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authorAnanth N Mavinakayanahalli <ananth@in.ibm.com>2008-03-04 14:28:38 -0800
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@woody.linux-foundation.org>2008-03-04 16:35:11 -0800
commit804defea1c020d5c52985685e56986f1a399acde (patch)
treedd91b81d272522ec8e5e482408734dd290fed152 /samples/kprobes
parent9edddaa200df18e08fe0cf21036e8ae467b1363c (diff)
downloadlinux-stericsson-804defea1c020d5c52985685e56986f1a399acde.tar.gz
Kprobes: move kprobe examples to samples/
Move kprobes examples from Documentation/kprobes.txt to under samples/. Patch originally by Randy Dunlap. o Updated the patch to apply on 2.6.25-rc3 o Modified examples code to build on multiple architectures. Currently, the kprobe and jprobe examples code works for x86 and powerpc o Cleaned up unneeded #includes o Cleaned up Kconfig per Sam Ravnborg's suggestions to fix build break on archs that don't have kretprobes o Implemented suggestions by Mathieu Desnoyers on CONFIG_KRETPROBES o Included Andrew Morton's cleanup based on x86-git o Modified kretprobe_example to act as a arch-agnostic module to determine routine execution times: Use 'modprobe kretprobe_example func=<func_name>' to determine execution time of func_name in nanoseconds. Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <randy.dunlap@oracle.com> Signed-off-by: Ananth N Mavinakayanahalli <ananth@in.ibm.com> Acked-by: Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'samples/kprobes')
-rw-r--r--samples/kprobes/Makefile5
-rw-r--r--samples/kprobes/jprobe_example.c68
-rw-r--r--samples/kprobes/kprobe_example.c91
-rw-r--r--samples/kprobes/kretprobe_example.c106
4 files changed, 270 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/samples/kprobes/Makefile b/samples/kprobes/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..68739bc4fc6a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/samples/kprobes/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
+# builds the kprobes example kernel modules;
+# then to use one (as root): insmod <module_name.ko>
+
+obj-$(CONFIG_SAMPLE_KPROBES) += kprobe_example.o jprobe_example.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_SAMPLE_KRETPROBES) += kretprobe_example.o
diff --git a/samples/kprobes/jprobe_example.c b/samples/kprobes/jprobe_example.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..b7541355b92b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/samples/kprobes/jprobe_example.c
@@ -0,0 +1,68 @@
+/*
+ * Here's a sample kernel module showing the use of jprobes to dump
+ * the arguments of do_fork().
+ *
+ * For more information on theory of operation of jprobes, see
+ * Documentation/kprobes.txt
+ *
+ * Build and insert the kernel module as done in the kprobe example.
+ * You will see the trace data in /var/log/messages and on the
+ * console whenever do_fork() is invoked to create a new process.
+ * (Some messages may be suppressed if syslogd is configured to
+ * eliminate duplicate messages.)
+ */
+
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/kprobes.h>
+
+/*
+ * Jumper probe for do_fork.
+ * Mirror principle enables access to arguments of the probed routine
+ * from the probe handler.
+ */
+
+/* Proxy routine having the same arguments as actual do_fork() routine */
+static long jdo_fork(unsigned long clone_flags, unsigned long stack_start,
+ struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned long stack_size,
+ int __user *parent_tidptr, int __user *child_tidptr)
+{
+ printk(KERN_INFO "jprobe: clone_flags = 0x%lx, stack_size = 0x%lx,"
+ " regs = 0x%p\n",
+ clone_flags, stack_size, regs);
+
+ /* Always end with a call to jprobe_return(). */
+ jprobe_return();
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static struct jprobe my_jprobe = {
+ .entry = jdo_fork,
+ .kp = {
+ .symbol_name = "do_fork",
+ },
+};
+
+static int __init jprobe_init(void)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ ret = register_jprobe(&my_jprobe);
+ if (ret < 0) {
+ printk(KERN_INFO "register_jprobe failed, returned %d\n", ret);
+ return -1;
+ }
+ printk(KERN_INFO "Planted jprobe at %p, handler addr %p\n",
+ my_jprobe.kp.addr, my_jprobe.entry);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void __exit jprobe_exit(void)
+{
+ unregister_jprobe(&my_jprobe);
+ printk(KERN_INFO "jprobe at %p unregistered\n", my_jprobe.kp.addr);
+}
+
+module_init(jprobe_init)
+module_exit(jprobe_exit)
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
diff --git a/samples/kprobes/kprobe_example.c b/samples/kprobes/kprobe_example.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a681998a871c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/samples/kprobes/kprobe_example.c
@@ -0,0 +1,91 @@
+/*
+ * NOTE: This example is works on x86 and powerpc.
+ * Here's a sample kernel module showing the use of kprobes to dump a
+ * stack trace and selected registers when do_fork() is called.
+ *
+ * For more information on theory of operation of kprobes, see
+ * Documentation/kprobes.txt
+ *
+ * You will see the trace data in /var/log/messages and on the console
+ * whenever do_fork() is invoked to create a new process.
+ */
+
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/kprobes.h>
+
+/* For each probe you need to allocate a kprobe structure */
+static struct kprobe kp = {
+ .symbol_name = "do_fork",
+};
+
+/* kprobe pre_handler: called just before the probed instruction is executed */
+static int handler_pre(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_X86
+ printk(KERN_INFO "pre_handler: p->addr = 0x%p, ip = %lx,"
+ " flags = 0x%lx\n",
+ p->addr, regs->ip, regs->flags);
+#endif
+#ifdef CONFIG_PPC
+ printk(KERN_INFO "pre_handler: p->addr = 0x%p, nip = 0x%lx,"
+ " msr = 0x%lx\n",
+ p->addr, regs->nip, regs->msr);
+#endif
+
+ /* A dump_stack() here will give a stack backtrace */
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/* kprobe post_handler: called after the probed instruction is executed */
+static void handler_post(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs,
+ unsigned long flags)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_X86
+ printk(KERN_INFO "post_handler: p->addr = 0x%p, flags = 0x%lx\n",
+ p->addr, regs->flags);
+#endif
+#ifdef CONFIG_PPC
+ printk(KERN_INFO "post_handler: p->addr = 0x%p, msr = 0x%lx\n",
+ p->addr, regs->msr);
+#endif
+}
+
+/*
+ * fault_handler: this is called if an exception is generated for any
+ * instruction within the pre- or post-handler, or when Kprobes
+ * single-steps the probed instruction.
+ */
+static int handler_fault(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs, int trapnr)
+{
+ printk(KERN_INFO "fault_handler: p->addr = 0x%p, trap #%dn",
+ p->addr, trapnr);
+ /* Return 0 because we don't handle the fault. */
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int __init kprobe_init(void)
+{
+ int ret;
+ kp.pre_handler = handler_pre;
+ kp.post_handler = handler_post;
+ kp.fault_handler = handler_fault;
+
+ ret = register_kprobe(&kp);
+ if (ret < 0) {
+ printk(KERN_INFO "register_kprobe failed, returned %d\n", ret);
+ return ret;
+ }
+ printk(KERN_INFO "Planted kprobe at %p\n", kp.addr);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void __exit kprobe_exit(void)
+{
+ unregister_kprobe(&kp);
+ printk(KERN_INFO "kprobe at %p unregistered\n", kp.addr);
+}
+
+module_init(kprobe_init)
+module_exit(kprobe_exit)
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
diff --git a/samples/kprobes/kretprobe_example.c b/samples/kprobes/kretprobe_example.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..4e764b317d61
--- /dev/null
+++ b/samples/kprobes/kretprobe_example.c
@@ -0,0 +1,106 @@
+/*
+ * kretprobe_example.c
+ *
+ * Here's a sample kernel module showing the use of return probes to
+ * report the return value and total time taken for probed function
+ * to run.
+ *
+ * usage: insmod kretprobe_example.ko func=<func_name>
+ *
+ * If no func_name is specified, do_fork is instrumented
+ *
+ * For more information on theory of operation of kretprobes, see
+ * Documentation/kprobes.txt
+ *
+ * Build and insert the kernel module as done in the kprobe example.
+ * You will see the trace data in /var/log/messages and on the console
+ * whenever the probed function returns. (Some messages may be suppressed
+ * if syslogd is configured to eliminate duplicate messages.)
+ */
+
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/kprobes.h>
+#include <linux/ktime.h>
+#include <linux/limits.h>
+
+static char func_name[NAME_MAX] = "do_fork";
+module_param_string(func, func_name, NAME_MAX, S_IRUGO);
+MODULE_PARM_DESC(func, "Function to kretprobe; this module will report the"
+ " function's execution time");
+
+/* per-instance private data */
+struct my_data {
+ ktime_t entry_stamp;
+};
+
+/* Here we use the entry_hanlder to timestamp function entry */
+static int entry_handler(struct kretprobe_instance *ri, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ struct my_data *data;
+
+ if (!current->mm)
+ return 1; /* Skip kernel threads */
+
+ data = (struct my_data *)ri->data;
+ data->entry_stamp = ktime_get();
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return-probe handler: Log the return value and duration. Duration may turn
+ * out to be zero consistently, depending upon the granularity of time
+ * accounting on the platform.
+ */
+static int ret_handler(struct kretprobe_instance *ri, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ int retval = regs_return_value(regs);
+ struct my_data *data = (struct my_data *)ri->data;
+ s64 delta;
+ ktime_t now;
+
+ now = ktime_get();
+ delta = ktime_to_ns(ktime_sub(now, data->entry_stamp));
+ printk(KERN_INFO "%s returned %d and took %lld ns to execute\n",
+ func_name, retval, (long long)delta);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static struct kretprobe my_kretprobe = {
+ .handler = ret_handler,
+ .entry_handler = entry_handler,
+ .data_size = sizeof(struct my_data),
+ /* Probe up to 20 instances concurrently. */
+ .maxactive = 20,
+};
+
+static int __init kretprobe_init(void)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ my_kretprobe.kp.symbol_name = func_name;
+ ret = register_kretprobe(&my_kretprobe);
+ if (ret < 0) {
+ printk(KERN_INFO "register_kretprobe failed, returned %d\n",
+ ret);
+ return -1;
+ }
+ printk(KERN_INFO "Planted return probe at %s: %p\n",
+ my_kretprobe.kp.symbol_name, my_kretprobe.kp.addr);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void __exit kretprobe_exit(void)
+{
+ unregister_kretprobe(&my_kretprobe);
+ printk(KERN_INFO "kretprobe at %p unregistered\n",
+ my_kretprobe.kp.addr);
+
+ /* nmissed > 0 suggests that maxactive was set too low. */
+ printk(KERN_INFO "Missed probing %d instances of %s\n",
+ my_kretprobe.nmissed, my_kretprobe.kp.symbol_name);
+}
+
+module_init(kretprobe_init)
+module_exit(kretprobe_exit)
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");