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2010-10-26writeback: report dirty thresholds in /proc/vmstatMichael Rubin
The kernel already exposes the user desired thresholds in /proc/sys/vm with dirty_background_ratio and background_ratio. But the kernel may alter the number requested without giving the user any indication that is the case. Knowing the actual ratios the kernel is honoring can help app developers understand how their buffered IO will be sent to the disk. $ grep threshold /proc/vmstat nr_dirty_threshold 409111 nr_dirty_background_threshold 818223 Signed-off-by: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-26writeback: add nr_dirtied and nr_written to /proc/vmstatMichael Rubin
To help developers and applications gain visibility into writeback behaviour adding two entries to vm_stat_items and /proc/vmstat. This will allow us to track the "written" and "dirtied" counts. # grep nr_dirtied /proc/vmstat nr_dirtied 3747 # grep nr_written /proc/vmstat nr_written 3618 Signed-off-by: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Reviewed-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-09-09mm: page allocator: calculate a better estimate of NR_FREE_PAGES when memory ↵Christoph Lameter
is low and kswapd is awake Ordinarily watermark checks are based on the vmstat NR_FREE_PAGES as it is cheaper than scanning a number of lists. To avoid synchronization overhead, counter deltas are maintained on a per-cpu basis and drained both periodically and when the delta is above a threshold. On large CPU systems, the difference between the estimated and real value of NR_FREE_PAGES can be very high. If NR_FREE_PAGES is much higher than number of real free page in buddy, the VM can allocate pages below min watermark, at worst reducing the real number of pages to zero. Even if the OOM killer kills some victim for freeing memory, it may not free memory if the exit path requires a new page resulting in livelock. This patch introduces a zone_page_state_snapshot() function (courtesy of Christoph) that takes a slightly more accurate view of an arbitrary vmstat counter. It is used to read NR_FREE_PAGES while kswapd is awake to avoid the watermark being accidentally broken. The estimate is not perfect and may result in cache line bounces but is expected to be lighter than the IPI calls necessary to continually drain the per-cpu counters while kswapd is awake. Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-09-09vmstat: update zone stat threshold when onlining a cpuKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki
refresh_zone_stat_thresholds() calculates parameter based on the number of online cpus. It's called at cpu offlining but needs to be called at onlining, too. Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-09vmscan: kill prev_priority completelyKOSAKI Motohiro
Since 2.6.28 zone->prev_priority is unused. Then it can be removed safely. It reduce stack usage slightly. Now I have to say that I'm sorry. 2 years ago, I thought prev_priority can be integrate again, it's useful. but four (or more) times trying haven't got good performance number. Thus I give up such approach. The rest of this changelog is notes on prev_priority and why it existed in the first place and why it might be not necessary any more. This information is based heavily on discussions between Andrew Morton, Rik van Riel and Kosaki Motohiro who is heavily quotes from. Historically prev_priority was important because it determined when the VM would start unmapping PTE pages. i.e. there are no balances of note within the VM, Anon vs File and Mapped vs Unmapped. Without prev_priority, there is a potential risk of unnecessarily increasing minor faults as a large amount of read activity of use-once pages could push mapped pages to the end of the LRU and get unmapped. There is no proof this is still a problem but currently it is not considered to be. Active files are not deactivated if the active file list is smaller than the inactive list reducing the liklihood that file-mapped pages are being pushed off the LRU and referenced executable pages are kept on the active list to avoid them getting pushed out by read activity. Even if it is a problem, prev_priority prev_priority wouldn't works nowadays. First of all, current vmscan still a lot of UP centric code. it expose some weakness on some dozens CPUs machine. I think we need more and more improvement. The problem is, current vmscan mix up per-system-pressure, per-zone-pressure and per-task-pressure a bit. example, prev_priority try to boost priority to other concurrent priority. but if the another task have mempolicy restriction, it is unnecessary, but also makes wrong big latency and exceeding reclaim. per-task based priority + prev_priority adjustment make the emulation of per-system pressure. but it have two issue 1) too rough and brutal emulation 2) we need per-zone pressure, not per-system. Another example, currently DEF_PRIORITY is 12. it mean the lru rotate about 2 cycle (1/4096 + 1/2048 + 1/1024 + .. + 1) before invoking OOM-Killer. but if 10,0000 thrreads enter DEF_PRIORITY reclaim at the same time, the system have higher memory pressure than priority==0 (1/4096*10,000 > 2). prev_priority can't solve such multithreads workload issue. In other word, prev_priority concept assume the sysmtem don't have lots threads." Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-09mm: use for_each_online_cpu() in vmstatMinchan Kim
The sum_vm_events passes cpumask for for_each_cpu(). But it's useless since we have for_each_online_cpu. Althougth it's tirival overhead, it's not good about coding consistency. Let's use for_each_online_cpu instead of for_each_cpu with cpumask argument. Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-05-25mm: compaction: direct compact when a high-order allocation failsMel Gorman
Ordinarily when a high-order allocation fails, direct reclaim is entered to free pages to satisfy the allocation. With this patch, it is determined if an allocation failed due to external fragmentation instead of low memory and if so, the calling process will compact until a suitable page is freed. Compaction by moving pages in memory is considerably cheaper than paging out to disk and works where there are locked pages or no swap. If compaction fails to free a page of a suitable size, then reclaim will still occur. Direct compaction returns as soon as possible. As each block is compacted, it is checked if a suitable page has been freed and if so, it returns. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: Fix build errors] [aarcange@redhat.com: fix count_vm_event preempt in memory compaction direct reclaim] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-05-25mm: compaction: memory compaction coreMel Gorman
This patch is the core of a mechanism which compacts memory in a zone by relocating movable pages towards the end of the zone. A single compaction run involves a migration scanner and a free scanner. Both scanners operate on pageblock-sized areas in the zone. The migration scanner starts at the bottom of the zone and searches for all movable pages within each area, isolating them onto a private list called migratelist. The free scanner starts at the top of the zone and searches for suitable areas and consumes the free pages within making them available for the migration scanner. The pages isolated for migration are then migrated to the newly isolated free pages. [aarcange@redhat.com: Fix unsafe optimisation] [mel@csn.ul.ie: do not schedule work on other CPUs for compaction] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-05-25mm: export fragmentation index via debugfsMel Gorman
The fragmentation fragmentation index, is only meaningful if an allocation would fail and indicates what the failure is due to. A value of -1 such as in many of the examples above states that the allocation would succeed. If it would fail, the value is between 0 and 1. A value tending towards 0 implies the allocation failed due to a lack of memory. A value tending towards 1 implies it failed due to external fragmentation. For the most part, the huge page size will be the size of interest but not necessarily so it is exported on a per-order and per-zo basis via /sys/kernel/debug/extfrag/extfrag_index > cat /sys/kernel/debug/extfrag/extfrag_index Node 0, zone DMA -1.000 -1.000 -1.000 -1.000 -1.000 -1.000 -1.000 -1.00 Node 0, zone Normal -1.000 -1.000 -1.000 -1.000 -1.000 -1.000 -1.000 0.954 Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-05-25mm: export unusable free space index via debugfsMel Gorman
The unusable free space index measures how much of the available free memory cannot be used to satisfy an allocation of a given size and is a value between 0 and 1. The higher the value, the more of free memory is unusable and by implication, the worse the external fragmentation is. For the most part, the huge page size will be the size of interest but not necessarily so it is exported on a per-order and per-zone basis via /sys/kernel/debug/extfrag/unusable_index. > cat /sys/kernel/debug/extfrag/unusable_index Node 0, zone DMA 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.005 0.013 0.021 0.037 0.037 0.101 0.230 Node 0, zone Normal 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.005 0.015 0.028 0.028 0.054 [akpm@linux-foundation.org: Fix allnoconfig] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-03-30include cleanup: Update gfp.h and slab.h includes to prepare for breaking ↵Tejun Heo
implicit slab.h inclusion from percpu.h percpu.h is included by sched.h and module.h and thus ends up being included when building most .c files. percpu.h includes slab.h which in turn includes gfp.h making everything defined by the two files universally available and complicating inclusion dependencies. percpu.h -> slab.h dependency is about to be removed. Prepare for this change by updating users of gfp and slab facilities include those headers directly instead of assuming availability. As this conversion needs to touch large number of source files, the following script is used as the basis of conversion. http://userweb.kernel.org/~tj/misc/slabh-sweep.py The script does the followings. * Scan files for gfp and slab usages and update includes such that only the necessary includes are there. ie. if only gfp is used, gfp.h, if slab is used, slab.h. * When the script inserts a new include, it looks at the include blocks and try to put the new include such that its order conforms to its surrounding. It's put in the include block which contains core kernel includes, in the same order that the rest are ordered - alphabetical, Christmas tree, rev-Xmas-tree or at the end if there doesn't seem to be any matching order. * If the script can't find a place to put a new include (mostly because the file doesn't have fitting include block), it prints out an error message indicating which .h file needs to be added to the file. The conversion was done in the following steps. 1. The initial automatic conversion of all .c files updated slightly over 4000 files, deleting around 700 includes and adding ~480 gfp.h and ~3000 slab.h inclusions. The script emitted errors for ~400 files. 2. Each error was manually checked. Some didn't need the inclusion, some needed manual addition while adding it to implementation .h or embedding .c file was more appropriate for others. This step added inclusions to around 150 files. 3. The script was run again and the output was compared to the edits from #2 to make sure no file was left behind. 4. Several build tests were done and a couple of problems were fixed. e.g. lib/decompress_*.c used malloc/free() wrappers around slab APIs requiring slab.h to be added manually. 5. The script was run on all .h files but without automatically editing them as sprinkling gfp.h and slab.h inclusions around .h files could easily lead to inclusion dependency hell. Most gfp.h inclusion directives were ignored as stuff from gfp.h was usually wildly available and often used in preprocessor macros. Each slab.h inclusion directive was examined and added manually as necessary. 6. percpu.h was updated not to include slab.h. 7. Build test were done on the following configurations and failures were fixed. CONFIG_GCOV_KERNEL was turned off for all tests (as my distributed build env didn't work with gcov compiles) and a few more options had to be turned off depending on archs to make things build (like ipr on powerpc/64 which failed due to missing writeq). * x86 and x86_64 UP and SMP allmodconfig and a custom test config. * powerpc and powerpc64 SMP allmodconfig * sparc and sparc64 SMP allmodconfig * ia64 SMP allmodconfig * s390 SMP allmodconfig * alpha SMP allmodconfig * um on x86_64 SMP allmodconfig 8. percpu.h modifications were reverted so that it could be applied as a separate patch and serve as bisection point. Given the fact that I had only a couple of failures from tests on step 6, I'm fairly confident about the coverage of this conversion patch. If there is a breakage, it's likely to be something in one of the arch headers which should be easily discoverable easily on most builds of the specific arch. Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Guess-its-ok-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com>
2010-03-06mm: restore zone->all_unreclaimable to independence wordKOSAKI Motohiro
commit e815af95 ("change all_unreclaimable zone member to flags") changed all_unreclaimable member to bit flag. But it had an undesireble side effect. free_one_page() is one of most hot path in linux kernel and increasing atomic ops in it can reduce kernel performance a bit. Thus, this patch revert such commit partially. at least all_unreclaimable shouldn't share memory word with other zone flags. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix patch interaction] Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Huang Shijie <shijie8@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-01-05this_cpu: Remove pageset_notifierChristoph Lameter
Remove the pageset notifier since it only marks that a processor exists on a specific node. Move that code into the vmstat notifier. Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
2010-01-05this_cpu: Page allocator conversionChristoph Lameter
Use the per cpu allocator functionality to avoid per cpu arrays in struct zone. This drastically reduces the size of struct zone for systems with large amounts of processors and allows placement of critical variables of struct zone in one cacheline even on very large systems. Another effect is that the pagesets of one processor are placed near one another. If multiple pagesets from different zones fit into one cacheline then additional cacheline fetches can be avoided on the hot paths when allocating memory from multiple zones. Bootstrap becomes simpler if we use the same scheme for UP, SMP, NUMA. #ifdefs are reduced and we can drop the zone_pcp macro. Hotplug handling is also simplified since cpu alloc can bring up and shut down cpu areas for a specific cpu as a whole. So there is no need to allocate or free individual pagesets. V7-V8: - Explain chicken egg dilemmna with percpu allocator. V4-V5: - Fix up cases where per_cpu_ptr is called before irq disable - Integrate the bootstrap logic that was separate before. tj: Build failure in pageset_cpuup_callback() due to missing ret variable fixed. Reviewed-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
2009-12-15vmscan: stop kswapd waiting on congestion when the min watermark is not ↵KOSAKI Motohiro
being met If reclaim fails to make sufficient progress, the priority is raised. Once the priority is higher, kswapd starts waiting on congestion. However, if the zone is below the min watermark then kswapd needs to continue working without delay as there is a danger of an increased rate of GFP_ATOMIC allocation failure. This patch changes the conditions under which kswapd waits on congestion by only going to sleep if the min watermarks are being met. [mel@csn.ul.ie: add stats to track how relevant the logic is] [mel@csn.ul.ie: make kswapd only check its own zones and rename the relevant counters] Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-12-15vmscan: have kswapd sleep for a short interval and double check it should be ↵Mel Gorman
asleep After kswapd balances all zones in a pgdat, it goes to sleep. In the event of no IO congestion, kswapd can go to sleep very shortly after the high watermark was reached. If there are a constant stream of allocations from parallel processes, it can mean that kswapd went to sleep too quickly and the high watermark is not being maintained for sufficient length time. This patch makes kswapd go to sleep as a two-stage process. It first tries to sleep for HZ/10. If it is woken up by another process or the high watermark is no longer met, it's considered a premature sleep and kswapd continues work. Otherwise it goes fully to sleep. This adds more counters to distinguish between fast and slow breaches of watermarks. A "fast" premature sleep is one where the low watermark was hit in a very short time after kswapd going to sleep. A "slow" premature sleep indicates that the high watermark was breached after a very short interval. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Frans Pop <elendil@planet.nl> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-10-29percpu: make percpu symbols under kernel/ and mm/ uniqueTejun Heo
This patch updates percpu related symbols under kernel/ and mm/ such that percpu symbols are unique and don't clash with local symbols. This serves two purposes of decreasing the possibility of global percpu symbol collision and allowing dropping per_cpu__ prefix from percpu symbols. * kernel/lockdep.c: s/lock_stats/cpu_lock_stats/ * kernel/sched.c: s/init_rq_rt/init_rt_rq_var/ (any better idea?) s/sched_group_cpus/sched_groups/ * kernel/softirq.c: s/ksoftirqd/run_ksoftirqd/a * kernel/softlockup.c: s/(*)_timestamp/softlockup_\1_ts/ s/watchdog_task/softlockup_watchdog/ s/timestamp/ts/ for local variables * kernel/time/timer_stats: s/lookup_lock/tstats_lookup_lock/ * mm/slab.c: s/reap_work/slab_reap_work/ s/reap_node/slab_reap_node/ * mm/vmstat.c: local variable changed to avoid collision with vmstat_work Partly based on Rusty Russell's "alloc_percpu: rename percpu vars which cause name clashes" patch. Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Acked-by: (slab/vmstat) Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de>
2009-09-22mm: vmstat: add isolate pagesKOSAKI Motohiro
If the system is running a heavy load of processes then concurrent reclaim can isolate a large number of pages from the LRU. /proc/vmstat and the output generated for an OOM do not show how many pages were isolated. This has been observed during process fork bomb testing (mstctl11 in LTP). This patch shows the information about isolated pages. Reproduced via: ----------------------- % ./hackbench 140 process 1000 => OOM occur active_anon:146 inactive_anon:0 isolated_anon:49245 active_file:79 inactive_file:18 isolated_file:113 unevictable:0 dirty:0 writeback:0 unstable:0 buffer:39 free:370 slab_reclaimable:309 slab_unreclaimable:5492 mapped:53 shmem:15 pagetables:28140 bounce:0 Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-09-22mm: oom analysis: add shmem vmstatKOSAKI Motohiro
Recently we encountered OOM problems due to memory use of the GEM cache. Generally a large amuont of Shmem/Tmpfs pages tend to create a memory shortage problem. We often use the following calculation to determine the amount of shmem pages: shmem = NR_ACTIVE_ANON + NR_INACTIVE_ANON - NR_ANON_PAGES however the expression does not consider isolated and mlocked pages. This patch adds explicit accounting for pages used by shmem and tmpfs. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Acked-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-09-22mm: oom analysis: Show kernel stack usage in /proc/meminfo and OOM log outputKOSAKI Motohiro
The amount of memory allocated to kernel stacks can become significant and cause OOM conditions. However, we do not display the amount of memory consumed by stacks. Add code to display the amount of memory used for stacks in /proc/meminfo. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16vmscan: count the number of times zone_reclaim() scans and failsMel Gorman
On NUMA machines, the administrator can configure zone_reclaim_mode that is a more targetted form of direct reclaim. On machines with large NUMA distances for example, a zone_reclaim_mode defaults to 1 meaning that clean unmapped pages will be reclaimed if the zone watermarks are not being met. There is a heuristic that determines if the scan is worthwhile but it is possible that the heuristic will fail and the CPU gets tied up scanning uselessly. Detecting the situation requires some guesswork and experimentation so this patch adds a counter "zreclaim_failed" to /proc/vmstat. If during high CPU utilisation this counter is increasing rapidly, then the resolution to the problem may be to set /proc/sys/vm/zone_reclaim_mode to 0. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: name things consistently] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: <stable@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16mm: remove CONFIG_UNEVICTABLE_LRU config optionKOSAKI Motohiro
Currently, nobody wants to turn UNEVICTABLE_LRU off. Thus this configurability is unnecessary. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Acked-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: David Woodhouse <dwmw2@infradead.org> Cc: Matt Mackall <mpm@selenic.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16vmscan: don't export nr_saved_scan in /proc/zoneinfoWu Fengguang
The lru->nr_saved_scan's are not meaningful counters for even kernel developers. They typically are smaller than 32 and are always 0 for large lists. So remove them from /proc/zoneinfo. Hopefully this interface change won't break too many scripts. /proc/zoneinfo is too unstructured to be script friendly, and I wonder the affected scripts - if there are any - are still bleeding since the not long ago commit "vmscan: split LRU lists into anon & file sets", which also touched the "scanned" line :) If we are to re-export accumulated vmscan counts in the future, they can go to new lines in /proc/zoneinfo instead of the current form, or to /sys/devices/system/node/node0/meminfo? Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16vmscan: cleanup the scan batching codeWu Fengguang
The vmscan batching logic is twisting. Move it into a standalone function nr_scan_try_batch() and document it. No behavior change. Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Acked-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16page allocator: use allocation flags as an index to the zone watermarkMel Gorman
ALLOC_WMARK_MIN, ALLOC_WMARK_LOW and ALLOC_WMARK_HIGH determin whether pages_min, pages_low or pages_high is used as the zone watermark when allocating the pages. Two branches in the allocator hotpath determine which watermark to use. This patch uses the flags as an array index into a watermark array that is indexed with WMARK_* defines accessed via helpers. All call sites that use zone->pages_* are updated to use the helpers for accessing the values and the array offsets for setting. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@cs.helsinki.fi> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-05-18[ARM] Double check memmap is actually valid with a memmap has unexpected ↵Mel Gorman
holes V2 pfn_valid() is meant to be able to tell if a given PFN has valid memmap associated with it or not. In FLATMEM, it is expected that holes always have valid memmap as long as there is valid PFNs either side of the hole. In SPARSEMEM, it is assumed that a valid section has a memmap for the entire section. However, ARM and maybe other embedded architectures in the future free memmap backing holes to save memory on the assumption the memmap is never used. The page_zone linkages are then broken even though pfn_valid() returns true. A walker of the full memmap must then do this additional check to ensure the memmap they are looking at is sane by making sure the zone and PFN linkages are still valid. This is expensive, but walkers of the full memmap are extremely rare. This was caught before for FLATMEM and hacked around but it hits again for SPARSEMEM because the page_zone linkages can look ok where the PFN linkages are totally screwed. This looks like a hatchet job but the reality is that any clean solution would end up consumning all the memory saved by punching these unexpected holes in the memmap. For example, we tried marking the memmap within the section invalid but the section size exceeds the size of the hole in most cases so pfn_valid() starts returning false where valid memmap exists. Shrinking the size of the section would increase memory consumption offsetting the gains. This patch identifies when an architecture is punching unexpected holes in the memmap that the memory model cannot automatically detect and sets ARCH_HAS_HOLES_MEMORYMODEL. At the moment, this is restricted to EP93xx which is the model sub-architecture this has been reported on but may expand later. When set, walkers of the full memmap must call memmap_valid_within() for each PFN and passing in what it expects the page and zone to be for that PFN. If it finds the linkages to be broken, it assumes the memmap is invalid for that PFN. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Russell King <rmk+kernel@arm.linux.org.uk>
2009-04-02mm: align vmstat_work's timerAnton Blanchard
Even though vmstat_work is marked deferrable, there are still benefits to aligning it. For certain applications we want to keep OS jitter as low as possible and aligning timers and work so they occur together can reduce their overall impact. Signed-off-by: Anton Blanchard <anton@samba.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-04-01mm: introduce for_each_populated_zone() macroKOSAKI Motohiro
Impact: cleanup In almost cases, for_each_zone() is used with populated_zone(). It's because almost function doesn't need memoryless node information. Therefore, for_each_populated_zone() can help to make code simplify. This patch has no functional change. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: small cleanup] Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-03-30cpumask: use new cpumask_ functions in core code.Rusty Russell
Impact: cleanup Time to clean up remaining laggards using the old cpu_ functions. Signed-off-by: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au> Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@suse.de> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com
2009-01-01cpumask: convert mm/Rusty Russell
Impact: Use new API Convert kernel mm functions to use struct cpumask. We skip include/linux/percpu.h and mm/allocpercpu.c, which are in flux. Signed-off-by: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au> Signed-off-by: Mike Travis <travis@sgi.com> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-23proc: move /proc/zoneinfo boilerplate to mm/vmstat.cAlexey Dobriyan
Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-23proc: move /proc/vmstat boilerplate to mm/vmstat.cAlexey Dobriyan
Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-23proc: move /proc/pagetypeinfo boilerplate to mm/vmstat.cAlexey Dobriyan
Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
2008-10-23proc: move /proc/buddyinfo boilerplate to mm/vmstat.cAlexey Dobriyan
Signed-off-by: Alexey Dobriyan <adobriyan@gmail.com>
2008-10-20mlock: count attempts to free mlocked pageLee Schermerhorn
Allow free of mlock()ed pages. This shouldn't happen, but during developement, it occasionally did. This patch allows us to survive that condition, while keeping the statistics and events correct for debug. Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20vmstat: mlocked pages statisticsNick Piggin
Add NR_MLOCK zone page state, which provides a (conservative) count of mlocked pages (actually, the number of mlocked pages moved off the LRU). Reworked by lts to fit in with the modified mlock page support in the Reclaim Scalability series. [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: fix incorrect Mlocked field of /proc/meminfo] [lee.schermerhorn@hp.com: mlocked-pages: add event counting with statistics] Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20Unevictable LRU Page StatisticsLee Schermerhorn
Report unevictable pages per zone and system wide. Kosaki Motohiro added support for memory controller unevictable statistics. [riel@redhat.com: fix printk in show_free_areas()] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix units in /proc/vmstats] Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Debugged-by: Hiroshi Shimamoto <h-shimamoto@ct.jp.nec.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20unevictable lru: add event counting with statisticsLee Schermerhorn
Fix to unevictable-lru-page-statistics.patch Add unevictable lru infrastructure vm events to the statistics patch. Rename the "NORECL_" and "noreclaim_" symbols and text strings to "UNEVICTABLE_" and "unevictable_", respectively. Currently, both the infrastructure and the mlocked pages event are added by a single patch later in the series. This makes it difficult to add or rework the incremental patches. The events actually "belong" with the stats, so pull them up to here. Also, restore the event counting to putback_lru_page(). This was removed from previous patch in series where it was "misplaced". The actual events weren't defined that early. Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20vmscan: second chance replacement for anonymous pagesRik van Riel
We avoid evicting and scanning anonymous pages for the most part, but under some workloads we can end up with most of memory filled with anonymous pages. At that point, we suddenly need to clear the referenced bits on all of memory, which can take ages on very large memory systems. We can reduce the maximum number of pages that need to be scanned by not taking the referenced state into account when deactivating an anonymous page. After all, every anonymous page starts out referenced, so why check? If an anonymous page gets referenced again before it reaches the end of the inactive list, we move it back to the active list. To keep the maximum amount of necessary work reasonable, we scale the active to inactive ratio with the size of memory, using the formula active:inactive ratio = sqrt(memory in GB * 10). Kswapd CPU use now seems to scale by the amount of pageout bandwidth, instead of by the amount of memory present in the system. [kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com: fix OOM with memcg] [kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com: memcg: lru scan fix] Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20vmscan: split LRU lists into anon & file setsRik van Riel
Split the LRU lists in two, one set for pages that are backed by real file systems ("file") and one for pages that are backed by memory and swap ("anon"). The latter includes tmpfs. The advantage of doing this is that the VM will not have to scan over lots of anonymous pages (which we generally do not want to swap out), just to find the page cache pages that it should evict. This patch has the infrastructure and a basic policy to balance how much we scan the anon lists and how much we scan the file lists. The big policy changes are in separate patches. [lee.schermerhorn@hp.com: collect lru meminfo statistics from correct offset] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: prevent incorrect oom under split_lru] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: fix pagevec_move_tail() doesn't treat unevictable page] [hugh@veritas.com: memcg swapbacked pages active] [hugh@veritas.com: splitlru: BDI_CAP_SWAP_BACKED] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix /proc/vmstat units] [nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp: memcg: fix handling of shmem migration] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: adjust Quicklists field of /proc/meminfo] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: fix style issue of get_scan_ratio()] Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Signed-off-by: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20vmscan: Use an indexed array for LRU variablesChristoph Lameter
Currently we are defining explicit variables for the inactive and active list. An indexed array can be more generic and avoid repeating similar code in several places in the reclaim code. We are saving a few bytes in terms of code size: Before: text data bss dec hex filename 4097753 573120 4092484 8763357 85b7dd vmlinux After: text data bss dec hex filename 4097729 573120 4092484 8763333 85b7c5 vmlinux Having an easy way to add new lru lists may ease future work on the reclaim code. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-08-27[ARM] Skip memory holes in FLATMEM when reading /proc/pagetypeinfoMel Gorman
Ordinarily, memory holes in flatmem still have a valid memmap and is safe to use. However, an architecture (ARM) frees up the memmap backing memory holes on the assumption it is never used. /proc/pagetypeinfo reads the whole range of pages in a zone believing that the memmap is valid and that pfn_valid will return false if it is not. On ARM, freeing the memmap breaks the page->zone linkages even though pfn_valid() returns true and the kernel can oops shortly afterwards due to accessing a bogus struct zone *. This patch lets architectures say when FLATMEM can have holes in the memmap. Rather than an expensive check for valid memory, /proc/pagetypeinfo will confirm that the page linkages are still valid by checking page->zone is still the expected zone. The lookup of page_zone is safe as there is a limited range of memory that is accessed when calling page_zone. Even if page_zone happens to return the correct zone, the impact is that the counters in /proc/pagetypeinfo are slightly off but fragmentation monitoring is unlikely to be relevant on an embedded system. Reported-by: H Hartley Sweeten <hsweeten@visionengravers.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Tested-by: H Hartley Sweeten <hsweeten@visionengravers.com> Signed-off-by: Russell King <rmk+kernel@arm.linux.org.uk>
2008-07-24mm/vmstat.c: proper externsAdrian Bunk
This patch adds proper extern declarations for five variables in include/linux/vmstat.h Signed-off-by: Adrian Bunk <bunk@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-05-23mm: use performance variant for_each_cpu_mask_nrMike Travis
Change references from for_each_cpu_mask to for_each_cpu_mask_nr where appropriate Reviewed-by: Paul Jackson <pj@sgi.com> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Signed-off-by: Mike Travis <travis@sgi.com> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
2008-05-13make vmstat cpu-unplug safeKOSAKI Motohiro
When accessing cpu_online_map, we should prevent dynamic changing of cpu_online_map by get_online_cpus(). Unfortunately, all_vm_events() doesn't do that. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Cc: Gautham R Shenoy <ego@in.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-04-30mm: Add NR_WRITEBACK_TEMP counterMiklos Szeredi
Fuse will use temporary buffers to write back dirty data from memory mappings (normal writes are done synchronously). This is needed, because there cannot be any guarantee about the time in which a write will complete. By using temporary buffers, from the MM's point if view the page is written back immediately. If the writeout was due to memory pressure, this effectively migrates data from a full zone to a less full zone. This patch adds a new counter (NR_WRITEBACK_TEMP) for the number of pages used as temporary buffers. [Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com: add vmstat_text for NR_WRITEBACK_TEMP] Signed-off-by: Miklos Szeredi <mszeredi@suse.cz> Cc: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-04-30/proc/pagetypeinfo: fix output for memoryless nodesKOSAKI Motohiro
on memoryless node, /proc/pagetypeinfo is displayed slightly funny output. this patch fix it. output example (header is outputed, but no data is outputed) -------------------------------------------------------------- Page block order: 14 Pages per block: 16384 Free pages count per migrate type at order 0 1 2 3 4 5 \ 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Number of blocks type Unmovable Reclaimable Movable Reserve Isolate Page block order: 14 Pages per block: 16384 Free pages count per migrate type at order 0 1 2 3 4 5 \ 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-04-28vmstats: add cond_resched() to refresh_cpu_vm_stats()Dimitri Sivanich
We've found that it can take quite a bit of time (100's of usec) to get through the zone loop in refresh_cpu_vm_stats(). Adding a cond_resched() to allow other threads to run in the non-preemptive case. Signed-off-by: Dimitri Sivanich <sivanich@sgi.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-04-28Subject: [PATCH] hugetlb: vmstat events for huge page allocationsAdam Litke
Allocating huge pages directly from the buddy allocator is not guaranteed to succeed. Success depends on several factors (such as the amount of physical memory available and the level of fragmentation). With the addition of dynamic hugetlb pool resizing, allocations can occur much more frequently. For these reasons it is desirable to keep track of huge page allocation successes and failures. Add two new vmstat entries to track huge page allocations that succeed and fail. The presence of the two entries is contingent upon CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE being enabled. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: reduced ifdeffery] Signed-off-by: Adam Litke <agl@us.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Eric Munson <ebmunson@us.ibm.com> Tested-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Andy Whitcroft <apw@shadowen.org> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-04-28mm: remember what the preferred zone is for zone_statisticsMel Gorman
On NUMA, zone_statistics() is used to record events like numa hit, miss and foreign. It assumes that the first zone in a zonelist is the preferred zone. When multiple zonelists are replaced by one that is filtered, this is no longer the case. This patch records what the preferred zone is rather than assuming the first zone in the zonelist is it. This simplifies the reading of later patches in this set. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>