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2009-06-24percpu: use dynamic percpu allocator as the default percpu allocatorTejun Heo
This patch makes most !CONFIG_HAVE_SETUP_PER_CPU_AREA archs use dynamic percpu allocator. The first chunk is allocated using embedding helper and 8k is reserved for modules. This ensures that the new allocator behaves almost identically to the original allocator as long as static percpu variables are concerned, so it shouldn't introduce much breakage. s390 and alpha use custom SHIFT_PERCPU_PTR() to work around addressing range limit the addressing model imposes. Unfortunately, this breaks if the address is specified using a variable, so for now, the two archs aren't converted. The following architectures are affected by this change. * sh * arm * cris * mips * sparc(32) * blackfin * avr32 * parisc (broken, under investigation) * m32r * powerpc(32) As this change makes the dynamic allocator the default one, CONFIG_HAVE_DYNAMIC_PER_CPU_AREA is replaced with its invert - CONFIG_HAVE_LEGACY_PER_CPU_AREA, which is added to yet-to-be converted archs. These archs implement their own setup_per_cpu_areas() and the conversion is not trivial. * powerpc(64) * sparc(64) * ia64 * alpha * s390 Boot and batch alloc/free tests on x86_32 with debug code (x86_32 doesn't use default first chunk initialization). Compile tested on sparc(32), powerpc(32), arm and alpha. Kyle McMartin reported that this change breaks parisc. The problem is still under investigation and he is okay with pushing this patch forward and fixing parisc later. [ Impact: use dynamic allocator for most archs w/o custom percpu setup ] Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Acked-by: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au> Acked-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net> Acked-by: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org> Acked-by: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Paul Mundt <lethal@linux-sh.org> Cc: Russell King <rmk@arm.linux.org.uk> Cc: Mikael Starvik <starvik@axis.com> Cc: Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org> Cc: Bryan Wu <cooloney@kernel.org> Cc: Kyle McMartin <kyle@mcmartin.ca> Cc: Matthew Wilcox <matthew@wil.cx> Cc: Grant Grundler <grundler@parisc-linux.org> Cc: Hirokazu Takata <takata@linux-m32r.org> Cc: Richard Henderson <rth@twiddle.net> Cc: Ivan Kokshaysky <ink@jurassic.park.msu.ru> Cc: Heiko Carstens <heiko.carstens@de.ibm.com> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-06-22x86: implement percpu_alloc kernel parameterTejun Heo
According to Andi, it isn't clear whether lpage allocator is worth the trouble as there are many processors where PMD TLB is far scarcer than PTE TLB. The advantage or disadvantage probably depends on the actual size of percpu area and specific processor. As performance degradation due to TLB pressure tends to be highly workload specific and subtle, it is difficult to decide which way to go without more data. This patch implements percpu_alloc kernel parameter to allow selecting which first chunk allocator to use to ease debugging and testing. While at it, make sure all the failure paths report why something failed to help determining why certain allocator isn't working. Also, kill the "Great future plan" comment which had already been realized quite some time ago. [ Impact: allow explicit percpu first chunk allocator selection ] Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Reported-by: Jan Beulich <JBeulich@novell.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-06-22percpu: fix too lazy vunmap cache flushingTejun Heo
In pcpu_unmap(), flushing virtual cache on vunmap can't be delayed as the page is going to be returned to the page allocator. Only TLB flushing can be put off such that vmalloc code can handle it lazily. Fix it. [ Impact: fix subtle virtual cache flush bug ] Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-06-21Move FAULT_FLAG_xyz into handle_mm_fault() callersLinus Torvalds
This allows the callers to now pass down the full set of FAULT_FLAG_xyz flags to handle_mm_fault(). All callers have been (mechanically) converted to the new calling convention, there's almost certainly room for architectures to clean up their code and then add FAULT_FLAG_RETRY when that support is added. Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-21Remove internal use of 'write_access' in mm/memory.cLinus Torvalds
The fault handling routines really want more fine-grained flags than a single "was it a write fault" boolean - the callers will want to set flags like "you can return a retry error" etc. And that's actually how the VM works internally, but right now the top-level fault handling functions in mm/memory.c all pass just the 'write_access' boolean around. This switches them over to pass around the FAULT_FLAG_xyzzy 'flags' variable instead. The 'write_access' calling convention still exists for the exported 'handle_mm_fault()' function, but that is next. Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-20mm: page_alloc: clear PG_locked before checking flags on freeJohannes Weiner
da456f1 "page allocator: do not disable interrupts in free_page_mlock()" moved the PG_mlocked clearing after the flag sanity checking which makes mlocked pages always trigger 'bad page'. Fix this by clearing the bit up front. Reported--and-debugged-by: Peter Chubb <peter.chubb@nicta.com.au> Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Tested-by: Maxim Levitsky <maximlevitsky@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-19bootmem.c: avoid c90 declaration warningJoe Perches
[akpm@linux-foundation.org: cleanup] Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@cs.helsinki.fi> Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org> Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-18mm: Extend gfp masking to the page allocatorBenjamin Herrenschmidt
The page allocator also needs the masking of gfp flags during boot, so this moves it out of slab/slub and uses it with the page allocator as well. Signed-off-by: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org> Acked-by: Pekka Enberg <penberg@cs.helsinki.fi> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-18memcg: fix lru rotation in isolate_pagesKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki
Try to fix memcg's lru rotation sanity: make memcg use the same logic as the global LRU does. Now, at __isolate_lru_page() retruns -EBUSY, the page is rotated to the tail of LRU in global LRU's isolate LRU pages. But in memcg, it's not handled. This makes memcg do the same behavior as global LRU and rotate LRU in the page is busy. Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-18memcg: fix behavior under memory.limit equals to memsw.limitKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki
A user can set memcg.limit_in_bytes == memcg.memsw.limit_in_bytes when the user just want to limit the total size of applications, in other words, not very interested in memory usage itself. In this case, swap-out will be done only by global-LRU. But, under current implementation, memory.limit_in_bytes is checked at first and try_to_free_page() may do swap-out. But, that swap-out is useless for memsw.limit_in_bytes and the thread may hit limit again. This patch tries to fix the current behavior at memory.limit == memsw.limit case. And documentation is updated to explain the behavior of this special case. Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com> Cc: Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: YAMAMOTO Takashi <yamamoto@valinux.co.jp> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-18memcg: fix swap accountingKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki
This patch fixes mis-accounting of swap usage in memcg. In the current implementation, memcg's swap account is uncharged only when swap is completely freed. But there are several cases where swap cannot be freed cleanly. For handling that, this patch changes that memcg uncharges swap account when swap has no references other than cache. By this, memcg's swap entry accounting can be fully synchronous with the application's behavior. This patch also changes memcg's hooks for swap-out. Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Acked-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: YAMAMOTO Takashi <yamamoto@valinux.co.jp> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-18memcg: remove some redundant checksLi Zefan
We don't need to check do_swap_account in the case that the function which checks do_swap_account will never get called if do_swap_account == 0. Signed-off-by: Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-18memcg: add file-based RSS accountingBalbir Singh
Add file RSS tracking per memory cgroup We currently don't track file RSS, the RSS we report is actually anon RSS. All the file mapped pages, come in through the page cache and get accounted there. This patch adds support for accounting file RSS pages. It should 1. Help improve the metrics reported by the memory resource controller 2. Will form the basis for a future shared memory accounting heuristic that has been proposed by Kamezawa. Unfortunately, we cannot rename the existing "rss" keyword used in memory.stat to "anon_rss". We however, add "mapped_file" data and hope to educate the end user through documentation. [hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk: fix mem_cgroup_update_mapped_file_stat oops] Signed-off-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.cn> Cc: Paul Menage <menage@google.com> Cc: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Cc: YAMAMOTO Takashi <yamamoto@valinux.co.jp> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-18cgroups: make messages more readableRandy Dunlap
Fix some cgroup messages to read better. Update MAINTAINERS to include mm/*cgroup* files. Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <randy.dunlap@oracle.com> Cc: Paul Menage <menage@google.com> Cc: Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-17Merge branch 'kmemleak' of git://linux-arm.org/linux-2.6Linus Torvalds
* 'kmemleak' of git://linux-arm.org/linux-2.6: kmemleak: Fix some typos in comments kmemleak: Rename kmemleak_panic to kmemleak_stop kmemleak: Only use GFP_KERNEL|GFP_ATOMIC for the internal allocations
2009-06-17kmemleak: Fix some typos in commentsCatalin Marinas
Signed-off-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
2009-06-17kmemleak: Rename kmemleak_panic to kmemleak_stopCatalin Marinas
This is to avoid the confusion created by the "panic" word. Signed-off-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com> Acked-by: Pekka Enberg <penberg@cs.helsinki.fi>
2009-06-17kmemleak: Only use GFP_KERNEL|GFP_ATOMIC for the internal allocationsCatalin Marinas
Kmemleak allocates memory for pointer tracking and it tries to avoid using GFP_ATOMIC if the caller doesn't require it. However other gfp flags may be passed by the caller which aren't required by kmemleak. This patch filters the gfp flags so that only GFP_KERNEL | GFP_ATOMIC are used. Signed-off-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com> Acked-by: Pekka Enberg <penberg@cs.helsinki.fi>
2009-06-17Merge branch 'slub/earlyboot' into for-linusPekka Enberg
Conflicts: mm/slub.c
2009-06-17Merge branches 'slab/documentation', 'slab/fixes', 'slob/cleanups' and ↵Pekka Enberg
'slub/fixes' into for-linus
2009-06-16Merge branch 'akpm'Linus Torvalds
* akpm: (182 commits) fbdev: bf54x-lq043fb: use kzalloc over kmalloc/memset fbdev: *bfin*: fix __dev{init,exit} markings fbdev: *bfin*: drop unnecessary calls to memset fbdev: bfin-t350mcqb-fb: drop unused local variables fbdev: blackfin has __raw I/O accessors, so use them in fb.h fbdev: s1d13xxxfb: add accelerated bitblt functions tcx: use standard fields for framebuffer physical address and length fbdev: add support for handoff from firmware to hw framebuffers intelfb: fix a bug when changing video timing fbdev: use framebuffer_release() for freeing fb_info structures radeon: P2G2CLK_ALWAYS_ONb tested twice, should 2nd be P2G2CLK_DAC_ALWAYS_ONb? s3c-fb: CPUFREQ frequency scaling support s3c-fb: fix resource releasing on error during probing carminefb: fix possible access beyond end of carmine_modedb[] acornfb: remove fb_mmap function mb862xxfb: use CONFIG_OF instead of CONFIG_PPC_OF mb862xxfb: restrict compliation of platform driver to PPC Samsung SoC Framebuffer driver: add Alpha Channel support atmel-lcdc: fix pixclock upper bound detection offb: use framebuffer_alloc() to allocate fb_info struct ... Manually fix up conflicts due to kmemcheck in mm/slab.c
2009-06-16mm: fix lumpy reclaim lru handling at isolate_lru_pagesKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki
At lumpy reclaim, a page failed to be taken by __isolate_lru_page() can be pushed back to "src" list by list_move(). But the page may not be from "src" list. This pushes the page back to wrong LRU. And list_move() itself is unnecessary because the page is not on top of LRU. Then, leave it as it is if __isolate_lru_page() fails. Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16vmscan: count the number of times zone_reclaim() scans and failsMel Gorman
On NUMA machines, the administrator can configure zone_reclaim_mode that is a more targetted form of direct reclaim. On machines with large NUMA distances for example, a zone_reclaim_mode defaults to 1 meaning that clean unmapped pages will be reclaimed if the zone watermarks are not being met. There is a heuristic that determines if the scan is worthwhile but it is possible that the heuristic will fail and the CPU gets tied up scanning uselessly. Detecting the situation requires some guesswork and experimentation so this patch adds a counter "zreclaim_failed" to /proc/vmstat. If during high CPU utilisation this counter is increasing rapidly, then the resolution to the problem may be to set /proc/sys/vm/zone_reclaim_mode to 0. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: name things consistently] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: <stable@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16vmscan: do not unconditionally treat zones that fail zone_reclaim() as fullMel Gorman
On NUMA machines, the administrator can configure zone_reclaim_mode that is a more targetted form of direct reclaim. On machines with large NUMA distances for example, a zone_reclaim_mode defaults to 1 meaning that clean unmapped pages will be reclaimed if the zone watermarks are not being met. The problem is that zone_reclaim() failing at all means the zone gets marked full. This can cause situations where a zone is usable, but is being skipped because it has been considered full. Take a situation where a large tmpfs mount is occuping a large percentage of memory overall. The pages do not get cleaned or reclaimed by zone_reclaim(), but the zone gets marked full and the zonelist cache considers them not worth trying in the future. This patch makes zone_reclaim() return more fine-grained information about what occured when zone_reclaim() failued. The zone only gets marked full if it really is unreclaimable. If it's a case that the scan did not occur or if enough pages were not reclaimed with the limited reclaim_mode, then the zone is simply skipped. There is a side-effect to this patch. Currently, if zone_reclaim() successfully reclaimed SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX, an allocation attempt would go ahead. With this patch applied, zone watermarks are rechecked after zone_reclaim() does some work. This bug was introduced by commit 9276b1bc96a132f4068fdee00983c532f43d3a26 ("memory page_alloc zonelist caching speedup") way back in 2.6.19 when the zonelist_cache was introduced. It was not intended that zone_reclaim() aggressively consider the zone to be full when it failed as full direct reclaim can still be an option. Due to the age of the bug, it should be considered a -stable candidate. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: <stable@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16vmscan: properly account for the number of page cache pages zone_reclaim() ↵Mel Gorman
can reclaim A bug was brought to my attention against a distro kernel but it affects mainline and I believe problems like this have been reported in various guises on the mailing lists although I don't have specific examples at the moment. The reported problem was that malloc() stalled for a long time (minutes in some cases) if a large tmpfs mount was occupying a large percentage of memory overall. The pages did not get cleaned or reclaimed by zone_reclaim() because the zone_reclaim_mode was unsuitable, but the lists are uselessly scanned frequencly making the CPU spin at near 100%. This patchset intends to address that bug and bring the behaviour of zone_reclaim() more in line with expectations which were noticed during investigation. It is based on top of mmotm and takes advantage of Kosaki's work with respect to zone_reclaim(). Patch 1 fixes the heuristics that zone_reclaim() uses to determine if the scan should go ahead. The broken heuristic is what was causing the malloc() stall as it uselessly scanned the LRU constantly. Currently, zone_reclaim is assuming zone_reclaim_mode is 1 and historically it could not deal with tmpfs pages at all. This fixes up the heuristic so that an unnecessary scan is more likely to be correctly avoided. Patch 2 notes that zone_reclaim() returning a failure automatically means the zone is marked full. This is not always true. It could have failed because the GFP mask or zone_reclaim_mode were unsuitable. Patch 3 introduces a counter zreclaim_failed that will increment each time the zone_reclaim scan-avoidance heuristics fail. If that counter is rapidly increasing, then zone_reclaim_mode should be set to 0 as a temporarily resolution and a bug reported because the scan-avoidance heuristic is still broken. This patch: On NUMA machines, the administrator can configure zone_reclaim_mode that is a more targetted form of direct reclaim. On machines with large NUMA distances for example, a zone_reclaim_mode defaults to 1 meaning that clean unmapped pages will be reclaimed if the zone watermarks are not being met. There is a heuristic that determines if the scan is worthwhile but the problem is that the heuristic is not being properly applied and is basically assuming zone_reclaim_mode is 1 if it is enabled. The lack of proper detection can manfiest as high CPU usage as the LRU list is scanned uselessly. Historically, once enabled it was depending on NR_FILE_PAGES which may include swapcache pages that the reclaim_mode cannot deal with. Patch vmscan-change-the-number-of-the-unmapped-files-in-zone-reclaim.patch by Kosaki Motohiro noted that zone_page_state(zone, NR_FILE_PAGES) included pages that were not file-backed such as swapcache and made a calculation based on the inactive, active and mapped files. This is far superior when zone_reclaim==1 but if RECLAIM_SWAP is set, then NR_FILE_PAGES is a reasonable starting figure. This patch alters how zone_reclaim() works out how many pages it might be able to reclaim given the current reclaim_mode. If RECLAIM_SWAP is set in the reclaim_mode it will either consider NR_FILE_PAGES as potential candidates or else use NR_{IN}ACTIVE}_PAGES-NR_FILE_MAPPED to discount swapcache and other non-file-backed pages. If RECLAIM_WRITE is not set, then NR_FILE_DIRTY number of pages are not candidates. If RECLAIM_SWAP is not set, then NR_FILE_MAPPED are not. [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: Estimate unmapped pages minus tmpfs pages] [fengguang.wu@intel.com: Fix underflow problem in Kosaki's estimate] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: <stable@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16oom: only oom kill exiting tasks with attached memoryDavid Rientjes
When a task is chosen for oom kill and is found to be PF_EXITING, __oom_kill_task() is called to elevate the task's timeslice and give it access to memory reserves so that it may quickly exit. This privilege is unnecessary, however, if the task has already detached its mm. Although its possible for the mm to become detached later since task_lock() is not held, __oom_kill_task() will simply be a no-op in such circumstances. Subsequently, it is no longer necessary to warn about killing mm-less tasks since it is a no-op. Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16vmscan: handle may_swap more strictlyDaisuke Nishimura
Commit 2e2e425989080cc534fc0fca154cae515f971cf5 ("vmscan,memcg: reintroduce sc->may_swap) add may_swap flag and handle it at get_scan_ratio(). But the result of get_scan_ratio() is ignored when priority == 0, so anon lru is scanned even if may_swap == 0 or nr_swap_pages == 0. IMHO, this is not an expected behavior. As for memcg especially, because of this behavior many and many pages are swapped-out just in vain when oom is invoked by mem+swap limit. This patch is for handling may_swap flag more strictly. Signed-off-by: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16vmscan: merge duplicate code in shrink_active_list()Wu Fengguang
The "move pages to active list" and "move pages to inactive list" code blocks are mostly identical and can be served by a function. Thanks to Andrew Morton for pointing this out. Note that buffer_heads_over_limit check will also be carried out for re-activated pages, which is slightly different from pre-2.6.28 kernels. Also, Rik's "vmscan: evict use-once pages first" patch could totally stop scans of active file list when memory pressure is low. So the net effect could be, the number of buffer heads is now more likely to grow large. However that's fine according to Johannes' comments: I don't think that this could be harmful. We just preserve the buffer mappings of what we consider the working set and with low memory pressure, as you say, this set is not big. As to stripping of reactivated pages: the only pages we re-activate for now are those VM_EXEC mapped ones. Since we don't expect IO from or to these pages, removing the buffer mappings in case they grow too large should be okay, I guess. Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@cs.helsinki.fi> Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16vmscan: make mapped executable pages the first class citizenWu Fengguang
Protect referenced PROT_EXEC mapped pages from being deactivated. PROT_EXEC(or its internal presentation VM_EXEC) pages normally belong to some currently running executables and their linked libraries, they shall really be cached aggressively to provide good user experiences. Thanks to Johannes Weiner for the advice to reuse the VMA walk in page_referenced() to get the PROT_EXEC bit. [more details] ( The consequences of this patch will have to be discussed together with Rik van Riel's recent patch "vmscan: evict use-once pages first". ) ( Some of the good points and insights are taken into this changelog. Thanks to all the involved people for the great LKML discussions. ) the problem =========== For a typical desktop, the most precious working set is composed of *actively accessed* (1) memory mapped executables (2) and their anonymous pages (3) and other files (4) and the dcache/icache/.. slabs while the least important data are (5) infrequently used or use-once files For a typical desktop, one major problem is busty and large amount of (5) use-once files flushing out the working set. Inside the working set, (4) dcache/icache have already been too sticky ;-) So we only have to care (2) anonymous and (1)(3) file pages. anonymous pages =============== Anonymous pages are effectively immune to the streaming IO attack, because we now have separate file/anon LRU lists. When the use-once files crowd into the file LRU, the list's "quality" is significantly lowered. Therefore the scan balance policy in get_scan_ratio() will choose to scan the (low quality) file LRU much more frequently than the anon LRU. file pages ========== Rik proposed to *not* scan the active file LRU when the inactive list grows larger than active list. This guarantees that when there are use-once streaming IO, and the working set is not too large(so that active_size < inactive_size), the active file LRU will *not* be scanned at all. So the not-too-large working set can be well protected. But there are also situations where the file working set is a bit large so that (active_size >= inactive_size), or the streaming IOs are not purely use-once. In these cases, the active list will be scanned slowly. Because the current shrink_active_list() policy is to deactivate active pages regardless of their referenced bits. The deactivated pages become susceptible to the streaming IO attack: the inactive list could be scanned fast (500MB / 50MBps = 10s) so that the deactivated pages don't have enough time to get re-referenced. Because a user tend to switch between windows in intervals from seconds to minutes. This patch holds mapped executable pages in the active list as long as they are referenced during each full scan of the active list. Because the active list is normally scanned much slower, they get longer grace time (eg. 100s) for further references, which better matches the pace of user operations. Therefore this patch greatly prolongs the in-cache time of executable code, when there are moderate memory pressures. before patch: guaranteed to be cached if reference intervals < I after patch: guaranteed to be cached if reference intervals < I+A (except when randomly reclaimed by the lumpy reclaim) where A = time to fully scan the active file LRU I = time to fully scan the inactive file LRU Note that normally A >> I. side effects ============ This patch is safe in general, it restores the pre-2.6.28 mmap() behavior but in a much smaller and well targeted scope. One may worry about some one to abuse the PROT_EXEC heuristic. But as Andrew Morton stated, there are other tricks to getting that sort of boost. Another concern is the PROT_EXEC mapped pages growing large in rare cases, and therefore hurting reclaim efficiency. But a sane application targeted for large audience will never use PROT_EXEC for data mappings. If some home made application tries to abuse that bit, it shall be aware of the consequences. If it is abused to scale of 2/3 total memory, it gains nothing but overheads. benchmarks ========== 1) memory tight desktop 1.1) brief summary - clock time and major faults are reduced by 50%; - pswpin numbers are reduced to ~1/3. That means X desktop responsiveness is doubled under high memory/swap pressure. 1.2) test scenario - nfsroot gnome desktop with 512M physical memory - run some programs, and switch between the existing windows after starting each new program. 1.3) progress timing (seconds) before after programs 0.02 0.02 N xeyes 0.75 0.76 N firefox 2.02 1.88 N nautilus 3.36 3.17 N nautilus --browser 5.26 4.89 N gthumb 7.12 6.47 N gedit 9.22 8.16 N xpdf /usr/share/doc/shared-mime-info/shared-mime-info-spec.pdf 13.58 12.55 N xterm 15.87 14.57 N mlterm 18.63 17.06 N gnome-terminal 21.16 18.90 N urxvt 26.24 23.48 N gnome-system-monitor 28.72 26.52 N gnome-help 32.15 29.65 N gnome-dictionary 39.66 36.12 N /usr/games/sol 43.16 39.27 N /usr/games/gnometris 48.65 42.56 N /usr/games/gnect 53.31 47.03 N /usr/games/gtali 58.60 52.05 N /usr/games/iagno 65.77 55.42 N /usr/games/gnotravex 70.76 61.47 N /usr/games/mahjongg 76.15 67.11 N /usr/games/gnome-sudoku 86.32 75.15 N /usr/games/glines 92.21 79.70 N /usr/games/glchess 103.79 88.48 N /usr/games/gnomine 113.84 96.51 N /usr/games/gnotski 124.40 102.19 N /usr/games/gnibbles 137.41 114.93 N /usr/games/gnobots2 155.53 125.02 N /usr/games/blackjack 179.85 135.11 N /usr/games/same-gnome 224.49 154.50 N /usr/bin/gnome-window-properties 248.44 162.09 N /usr/bin/gnome-default-applications-properties 282.62 173.29 N /usr/bin/gnome-at-properties 323.72 188.21 N /usr/bin/gnome-typing-monitor 363.99 199.93 N /usr/bin/gnome-at-visual 394.21 206.95 N /usr/bin/gnome-sound-properties 435.14 224.49 N /usr/bin/gnome-at-mobility 463.05 234.11 N /usr/bin/gnome-keybinding-properties 503.75 248.59 N /usr/bin/gnome-about-me 554.00 276.27 N /usr/bin/gnome-display-properties 615.48 304.39 N /usr/bin/gnome-network-preferences 693.03 342.01 N /usr/bin/gnome-mouse-properties 759.90 388.58 N /usr/bin/gnome-appearance-properties 937.90 508.47 N /usr/bin/gnome-control-center 1109.75 587.57 N /usr/bin/gnome-keyboard-properties 1399.05 758.16 N : oocalc 1524.64 830.03 N : oodraw 1684.31 900.03 N : ooimpress 1874.04 993.91 N : oomath 2115.12 1081.89 N : ooweb 2369.02 1161.99 N : oowriter Note that the last ": oo*" commands are actually commented out. 1.4) vmstat numbers (some relevant ones are marked with *) before after nr_free_pages 1293 3898 nr_inactive_anon 59956 53460 nr_active_anon 26815 30026 nr_inactive_file 2657 3218 nr_active_file 2019 2806 nr_unevictable 4 4 nr_mlock 4 4 nr_anon_pages 26706 27859 *nr_mapped 3542 4469 nr_file_pages 72232 67681 nr_dirty 1 0 nr_writeback 123 19 nr_slab_reclaimable 3375 3534 nr_slab_unreclaimable 11405 10665 nr_page_table_pages 8106 7864 nr_unstable 0 0 nr_bounce 0 0 *nr_vmscan_write 394776 230839 nr_writeback_temp 0 0 numa_hit 6843353 3318676 numa_miss 0 0 numa_foreign 0 0 numa_interleave 1719 1719 numa_local 6843353 3318676 numa_other 0 0 *pgpgin 5954683 2057175 *pgpgout 1578276 922744 *pswpin 1486615 512238 *pswpout 394568 230685 pgalloc_dma 277432 56602 pgalloc_dma32 6769477 3310348 pgalloc_normal 0 0 pgalloc_movable 0 0 pgfree 7048396 3371118 pgactivate 2036343 1471492 pgdeactivate 2189691 1612829 pgfault 3702176 3100702 *pgmajfault 452116 201343 pgrefill_dma 12185 7127 pgrefill_dma32 334384 653703 pgrefill_normal 0 0 pgrefill_movable 0 0 pgsteal_dma 74214 22179 pgsteal_dma32 3334164 1638029 pgsteal_normal 0 0 pgsteal_movable 0 0 pgscan_kswapd_dma 1081421 1216199 pgscan_kswapd_dma32 58979118 46002810 pgscan_kswapd_normal 0 0 pgscan_kswapd_movable 0 0 pgscan_direct_dma 2015438 1086109 pgscan_direct_dma32 55787823 36101597 pgscan_direct_normal 0 0 pgscan_direct_movable 0 0 pginodesteal 3461 7281 slabs_scanned 564864 527616 kswapd_steal 2889797 1448082 kswapd_inodesteal 14827 14835 pageoutrun 43459 21562 allocstall 9653 4032 pgrotated 384216 228631 1.5) free numbers at the end of the tests before patch: total used free shared buffers cached Mem: 474 467 7 0 0 236 -/+ buffers/cache: 230 243 Swap: 1023 418 605 after patch: total used free shared buffers cached Mem: 474 457 16 0 0 236 -/+ buffers/cache: 221 253 Swap: 1023 404 619 2) memory flushing in a file server 2.1) brief summary The number of major faults from 50 to 3 during 10% cache hot reads. That means this patch successfully stops major faults when the active file list is slowly scanned when there are partially cache hot streaming IO. 2.2) test scenario Do 100000 pread(size=110 pages, offset=(i*100) pages), where 10% of the pages will be activated: for i in `seq 0 100 10000000`; do echo $i 110; done > pattern-hot-10 iotrace.rb --load pattern-hot-10 --play /b/sparse vmmon nr_mapped nr_active_file nr_inactive_file pgmajfault pgdeactivate pgfree and monitor /proc/vmstat during the time. The test box has 2G memory. I carried out tests on fresh booted console as well as X desktop, and fetched the vmstat numbers on (1) begin: shortly after the big read IO starts; (2) end: just before the big read IO stops; (3) restore: the big read IO stops and the zsh working set restored (4) restore X: after IO, switch back and forth between the urxvt and firefox windows to restore their working set. 2.3) console mode results nr_mapped nr_active_file nr_inactive_file pgmajfault pgdeactivate pgfree 2.6.29 VM_EXEC protection ON: begin: 2481 2237 8694 630 0 574299 end: 275 231976 233914 633 776271 20933042 restore: 370 232154 234524 691 777183 20958453 2.6.29 VM_EXEC protection ON (second run): begin: 2434 2237 8493 629 0 574195 end: 284 231970 233536 632 771918 20896129 restore: 399 232218 234789 690 774526 20957909 2.6.30-rc4-mm VM_EXEC protection OFF: begin: 2479 2344 9659 210 0 579643 end: 284 232010 234142 260 772776 20917184 restore: 379 232159 234371 301 774888 20967849 The above console numbers show that - The startup pgmajfault of 2.6.30-rc4-mm is merely 1/3 that of 2.6.29. I'd attribute that improvement to the mmap readahead improvements :-) - The pgmajfault increment during the file copy is 633-630=3 vs 260-210=50. That's a huge improvement - which means with the VM_EXEC protection logic, active mmap pages is pretty safe even under partially cache hot streaming IO. - when active:inactive file lru size reaches 1:1, their scan rates is 1:20.8 under 10% cache hot IO. (computed with formula Dpgdeactivate:Dpgfree) That roughly means the active mmap pages get 20.8 more chances to get re-referenced to stay in memory. - The absolute nr_mapped drops considerably to 1/9 during the big IO, and the dropped pages are mostly inactive ones. The patch has almost no impact in this aspect, that means it won't unnecessarily increase memory pressure. (In contrast, your 20% mmap protection ratio will keep them all, and therefore eliminate the extra 41 major faults to restore working set of zsh etc.) The iotrace.rb read throughput is 151.194384MB/s 284.198252s 100001x 450560b --load pattern-hot-10 --play /b/sparse which means the inactive list is rotated at the speed of 250MB/s, so a full scan of which takes about 3.5 seconds, while a full scan of active file list takes about 77 seconds. 2.4) X mode results We can reach roughly the same conclusions for X desktop: nr_mapped nr_active_file nr_inactive_file pgmajfault pgdeactivate pgfree 2.6.30-rc4-mm VM_EXEC protection ON: begin: 9740 8920 64075 561 0 678360 end: 768 218254 220029 565 798953 21057006 restore: 857 218543 220987 606 799462 21075710 restore X: 2414 218560 225344 797 799462 21080795 2.6.30-rc4-mm VM_EXEC protection OFF: begin: 9368 5035 26389 554 0 633391 end: 770 218449 221230 661 646472 17832500 restore: 1113 218466 220978 710 649881 17905235 restore X: 2687 218650 225484 947 802700 21083584 - the absolute nr_mapped drops considerably (to 1/13 of the original size) during the streaming IO. - the delta of pgmajfault is 3 vs 107 during IO, or 236 vs 393 during the whole process. Cc: Elladan <elladan@eskimo.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Acked-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16vmscan: report vm_flags in page_referenced()Wu Fengguang
Collect vma->vm_flags of the VMAs that actually referenced the page. This is preparing for more informed reclaim heuristics, eg. to protect executable file pages more aggressively. For now only the VM_EXEC bit will be used by the caller. Thanks to Johannes, Peter and Minchan for all the good tips. Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16mm cleanup: shmem_file_setup: 'char *' -> 'const char *' for name argumentSergei Trofimovich
As function shmem_file_setup does not modify/allocate/free/pass given filename - mark it as const. Signed-off-by: Sergei Trofimovich <slyfox@inbox.ru> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16mm: remove file argument from swap_readpage()Minchan Kim
The file argument resulted from address_space's readpage long time ago. We don't use it any more. Let's remove unnecessary argement. Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16mm: remove annotation of gfp_mask in add_to_swapMinchan Kim
Hugh removed add_to_swap's gfp_mask argument. (mm: remove gfp_mask from add_to_swap) So we have to remove annotation of gfp_mask of the function. Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16page-allocator: clear N_HIGH_MEMORY map before we set it againYinghai Lu
SRAT tables may contains nodes of very small size. The arch code may decide to not activate such a node. However, currently the early boot code sets N_HIGH_MEMORY for such nodes. These nodes therefore seem to be active although these nodes have no present pages. For 64bit N_HIGH_MEMORY == N_NORMAL_MEMORY, so that works for 64 bit too Signed-off-by: Yinghai Lu <Yinghai@kernel.org> Tested-by: Jack Steiner <steiner@sgi.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16mm: remove __invalidate_mapping_pages variantMike Waychison
Remove __invalidate_mapping_pages atomic variant now that its sole caller can sleep (fixed in eccb95cee4f0d56faa46ef22fb94dd4a3578d3eb ("vfs: fix lock inversion in drop_pagecache_sb()")). This fixes softlockups that can occur while in the drop_caches path. Signed-off-by: Mike Waychison <mikew@google.com> Cc: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Acked-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16oom: invoke oom killer for __GFP_NOFAILDavid Rientjes
The oom killer must be invoked regardless of the order if the allocation is __GFP_NOFAIL, otherwise it will loop forever when reclaim fails to free some memory. Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16oom: avoid unnecessary mm locking and scanning for OOM_DISABLEDavid Rientjes
This moves the check for OOM_DISABLE to the badness heuristic so it is only necessary to hold task_lock() once. If the mm is OOM_DISABLE, the score is 0, which is also correctly exported via /proc/pid/oom_score. This requires that tasks with badness scores of 0 are prohibited from being oom killed, which makes sense since they would not allow for future memory freeing anyway. Since the oom_adj value is a characteristic of an mm and not a task, it is no longer necessary to check the oom_adj value for threads sharing the same memory (except when simply issuing SIGKILLs for threads in other thread groups). Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16oom: move oom_adj value from task_struct to mm_structDavid Rientjes
The per-task oom_adj value is a characteristic of its mm more than the task itself since it's not possible to oom kill any thread that shares the mm. If a task were to be killed while attached to an mm that could not be freed because another thread were set to OOM_DISABLE, it would have needlessly been terminated since there is no potential for future memory freeing. This patch moves oomkilladj (now more appropriately named oom_adj) from struct task_struct to struct mm_struct. This requires task_lock() on a task to check its oom_adj value to protect against exec, but it's already necessary to take the lock when dereferencing the mm to find the total VM size for the badness heuristic. This fixes a livelock if the oom killer chooses a task and another thread sharing the same memory has an oom_adj value of OOM_DISABLE. This occurs because oom_kill_task() repeatedly returns 1 and refuses to kill the chosen task while select_bad_process() will repeatedly choose the same task during the next retry. Taking task_lock() in select_bad_process() to check for OOM_DISABLE and in oom_kill_task() to check for threads sharing the same memory will be removed in the next patch in this series where it will no longer be necessary. Writing to /proc/pid/oom_adj for a kthread will now return -EINVAL since these threads are immune from oom killing already. They simply report an oom_adj value of OOM_DISABLE. Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16mm: reuse unused swap entry if necessaryKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki
Presently we can know a swap entry is just used as SwapCache via swap_map, without looking up swap cache. Then, we have a chance to reuse swap-cache-only swap entries in get_swap_pages(). This patch tries to free swap-cache-only swap entries if swap is not enough. Note: We hit following path when swap_cluster code cannot find a free cluster. Then, vm_swap_full() is not only condition to allow the kernel to reclaim unused swap. Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: YAMAMOTO Takashi <yamamoto@valinux.co.jp> Tested-by: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16mm: modify swap_map and add SWAP_HAS_CACHE flagKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki
This is a part of the patches for fixing memcg's swap accountinf leak. But, IMHO, not a bad patch even if no memcg. There are 2 kinds of references to swap. - reference from swap entry - reference from swap cache Then, - If there is swap cache && swap's refcnt is 1, there is only swap cache. (*) swapcount(entry) == 1 && find_get_page(swapper_space, entry) != NULL This counting logic have worked well for a long time. But considering that we cannot know there is a _real_ reference or not by swap_map[], current usage of counter is not very good. This patch adds a flag SWAP_HAS_CACHE and recored information that a swap entry has a cache or not. This will remove -1 magic used in swapfile.c and be a help to avoid unnecessary find_get_page(). Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Tested-by: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: YAMAMOTO Takashi <yamamoto@valinux.co.jp> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16mm: add swap cache interface for swap referenceKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki
In a following patch, the usage of swap cache is recorded into swap_map. This patch is for necessary interface changes to do that. 2 interfaces: - swapcache_prepare() - swapcache_free() are added for allocating/freeing refcnt from swap-cache to existing swap entries. But implementation itself is not changed under this patch. At adding swapcache_free(), memcg's hook code is moved under swapcache_free(). This is better than using scattered hooks. Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Acked-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Li Zefan <lizf@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: YAMAMOTO Takashi <yamamoto@valinux.co.jp> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16mm: remove CONFIG_UNEVICTABLE_LRU config optionKOSAKI Motohiro
Currently, nobody wants to turn UNEVICTABLE_LRU off. Thus this configurability is unnecessary. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Acked-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: David Woodhouse <dwmw2@infradead.org> Cc: Matt Mackall <mpm@selenic.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16page-allocator: reset wmark_min and inactive ratio of zone when hotplug happensMinchan Kim
Solve two problems. Whenever memory hotplug sucessfully happens, zone->present_pages have to be changed. 1) Now memory hotplug calls setup_per_zone_wmark_min only when online_pages called, not offline_pages. It breaks balance. 2) If zone->present_pages is changed, we also have to change zone->inactive_ratio. That's because inactive_ratio depends on zone->present_pages. Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Acked-by: Yasunori Goto <y-goto@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16page-allocator: add inactive ratio calculation function of each zoneMinchan Kim
Factor the per-zone arithemetic inside setup_per_zone_inactive_ratio()'s loop into a a separate function, calculate_zone_inactive_ratio(). This function will be used in a later patch [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16page-allocator: clean up functions related to pages_minMinchan Kim
Change the names of two functions. It doesn't affect behavior. Presently, setup_per_zone_pages_min() changes low, high of zone as well as min. So a better name is setup_per_zone_wmarks(). That's because Mel changed zone->pages_[hig/low/min] to zone->watermark array in "page allocator: replace the watermark-related union in struct zone with a watermark[] array". * setup_per_zone_pages_min => setup_per_zone_wmarks Of course, we have to change init_per_zone_pages_min, too. There are not pages_min any more. * init_per_zone_pages_min => init_per_zone_wmark_min [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16vmscan: prevent shrinking of active anon lru list in case of no swap space V3MinChan Kim
shrink_zone() can deactivate active anon pages even if we don't have a swap device. Many embedded products don't have a swap device. So the deactivation of anon pages is unnecessary. This patch prevents unnecessary deactivation of anon lru pages. But, it don't prevent aging of anon pages to swap out. Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Acked-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16migration: only migrate_prep() once per move_pages()Brice Goglin
migrate_prep() is fairly expensive (72us on 16-core barcelona 1.9GHz). Commit 3140a2273009c01c27d316f35ab76a37e105fdd8 improved move_pages() throughput by breaking it into chunks, but it also made migrate_prep() be called once per chunk (every 128pages or so) instead of once per move_pages(). This patch reverts to calling migrate_prep() only once per chunk as we did before 2.6.29. It is also a followup to commit 0aedadf91a70a11c4a3e7c7d99b21e5528af8d5d ("mm: move migrate_prep out from under mmap_sem"). This improves migration throughput on the above machine from 600MB/s to 750MB/s. Signed-off-by: Brice Goglin <Brice.Goglin@inria.fr> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Heiko Carstens <heiko.carstens@de.ibm.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16mm, PM/Freezer: Disable OOM killer when tasks are frozenRafael J. Wysocki
Currently, the following scenario appears to be possible in theory: * Tasks are frozen for hibernation or suspend. * Free pages are almost exhausted. * Certain piece of code in the suspend code path attempts to allocate some memory using GFP_KERNEL and allocation order less than or equal to PAGE_ALLOC_COSTLY_ORDER. * __alloc_pages_internal() cannot find a free page so it invokes the OOM killer. * The OOM killer attempts to kill a task, but the task is frozen, so it doesn't die immediately. * __alloc_pages_internal() jumps to 'restart', unsuccessfully tries to find a free page and invokes the OOM killer. * No progress can be made. Although it is now hard to trigger during hibernation due to the memory shrinking carried out by the hibernation code, it is theoretically possible to trigger during suspend after the memory shrinking has been removed from that code path. Moreover, since memory allocations are going to be used for the hibernation memory shrinking, it will be even more likely to happen during hibernation. To prevent it from happening, introduce the oom_killer_disabled switch that will cause __alloc_pages_internal() to fail in the situations in which the OOM killer would have been called and make the freezer set this switch after tasks have been successfully frozen. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: be nicer to the namespace] Signed-off-by: Rafael J. Wysocki <rjw@sisk.pl> Cc: Fengguang Wu <fengguang.wu@gmail.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Acked-by: Pavel Machek <pavel@ucw.cz> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16mm: madvise(): correct return codeNick Piggin
The posix_madvise() function succeeds (and does nothing) when called with parameters (NULL, 0, -1); according to LSB tests, it should fail with EINVAL because -1 is not a valid flag. When called with a valid address and size, it correctly fails. So perform an initial check for valid flags first. Reported-by: Jiri Dluhos <jdluhos@novell.com> Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Reviewed-and-Tested-by: WANG Cong <xiyou.wangcong@gmail.com> Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@googlemail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-16page-allocator: warn if __GFP_NOFAIL is used for a large allocationAndrew Morton
__GFP_NOFAIL is a bad fiction. Allocations _can_ fail, and callers should detect and suitably handle this (and not by lamely moving the infinite loop up to the caller level either). Attempting to use __GFP_NOFAIL for a higher-order allocation is even worse, so add a once-off runtime check for this to slap people around for even thinking about trying it. Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>