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authorLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2009-12-31 11:52:01 -0800
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2009-12-31 11:52:01 -0800
commitb21c07040304b8716e38a4a0e4ab60f386357e61 (patch)
treeeb2cf03ec35b9a5090c0adaab659a766e02c3b10 /Documentation
parent4e58fb7305449cf8c5a86dd97dfc1812221be77c (diff)
parentfb7ae981cb9fe8665b9da97e8734745e030c151d (diff)
downloadvexpress-lsk-b21c07040304b8716e38a4a0e4ab60f386357e61.tar.gz
Merge branch 'tracing-fixes-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/linux-2.6-tip
* 'tracing-fixes-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/linux-2.6-tip: tracing: Fix sign fields in ftrace_define_fields_##call() tracing/syscalls: Fix typo in SYSCALL_DEFINE0 tracing/kprobe: Show sign of fields in trace_kprobe format files ksym_tracer: Remove trace_stat ksym_tracer: Fix race when incrementing count ksym_tracer: Fix to allow writing newline to ksym_trace_filter ksym_tracer: Fix to make the tracer work tracing: Kconfig spelling fixes and cleanups tracing: Fix setting tracer specific options Documentation: Update ftrace-design.txt Documentation: Update tracepoint-analysis.txt Documentation: Update mmiotrace.txt
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/trace/ftrace-design.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/trace/mmiotrace.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/trace/tracepoint-analysis.txt60
3 files changed, 45 insertions, 44 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/trace/ftrace-design.txt b/Documentation/trace/ftrace-design.txt
index 641a1ef2a7f..239f14b2b55 100644
--- a/Documentation/trace/ftrace-design.txt
+++ b/Documentation/trace/ftrace-design.txt
@@ -53,14 +53,14 @@ size of the mcount call that is embedded in the function).
For example, if the function foo() calls bar(), when the bar() function calls
mcount(), the arguments mcount() will pass to the tracer are:
"frompc" - the address bar() will use to return to foo()
- "selfpc" - the address bar() (with _mcount() size adjustment)
+ "selfpc" - the address bar() (with mcount() size adjustment)
Also keep in mind that this mcount function will be called *a lot*, so
optimizing for the default case of no tracer will help the smooth running of
your system when tracing is disabled. So the start of the mcount function is
-typically the bare min with checking things before returning. That also means
-the code flow should usually kept linear (i.e. no branching in the nop case).
-This is of course an optimization and not a hard requirement.
+typically the bare minimum with checking things before returning. That also
+means the code flow should usually be kept linear (i.e. no branching in the nop
+case). This is of course an optimization and not a hard requirement.
Here is some pseudo code that should help (these functions should actually be
implemented in assembly):
@@ -131,10 +131,10 @@ some functions to save (hijack) and restore the return address.
The mcount function should check the function pointers ftrace_graph_return
(compare to ftrace_stub) and ftrace_graph_entry (compare to
-ftrace_graph_entry_stub). If either of those are not set to the relevant stub
+ftrace_graph_entry_stub). If either of those is not set to the relevant stub
function, call the arch-specific function ftrace_graph_caller which in turn
calls the arch-specific function prepare_ftrace_return. Neither of these
-function names are strictly required, but you should use them anyways to stay
+function names is strictly required, but you should use them anyway to stay
consistent across the architecture ports -- easier to compare & contrast
things.
@@ -144,7 +144,7 @@ but the first argument should be a pointer to the "frompc". Typically this is
located on the stack. This allows the function to hijack the return address
temporarily to have it point to the arch-specific function return_to_handler.
That function will simply call the common ftrace_return_to_handler function and
-that will return the original return address with which, you can return to the
+that will return the original return address with which you can return to the
original call site.
Here is the updated mcount pseudo code:
diff --git a/Documentation/trace/mmiotrace.txt b/Documentation/trace/mmiotrace.txt
index 162effbfbde..664e7386d89 100644
--- a/Documentation/trace/mmiotrace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/trace/mmiotrace.txt
@@ -44,7 +44,8 @@ Check for lost events.
Usage
-----
-Make sure debugfs is mounted to /sys/kernel/debug. If not, (requires root privileges)
+Make sure debugfs is mounted to /sys/kernel/debug.
+If not (requires root privileges):
$ mount -t debugfs debugfs /sys/kernel/debug
Check that the driver you are about to trace is not loaded.
@@ -91,7 +92,7 @@ $ dmesg > dmesg.txt
$ tar zcf pciid-nick-mmiotrace.tar.gz mydump.txt lspci.txt dmesg.txt
and then send the .tar.gz file. The trace compresses considerably. Replace
"pciid" and "nick" with the PCI ID or model name of your piece of hardware
-under investigation and your nick name.
+under investigation and your nickname.
How Mmiotrace Works
@@ -100,7 +101,7 @@ How Mmiotrace Works
Access to hardware IO-memory is gained by mapping addresses from PCI bus by
calling one of the ioremap_*() functions. Mmiotrace is hooked into the
__ioremap() function and gets called whenever a mapping is created. Mapping is
-an event that is recorded into the trace log. Note, that ISA range mappings
+an event that is recorded into the trace log. Note that ISA range mappings
are not caught, since the mapping always exists and is returned directly.
MMIO accesses are recorded via page faults. Just before __ioremap() returns,
@@ -122,11 +123,11 @@ Trace Log Format
----------------
The raw log is text and easily filtered with e.g. grep and awk. One record is
-one line in the log. A record starts with a keyword, followed by keyword
-dependant arguments. Arguments are separated by a space, or continue until the
+one line in the log. A record starts with a keyword, followed by keyword-
+dependent arguments. Arguments are separated by a space, or continue until the
end of line. The format for version 20070824 is as follows:
-Explanation Keyword Space separated arguments
+Explanation Keyword Space-separated arguments
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
read event R width, timestamp, map id, physical, value, PC, PID
@@ -136,7 +137,7 @@ iounmap event UNMAP timestamp, map id, PC, PID
marker MARK timestamp, text
version VERSION the string "20070824"
info for reader LSPCI one line from lspci -v
-PCI address map PCIDEV space separated /proc/bus/pci/devices data
+PCI address map PCIDEV space-separated /proc/bus/pci/devices data
unk. opcode UNKNOWN timestamp, map id, physical, data, PC, PID
Timestamp is in seconds with decimals. Physical is a PCI bus address, virtual
diff --git a/Documentation/trace/tracepoint-analysis.txt b/Documentation/trace/tracepoint-analysis.txt
index 5eb4e487e66..87bee3c129b 100644
--- a/Documentation/trace/tracepoint-analysis.txt
+++ b/Documentation/trace/tracepoint-analysis.txt
@@ -10,8 +10,8 @@ Tracepoints (see Documentation/trace/tracepoints.txt) can be used without
creating custom kernel modules to register probe functions using the event
tracing infrastructure.
-Simplistically, tracepoints will represent an important event that when can
-be taken in conjunction with other tracepoints to build a "Big Picture" of
+Simplistically, tracepoints represent important events that can be
+taken in conjunction with other tracepoints to build a "Big Picture" of
what is going on within the system. There are a large number of methods for
gathering and interpreting these events. Lacking any current Best Practises,
this document describes some of the methods that can be used.
@@ -33,12 +33,12 @@ calling
will give a fair indication of the number of events available.
-2.2 PCL
+2.2 PCL (Performance Counters for Linux)
-------
-Discovery and enumeration of all counters and events, including tracepoints
+Discovery and enumeration of all counters and events, including tracepoints,
are available with the perf tool. Getting a list of available events is a
-simple case of
+simple case of:
$ perf list 2>&1 | grep Tracepoint
ext4:ext4_free_inode [Tracepoint event]
@@ -49,19 +49,19 @@ simple case of
[ .... remaining output snipped .... ]
-2. Enabling Events
+3. Enabling Events
==================
-2.1 System-Wide Event Enabling
+3.1 System-Wide Event Enabling
------------------------------
See Documentation/trace/events.txt for a proper description on how events
can be enabled system-wide. A short example of enabling all events related
-to page allocation would look something like
+to page allocation would look something like:
$ for i in `find /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/events -name "enable" | grep mm_`; do echo 1 > $i; done
-2.2 System-Wide Event Enabling with SystemTap
+3.2 System-Wide Event Enabling with SystemTap
---------------------------------------------
In SystemTap, tracepoints are accessible using the kernel.trace() function
@@ -86,7 +86,7 @@ were allocating the pages.
print_count()
}
-2.3 System-Wide Event Enabling with PCL
+3.3 System-Wide Event Enabling with PCL
---------------------------------------
By specifying the -a switch and analysing sleep, the system-wide events
@@ -107,16 +107,16 @@ for a duration of time can be examined.
Similarly, one could execute a shell and exit it as desired to get a report
at that point.
-2.4 Local Event Enabling
+3.4 Local Event Enabling
------------------------
Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt describes how to enable events on a per-thread
basis using set_ftrace_pid.
-2.5 Local Event Enablement with PCL
+3.5 Local Event Enablement with PCL
-----------------------------------
-Events can be activate and tracked for the duration of a process on a local
+Events can be activated and tracked for the duration of a process on a local
basis using PCL such as follows.
$ perf stat -e kmem:mm_page_alloc -e kmem:mm_page_free_direct \
@@ -131,18 +131,18 @@ basis using PCL such as follows.
0.973913387 seconds time elapsed
-3. Event Filtering
+4. Event Filtering
==================
Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt covers in-depth how to filter events in
ftrace. Obviously using grep and awk of trace_pipe is an option as well
as any script reading trace_pipe.
-4. Analysing Event Variances with PCL
+5. Analysing Event Variances with PCL
=====================================
Any workload can exhibit variances between runs and it can be important
-to know what the standard deviation in. By and large, this is left to the
+to know what the standard deviation is. By and large, this is left to the
performance analyst to do it by hand. In the event that the discrete event
occurrences are useful to the performance analyst, then perf can be used.
@@ -166,7 +166,7 @@ In the event that some higher-level event is required that depends on some
aggregation of discrete events, then a script would need to be developed.
Using --repeat, it is also possible to view how events are fluctuating over
-time on a system wide basis using -a and sleep.
+time on a system-wide basis using -a and sleep.
$ perf stat -e kmem:mm_page_alloc -e kmem:mm_page_free_direct \
-e kmem:mm_pagevec_free \
@@ -180,7 +180,7 @@ time on a system wide basis using -a and sleep.
1.002251757 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.005% )
-5. Higher-Level Analysis with Helper Scripts
+6. Higher-Level Analysis with Helper Scripts
============================================
When events are enabled the events that are triggering can be read from
@@ -190,11 +190,11 @@ be gathered on-line as appropriate. Examples of post-processing might include
o Reading information from /proc for the PID that triggered the event
o Deriving a higher-level event from a series of lower-level events.
- o Calculate latencies between two events
+ o Calculating latencies between two events
Documentation/trace/postprocess/trace-pagealloc-postprocess.pl is an example
script that can read trace_pipe from STDIN or a copy of a trace. When used
-on-line, it can be interrupted once to generate a report without existing
+on-line, it can be interrupted once to generate a report without exiting
and twice to exit.
Simplistically, the script just reads STDIN and counts up events but it
@@ -212,12 +212,12 @@ also can do more such as
processes, the parent process responsible for creating all the helpers
can be identified
-6. Lower-Level Analysis with PCL
+7. Lower-Level Analysis with PCL
================================
-There may also be a requirement to identify what functions with a program
+There may also be a requirement to identify what functions within a program
were generating events within the kernel. To begin this sort of analysis, the
-data must be recorded. At the time of writing, this required root
+data must be recorded. At the time of writing, this required root:
$ perf record -c 1 \
-e kmem:mm_page_alloc -e kmem:mm_page_free_direct \
@@ -253,11 +253,11 @@ perf report.
# (For more details, try: perf report --sort comm,dso,symbol)
#
-According to this, the vast majority of events occured triggered on events
-within the VDSO. With simple binaries, this will often be the case so lets
+According to this, the vast majority of events triggered on events
+within the VDSO. With simple binaries, this will often be the case so let's
take a slightly different example. In the course of writing this, it was
-noticed that X was generating an insane amount of page allocations so lets look
-at it
+noticed that X was generating an insane amount of page allocations so let's look
+at it:
$ perf record -c 1 -f \
-e kmem:mm_page_alloc -e kmem:mm_page_free_direct \
@@ -280,8 +280,8 @@ This was interrupted after a few seconds and
# (For more details, try: perf report --sort comm,dso,symbol)
#
-So, almost half of the events are occuring in a library. To get an idea which
-symbol.
+So, almost half of the events are occurring in a library. To get an idea which
+symbol:
$ perf report --sort comm,dso,symbol
# Samples: 27666
@@ -297,7 +297,7 @@ symbol.
0.01% Xorg /opt/gfx-test/lib/libpixman-1.so.0.13.1 [.] get_fast_path
0.00% Xorg [kernel] [k] ftrace_trace_userstack
-To see where within the function pixmanFillsse2 things are going wrong
+To see where within the function pixmanFillsse2 things are going wrong:
$ perf annotate pixmanFillsse2
[ ... ]