7321cac2.tar.gz
Linux-2.6.12-rc2v2.6.12-rc2
Initial git repository build. I'm not bothering with the full history, even though we have it. We can create a separate "historical" git archive of that later if we want to, and in the meantime it's about 3.2GB when imported into git - space that would just make the early git days unnecessarily complicated, when we don't have a lot of good infrastructure for it. Let it rip!
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+
+Bus Types
+
+Definition
+~~~~~~~~~~
+
+struct bus_type {
+ char * name;
+
+ struct subsystem subsys;
+ struct kset drivers;
+ struct kset devices;
+
+ struct bus_attribute * bus_attrs;
+ struct device_attribute * dev_attrs;
+ struct driver_attribute * drv_attrs;
+
+ int (*match)(struct device * dev, struct device_driver * drv);
+ int (*hotplug) (struct device *dev, char **envp,
+ int num_envp, char *buffer, int buffer_size);
+ int (*suspend)(struct device * dev, u32 state);
+ int (*resume)(struct device * dev);
+};
+
+int bus_register(struct bus_type * bus);
+
+
+Declaration
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Each bus type in the kernel (PCI, USB, etc) should declare one static
+object of this type. They must initialize the name field, and may
+optionally initialize the match callback.
+
+struct bus_type pci_bus_type = {
+ .name = "pci",
+ .match = pci_bus_match,
+};
+
+The structure should be exported to drivers in a header file:
+
+extern struct bus_type pci_bus_type;
+
+
+Registration
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+When a bus driver is initialized, it calls bus_register. This
+initializes the rest of the fields in the bus object and inserts it
+into a global list of bus types. Once the bus object is registered,
+the fields in it are usable by the bus driver.
+
+
+Callbacks
+~~~~~~~~~
+
+match(): Attaching Drivers to Devices
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The format of device ID structures and the semantics for comparing
+them are inherently bus-specific. Drivers typically declare an array
+of device IDs of devices they support that reside in a bus-specific
+driver structure.
+
+The purpose of the match callback is provide the bus an opportunity to
+determine if a particular driver supports a particular device by
+comparing the device IDs the driver supports with the device ID of a
+particular device, without sacrificing bus-specific functionality or
+type-safety.
+
+When a driver is registered with the bus, the bus's list of devices is
+iterated over, and the match callback is called for each device that
+does not have a driver associated with it.
+
+
+
+Device and Driver Lists
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The lists of devices and drivers are intended to replace the local
+lists that many buses keep. They are lists of struct devices and
+struct device_drivers, respectively. Bus drivers are free to use the
+lists as they please, but conversion to the bus-specific type may be
+necessary.
+
+The LDM core provides helper functions for iterating over each list.
+
+int bus_for_each_dev(struct bus_type * bus, struct device * start, void * data,
+ int (*fn)(struct device *, void *));
+
+int bus_for_each_drv(struct bus_type * bus, struct device_driver * start,
+ void * data, int (*fn)(struct device_driver *, void *));
+
+These helpers iterate over the respective list, and call the callback
+for each device or driver in the list. All list accesses are
+synchronized by taking the bus's lock (read currently). The reference
+count on each object in the list is incremented before the callback is
+called; it is decremented after the next object has been obtained. The
+lock is not held when calling the callback.
+
+
+sysfs
+~~~~~~~~
+There is a top-level directory named 'bus'.
+
+Each bus gets a directory in the bus directory, along with two default
+directories:
+
+ /sys/bus/pci/
+ |-- devices
+ `-- drivers
+
+Drivers registered with the bus get a directory in the bus's drivers
+directory:
+
+ /sys/bus/pci/
+ |-- devices
+ `-- drivers
+ |-- Intel ICH
+ |-- Intel ICH Joystick
+ |-- agpgart
+ `-- e100
+
+Each device that is discovered on a bus of that type gets a symlink in
+the bus's devices directory to the device's directory in the physical
+hierarchy:
+
+ /sys/bus/pci/
+ |-- devices
+ | |-- 00:00.0 -> ../../../root/pci0/00:00.0
+ | |-- 00:01.0 -> ../../../root/pci0/00:01.0
+ | `-- 00:02.0 -> ../../../root/pci0/00:02.0
+ `-- drivers
+
+
+Exporting Attributes
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+struct bus_attribute {
+ struct attribute attr;
+ ssize_t (*show)(struct bus_type *, char * buf);
+ ssize_t (*store)(struct bus_type *, const char * buf, size_t count);
+};
+
+Bus drivers can export attributes using the BUS_ATTR macro that works
+similarly to the DEVICE_ATTR macro for devices. For example, a definition
+like this:
+
+static BUS_ATTR(debug,0644,show_debug,store_debug);
+
+is equivalent to declaring:
+
+static bus_attribute bus_attr_debug;
+
+This can then be used to add and remove the attribute from the bus's
+sysfs directory using:
+
+int bus_create_file(struct bus_type *, struct bus_attribute *);
+void bus_remove_file(struct bus_type *, struct bus_attribute *);
+
+