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authorMichel Lespinasse <walken@google.com>2012-10-08 16:31:23 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2012-10-09 16:22:39 +0900
commitfff3fd8a1210a165252cd7cd01206da7a90d3a06 (patch)
tree3db89d48720ba726999e9d8486d8e991c7664123 /lib
parent3908836aa77e3621aaf2101f2920e01d7c8460d6 (diff)
downloadvexpress-lsk-fff3fd8a1210a165252cd7cd01206da7a90d3a06.tar.gz
rbtree: add prio tree and interval tree tests
Patch 1 implements support for interval trees, on top of the augmented rbtree API. It also adds synthetic tests to compare the performance of interval trees vs prio trees. Short answers is that interval trees are slightly faster (~25%) on insert/erase, and much faster (~2.4 - 3x) on search. It is debatable how realistic the synthetic test is, and I have not made such measurements yet, but my impression is that interval trees would still come out faster. Patch 2 uses a preprocessor template to make the interval tree generic, and uses it as a replacement for the vma prio_tree. Patch 3 takes the other prio_tree user, kmemleak, and converts it to use a basic rbtree. We don't actually need the augmented rbtree support here because the intervals are always non-overlapping. Patch 4 removes the now-unused prio tree library. Patch 5 proposes an additional optimization to rb_erase_augmented, now providing it as an inline function so that the augmented callbacks can be inlined in. This provides an additional 5-10% performance improvement for the interval tree insert/erase benchmark. There is a maintainance cost as it exposes augmented rbtree users to some of the rbtree library internals; however I think this cost shouldn't be too high as I expect the augmented rbtree will always have much less users than the base rbtree. I should probably add a quick summary of why I think it makes sense to replace prio trees with augmented rbtree based interval trees now. One of the drivers is that we need augmented rbtrees for Rik's vma gap finding code, and once you have them, it just makes sense to use them for interval trees as well, as this is the simpler and more well known algorithm. prio trees, in comparison, seem *too* clever: they impose an additional 'heap' constraint on the tree, which they use to guarantee a faster worst-case complexity of O(k+log N) for stabbing queries in a well-balanced prio tree, vs O(k*log N) for interval trees (where k=number of matches, N=number of intervals). Now this sounds great, but in practice prio trees don't realize this theorical benefit. First, the additional constraint makes them harder to update, so that the kernel implementation has to simplify things by balancing them like a radix tree, which is not always ideal. Second, the fact that there are both index and heap properties makes both tree manipulation and search more complex, which results in a higher multiplicative time constant. As it turns out, the simple interval tree algorithm ends up running faster than the more clever prio tree. This patch: Add two test modules: - prio_tree_test measures the performance of lib/prio_tree.c, both for insertion/removal and for stabbing searches - interval_tree_test measures the performance of a library of equivalent functionality, built using the augmented rbtree support. In order to support the second test module, lib/interval_tree.c is introduced. It is kept separate from the interval_tree_test main file for two reasons: first we don't want to provide an unfair advantage over prio_tree_test by having everything in a single compilation unit, and second there is the possibility that the interval tree functionality could get some non-test users in kernel over time. Signed-off-by: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Hillf Danton <dhillf@gmail.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: David Woodhouse <dwmw2@infradead.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'lib')
-rw-r--r--lib/Kconfig.debug12
-rw-r--r--lib/Makefile4
-rw-r--r--lib/interval_tree.c159
-rw-r--r--lib/interval_tree_test_main.c105
-rw-r--r--lib/prio_tree.c4
-rw-r--r--lib/prio_tree_test.c106
6 files changed, 390 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/lib/Kconfig.debug b/lib/Kconfig.debug
index a4e5d93b0f4..ee9f030b695 100644
--- a/lib/Kconfig.debug
+++ b/lib/Kconfig.debug
@@ -1289,6 +1289,18 @@ config RBTREE_TEST
A benchmark measuring the performance of the rbtree library.
Also includes rbtree invariant checks.
+config PRIO_TREE_TEST
+ tristate "Prio tree test"
+ depends on m && DEBUG_KERNEL
+ help
+ A benchmark measuring the performance of the prio tree library
+
+config INTERVAL_TREE_TEST
+ tristate "Interval tree test"
+ depends on m && DEBUG_KERNEL
+ help
+ A benchmark measuring the performance of the interval tree library
+
config PROVIDE_OHCI1394_DMA_INIT
bool "Remote debugging over FireWire early on boot"
depends on PCI && X86
diff --git a/lib/Makefile b/lib/Makefile
index f49445d26b6..26f578bf616 100644
--- a/lib/Makefile
+++ b/lib/Makefile
@@ -141,6 +141,10 @@ $(foreach file, $(libfdt_files), \
lib-$(CONFIG_LIBFDT) += $(libfdt_files)
obj-$(CONFIG_RBTREE_TEST) += rbtree_test.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_PRIO_TREE_TEST) += prio_tree_test.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_INTERVAL_TREE_TEST) += interval_tree_test.o
+
+interval_tree_test-objs := interval_tree_test_main.o interval_tree.o
hostprogs-y := gen_crc32table
clean-files := crc32table.h
diff --git a/lib/interval_tree.c b/lib/interval_tree.c
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..6fd540b1e49
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib/interval_tree.c
@@ -0,0 +1,159 @@
+#include <linux/init.h>
+#include <linux/interval_tree.h>
+
+/* Callbacks for augmented rbtree insert and remove */
+
+static inline unsigned long
+compute_subtree_last(struct interval_tree_node *node)
+{
+ unsigned long max = node->last, subtree_last;
+ if (node->rb.rb_left) {
+ subtree_last = rb_entry(node->rb.rb_left,
+ struct interval_tree_node, rb)->__subtree_last;
+ if (max < subtree_last)
+ max = subtree_last;
+ }
+ if (node->rb.rb_right) {
+ subtree_last = rb_entry(node->rb.rb_right,
+ struct interval_tree_node, rb)->__subtree_last;
+ if (max < subtree_last)
+ max = subtree_last;
+ }
+ return max;
+}
+
+RB_DECLARE_CALLBACKS(static, augment_callbacks, struct interval_tree_node, rb,
+ unsigned long, __subtree_last, compute_subtree_last)
+
+/* Insert / remove interval nodes from the tree */
+
+void interval_tree_insert(struct interval_tree_node *node,
+ struct rb_root *root)
+{
+ struct rb_node **link = &root->rb_node, *rb_parent = NULL;
+ unsigned long start = node->start, last = node->last;
+ struct interval_tree_node *parent;
+
+ while (*link) {
+ rb_parent = *link;
+ parent = rb_entry(rb_parent, struct interval_tree_node, rb);
+ if (parent->__subtree_last < last)
+ parent->__subtree_last = last;
+ if (start < parent->start)
+ link = &parent->rb.rb_left;
+ else
+ link = &parent->rb.rb_right;
+ }
+
+ node->__subtree_last = last;
+ rb_link_node(&node->rb, rb_parent, link);
+ rb_insert_augmented(&node->rb, root, &augment_callbacks);
+}
+
+void interval_tree_remove(struct interval_tree_node *node,
+ struct rb_root *root)
+{
+ rb_erase_augmented(&node->rb, root, &augment_callbacks);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Iterate over intervals intersecting [start;last]
+ *
+ * Note that a node's interval intersects [start;last] iff:
+ * Cond1: node->start <= last
+ * and
+ * Cond2: start <= node->last
+ */
+
+static struct interval_tree_node *
+subtree_search(struct interval_tree_node *node,
+ unsigned long start, unsigned long last)
+{
+ while (true) {
+ /*
+ * Loop invariant: start <= node->__subtree_last
+ * (Cond2 is satisfied by one of the subtree nodes)
+ */
+ if (node->rb.rb_left) {
+ struct interval_tree_node *left =
+ rb_entry(node->rb.rb_left,
+ struct interval_tree_node, rb);
+ if (start <= left->__subtree_last) {
+ /*
+ * Some nodes in left subtree satisfy Cond2.
+ * Iterate to find the leftmost such node N.
+ * If it also satisfies Cond1, that's the match
+ * we are looking for. Otherwise, there is no
+ * matching interval as nodes to the right of N
+ * can't satisfy Cond1 either.
+ */
+ node = left;
+ continue;
+ }
+ }
+ if (node->start <= last) { /* Cond1 */
+ if (start <= node->last) /* Cond2 */
+ return node; /* node is leftmost match */
+ if (node->rb.rb_right) {
+ node = rb_entry(node->rb.rb_right,
+ struct interval_tree_node, rb);
+ if (start <= node->__subtree_last)
+ continue;
+ }
+ }
+ return NULL; /* No match */
+ }
+}
+
+struct interval_tree_node *
+interval_tree_iter_first(struct rb_root *root,
+ unsigned long start, unsigned long last)
+{
+ struct interval_tree_node *node;
+
+ if (!root->rb_node)
+ return NULL;
+ node = rb_entry(root->rb_node, struct interval_tree_node, rb);
+ if (node->__subtree_last < start)
+ return NULL;
+ return subtree_search(node, start, last);
+}
+
+struct interval_tree_node *
+interval_tree_iter_next(struct interval_tree_node *node,
+ unsigned long start, unsigned long last)
+{
+ struct rb_node *rb = node->rb.rb_right, *prev;
+
+ while (true) {
+ /*
+ * Loop invariants:
+ * Cond1: node->start <= last
+ * rb == node->rb.rb_right
+ *
+ * First, search right subtree if suitable
+ */
+ if (rb) {
+ struct interval_tree_node *right =
+ rb_entry(rb, struct interval_tree_node, rb);
+ if (start <= right->__subtree_last)
+ return subtree_search(right, start, last);
+ }
+
+ /* Move up the tree until we come from a node's left child */
+ do {
+ rb = rb_parent(&node->rb);
+ if (!rb)
+ return NULL;
+ prev = &node->rb;
+ node = rb_entry(rb, struct interval_tree_node, rb);
+ rb = node->rb.rb_right;
+ } while (prev == rb);
+
+ /* Check if the node intersects [start;last] */
+ if (last < node->start) /* !Cond1 */
+ return NULL;
+ else if (start <= node->last) /* Cond2 */
+ return node;
+ }
+}
diff --git a/lib/interval_tree_test_main.c b/lib/interval_tree_test_main.c
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..b25903987f7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib/interval_tree_test_main.c
@@ -0,0 +1,105 @@
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/interval_tree.h>
+#include <linux/random.h>
+#include <asm/timex.h>
+
+#define NODES 100
+#define PERF_LOOPS 100000
+#define SEARCHES 100
+#define SEARCH_LOOPS 10000
+
+static struct rb_root root = RB_ROOT;
+static struct interval_tree_node nodes[NODES];
+static u32 queries[SEARCHES];
+
+static struct rnd_state rnd;
+
+static inline unsigned long
+search(unsigned long query, struct rb_root *root)
+{
+ struct interval_tree_node *node;
+ unsigned long results = 0;
+
+ for (node = interval_tree_iter_first(root, query, query); node;
+ node = interval_tree_iter_next(node, query, query))
+ results++;
+ return results;
+}
+
+static void init(void)
+{
+ int i;
+ for (i = 0; i < NODES; i++) {
+ u32 a = prandom32(&rnd), b = prandom32(&rnd);
+ if (a <= b) {
+ nodes[i].start = a;
+ nodes[i].last = b;
+ } else {
+ nodes[i].start = b;
+ nodes[i].last = a;
+ }
+ }
+ for (i = 0; i < SEARCHES; i++)
+ queries[i] = prandom32(&rnd);
+}
+
+static int interval_tree_test_init(void)
+{
+ int i, j;
+ unsigned long results;
+ cycles_t time1, time2, time;
+
+ printk(KERN_ALERT "interval tree insert/remove");
+
+ prandom32_seed(&rnd, 3141592653589793238ULL);
+ init();
+
+ time1 = get_cycles();
+
+ for (i = 0; i < PERF_LOOPS; i++) {
+ for (j = 0; j < NODES; j++)
+ interval_tree_insert(nodes + j, &root);
+ for (j = 0; j < NODES; j++)
+ interval_tree_remove(nodes + j, &root);
+ }
+
+ time2 = get_cycles();
+ time = time2 - time1;
+
+ time = div_u64(time, PERF_LOOPS);
+ printk(" -> %llu cycles\n", (unsigned long long)time);
+
+ printk(KERN_ALERT "interval tree search");
+
+ for (j = 0; j < NODES; j++)
+ interval_tree_insert(nodes + j, &root);
+
+ time1 = get_cycles();
+
+ results = 0;
+ for (i = 0; i < SEARCH_LOOPS; i++)
+ for (j = 0; j < SEARCHES; j++)
+ results += search(queries[j], &root);
+
+ time2 = get_cycles();
+ time = time2 - time1;
+
+ time = div_u64(time, SEARCH_LOOPS);
+ results = div_u64(results, SEARCH_LOOPS);
+ printk(" -> %llu cycles (%lu results)\n",
+ (unsigned long long)time, results);
+
+ return -EAGAIN; /* Fail will directly unload the module */
+}
+
+static void interval_tree_test_exit(void)
+{
+ printk(KERN_ALERT "test exit\n");
+}
+
+module_init(interval_tree_test_init)
+module_exit(interval_tree_test_exit)
+
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
+MODULE_AUTHOR("Michel Lespinasse");
+MODULE_DESCRIPTION("Interval Tree test");
diff --git a/lib/prio_tree.c b/lib/prio_tree.c
index 8d443af03b4..4e0d2edff2b 100644
--- a/lib/prio_tree.c
+++ b/lib/prio_tree.c
@@ -14,6 +14,7 @@
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/prio_tree.h>
+#include <linux/export.h>
/*
* A clever mix of heap and radix trees forms a radix priority search tree (PST)
@@ -241,6 +242,7 @@ struct prio_tree_node *prio_tree_insert(struct prio_tree_root *root,
BUG();
return NULL;
}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(prio_tree_insert);
/*
* Remove a prio_tree_node @node from a radix priority search tree @root. The
@@ -290,6 +292,7 @@ void prio_tree_remove(struct prio_tree_root *root, struct prio_tree_node *node)
while (cur != node)
cur = prio_tree_replace(root, cur->parent, cur);
}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(prio_tree_remove);
static void iter_walk_down(struct prio_tree_iter *iter)
{
@@ -464,3 +467,4 @@ repeat:
goto repeat;
}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(prio_tree_next);
diff --git a/lib/prio_tree_test.c b/lib/prio_tree_test.c
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..c26084ddc6a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib/prio_tree_test.c
@@ -0,0 +1,106 @@
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/prio_tree.h>
+#include <linux/random.h>
+#include <asm/timex.h>
+
+#define NODES 100
+#define PERF_LOOPS 100000
+#define SEARCHES 100
+#define SEARCH_LOOPS 10000
+
+static struct prio_tree_root root;
+static struct prio_tree_node nodes[NODES];
+static u32 queries[SEARCHES];
+
+static struct rnd_state rnd;
+
+static inline unsigned long
+search(unsigned long query, struct prio_tree_root *root)
+{
+ struct prio_tree_iter iter;
+ unsigned long results = 0;
+
+ prio_tree_iter_init(&iter, root, query, query);
+ while (prio_tree_next(&iter))
+ results++;
+ return results;
+}
+
+static void init(void)
+{
+ int i;
+ for (i = 0; i < NODES; i++) {
+ u32 a = prandom32(&rnd), b = prandom32(&rnd);
+ if (a <= b) {
+ nodes[i].start = a;
+ nodes[i].last = b;
+ } else {
+ nodes[i].start = b;
+ nodes[i].last = a;
+ }
+ }
+ for (i = 0; i < SEARCHES; i++)
+ queries[i] = prandom32(&rnd);
+}
+
+static int prio_tree_test_init(void)
+{
+ int i, j;
+ unsigned long results;
+ cycles_t time1, time2, time;
+
+ printk(KERN_ALERT "prio tree insert/remove");
+
+ prandom32_seed(&rnd, 3141592653589793238ULL);
+ INIT_PRIO_TREE_ROOT(&root);
+ init();
+
+ time1 = get_cycles();
+
+ for (i = 0; i < PERF_LOOPS; i++) {
+ for (j = 0; j < NODES; j++)
+ prio_tree_insert(&root, nodes + j);
+ for (j = 0; j < NODES; j++)
+ prio_tree_remove(&root, nodes + j);
+ }
+
+ time2 = get_cycles();
+ time = time2 - time1;
+
+ time = div_u64(time, PERF_LOOPS);
+ printk(" -> %llu cycles\n", (unsigned long long)time);
+
+ printk(KERN_ALERT "prio tree search");
+
+ for (j = 0; j < NODES; j++)
+ prio_tree_insert(&root, nodes + j);
+
+ time1 = get_cycles();
+
+ results = 0;
+ for (i = 0; i < SEARCH_LOOPS; i++)
+ for (j = 0; j < SEARCHES; j++)
+ results += search(queries[j], &root);
+
+ time2 = get_cycles();
+ time = time2 - time1;
+
+ time = div_u64(time, SEARCH_LOOPS);
+ results = div_u64(results, SEARCH_LOOPS);
+ printk(" -> %llu cycles (%lu results)\n",
+ (unsigned long long)time, results);
+
+ return -EAGAIN; /* Fail will directly unload the module */
+}
+
+static void prio_tree_test_exit(void)
+{
+ printk(KERN_ALERT "test exit\n");
+}
+
+module_init(prio_tree_test_init)
+module_exit(prio_tree_test_exit)
+
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
+MODULE_AUTHOR("Michel Lespinasse");
+MODULE_DESCRIPTION("Prio Tree test");