path: root/mm/vmstat.c
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2013-04-29mm/vmstat: add note on safety of drain_zonestatCody P Schafer
Signed-off-by: Cody P Schafer <cody@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-04-29mm: remove CONFIG_HOTPLUG ifdefsYijing Wang
CONFIG_HOTPLUG is going away as an option, cleanup CONFIG_HOTPLUG ifdefs in mm files. Signed-off-by: Yijing Wang <wangyijing@huawei.com> Acked-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-02-23mm: add & use zone_end_pfn() and zone_spans_pfn()Cody P Schafer
Add 2 helpers (zone_end_pfn() and zone_spans_pfn()) to reduce code duplication. This also switches to using them in compaction (where an additional variable needed to be renamed), page_alloc, vmstat, memory_hotplug, and kmemleak. Note that in compaction.c I avoid calling zone_end_pfn() repeatedly because I expect at some point the sycronization issues with start_pfn & spanned_pages will need fixing, either by actually using the seqlock or clever memory barrier usage. Signed-off-by: Cody P Schafer <cody@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: David Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-02-23mm: don't wait on congested zones in balance_pgdat()Zlatko Calusic
From: Zlatko Calusic <zlatko.calusic@iskon.hr> Commit 92df3a723f84 ("mm: vmscan: throttle reclaim if encountering too many dirty pages under writeback") introduced waiting on congested zones based on a sane algorithm in shrink_inactive_list(). What this means is that there's no more need for throttling and additional heuristics in balance_pgdat(). So, let's remove it and tidy up the code. Signed-off-by: Zlatko Calusic <zlatko.calusic@iskon.hr> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <jweiner@redhat.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-02-23mm: remove MIGRATE_ISOLATE check in hotpathMinchan Kim
Several functions test MIGRATE_ISOLATE and some of those are hotpath but MIGRATE_ISOLATE is used only if we enable CONFIG_MEMORY_ISOLATION(ie, CMA, memory-hotplug and memory-failure) which are not common config option. So let's not add unnecessary overhead and code when we don't enable CONFIG_MEMORY_ISOLATION. Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Michal Nazarewicz <mina86@mina86.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-02-23mm: use zone->present_pages instead of zone->managed_pages where appropriateJiang Liu
Now we have zone->managed_pages for "pages managed by the buddy system in the zone", so replace zone->present_pages with zone->managed_pages if what the user really wants is number of allocatable pages. Signed-off-by: Jiang Liu <jiang.liu@huawei.com> Cc: Wen Congyang <wency@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Jiang Liu <jiang.liu@huawei.com> Cc: Maciej Rutecki <maciej.rutecki@gmail.com> Cc: Chris Clayton <chris2553@googlemail.com> Cc: "Rafael J . Wysocki" <rjw@sisk.pl> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Cc: Jianguo Wu <wujianguo@huawei.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-16Merge tag 'balancenuma-v11' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/mel/linux-balancenuma Pull Automatic NUMA Balancing bare-bones from Mel Gorman: "There are three implementations for NUMA balancing, this tree (balancenuma), numacore which has been developed in tip/master and autonuma which is in aa.git. In almost all respects balancenuma is the dumbest of the three because its main impact is on the VM side with no attempt to be smart about scheduling. In the interest of getting the ball rolling, it would be desirable to see this much merged for 3.8 with the view to building scheduler smarts on top and adapting the VM where required for 3.9. The most recent set of comparisons available from different people are mel: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/12/9/108 mingo: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/12/7/331 tglx: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/12/10/437 srikar: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/12/10/397 The results are a mixed bag. In my own tests, balancenuma does reasonably well. It's dumb as rocks and does not regress against mainline. On the other hand, Ingo's tests shows that balancenuma is incapable of converging for this workloads driven by perf which is bad but is potentially explained by the lack of scheduler smarts. Thomas' results show balancenuma improves on mainline but falls far short of numacore or autonuma. Srikar's results indicate we all suffer on a large machine with imbalanced node sizes. My own testing showed that recent numacore results have improved dramatically, particularly in the last week but not universally. We've butted heads heavily on system CPU usage and high levels of migration even when it shows that overall performance is better. There are also cases where it regresses. Of interest is that for specjbb in some configurations it will regress for lower numbers of warehouses and show gains for higher numbers which is not reported by the tool by default and sometimes missed in treports. Recently I reported for numacore that the JVM was crashing with NullPointerExceptions but currently it's unclear what the source of this problem is. Initially I thought it was in how numacore batch handles PTEs but I'm no longer think this is the case. It's possible numacore is just able to trigger it due to higher rates of migration. These reports were quite late in the cycle so I/we would like to start with this tree as it contains much of the code we can agree on and has not changed significantly over the last 2-3 weeks." * tag 'balancenuma-v11' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/mel/linux-balancenuma: (50 commits) mm/rmap, migration: Make rmap_walk_anon() and try_to_unmap_anon() more scalable mm/rmap: Convert the struct anon_vma::mutex to an rwsem mm: migrate: Account a transhuge page properly when rate limiting mm: numa: Account for failed allocations and isolations as migration failures mm: numa: Add THP migration for the NUMA working set scanning fault case build fix mm: numa: Add THP migration for the NUMA working set scanning fault case. mm: sched: numa: Delay PTE scanning until a task is scheduled on a new node mm: sched: numa: Control enabling and disabling of NUMA balancing if !SCHED_DEBUG mm: sched: numa: Control enabling and disabling of NUMA balancing mm: sched: Adapt the scanning rate if a NUMA hinting fault does not migrate mm: numa: Use a two-stage filter to restrict pages being migrated for unlikely task<->node relationships mm: numa: migrate: Set last_nid on newly allocated page mm: numa: split_huge_page: Transfer last_nid on tail page mm: numa: Introduce last_nid to the page frame sched: numa: Slowly increase the scanning period as NUMA faults are handled mm: numa: Rate limit setting of pte_numa if node is saturated mm: numa: Rate limit the amount of memory that is migrated between nodes mm: numa: Structures for Migrate On Fault per NUMA migration rate limiting mm: numa: Migrate pages handled during a pmd_numa hinting fault mm: numa: Migrate on reference policy ...
2012-12-12mm: introduce new field "managed_pages" to struct zoneJiang Liu
Currently a zone's present_pages is calcuated as below, which is inaccurate and may cause trouble to memory hotplug. spanned_pages - absent_pages - memmap_pages - dma_reserve. During fixing bugs caused by inaccurate zone->present_pages, we found zone->present_pages has been abused. The field zone->present_pages may have different meanings in different contexts: 1) pages existing in a zone. 2) pages managed by the buddy system. For more discussions about the issue, please refer to: http://lkml.org/lkml/2012/11/5/866 https://patchwork.kernel.org/patch/1346751/ This patchset tries to introduce a new field named "managed_pages" to struct zone, which counts "pages managed by the buddy system". And revert zone->present_pages to count "physical pages existing in a zone", which also keep in consistence with pgdat->node_present_pages. We will set an initial value for zone->managed_pages in function free_area_init_core() and will adjust it later if the initial value is inaccurate. For DMA/normal zones, the initial value is set to: (spanned_pages - absent_pages - memmap_pages - dma_reserve) Later zone->managed_pages will be adjusted to the accurate value when the bootmem allocator frees all free pages to the buddy system in function free_all_bootmem_node() and free_all_bootmem(). The bootmem allocator doesn't touch highmem pages, so highmem zones' managed_pages is set to the accurate value "spanned_pages - absent_pages" in function free_area_init_core() and won't be updated anymore. This patch also adds a new field "managed_pages" to /proc/zoneinfo and sysrq showmem. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: small comment tweaks] Signed-off-by: Jiang Liu <jiang.liu@huawei.com> Cc: Wen Congyang <wency@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Maciej Rutecki <maciej.rutecki@gmail.com> Tested-by: Chris Clayton <chris2553@googlemail.com> Cc: "Rafael J . Wysocki" <rjw@sisk.pl> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Cc: Jianguo Wu <wujianguo@huawei.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-12vmstat: use N_MEMORY instead N_HIGH_MEMORYLai Jiangshan
N_HIGH_MEMORY stands for the nodes that has normal or high memory. N_MEMORY stands for the nodes that has any memory. The code here need to handle with the nodes which have memory, we should use N_MEMORY instead. Signed-off-by: Lai Jiangshan <laijs@cn.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Signed-off-by: Wen Congyang <wency@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: Hillf Danton <dhillf@gmail.com> Cc: Lin Feng <linfeng@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-12thp, vmstat: implement HZP_ALLOC and HZP_ALLOC_FAILED eventsKirill A. Shutemov
hzp_alloc is incremented every time a huge zero page is successfully allocated. It includes allocations which where dropped due race with other allocation. Note, it doesn't count every map of the huge zero page, only its allocation. hzp_alloc_failed is incremented if kernel fails to allocate huge zero page and falls back to using small pages. Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-11mm: numa: Add pte updates, hinting and migration statsMel Gorman
It is tricky to quantify the basic cost of automatic NUMA placement in a meaningful manner. This patch adds some vmstats that can be used as part of a basic costing model. u = basic unit = sizeof(void *) Ca = cost of struct page access = sizeof(struct page) / u Cpte = Cost PTE access = Ca Cupdate = Cost PTE update = (2 * Cpte) + (2 * Wlock) where Cpte is incurred twice for a read and a write and Wlock is a constant representing the cost of taking or releasing a lock Cnumahint = Cost of a minor page fault = some high constant e.g. 1000 Cpagerw = Cost to read or write a full page = Ca + PAGE_SIZE/u Ci = Cost of page isolation = Ca + Wi where Wi is a constant that should reflect the approximate cost of the locking operation Cpagecopy = Cpagerw + (Cpagerw * Wnuma) + Ci + (Ci * Wnuma) where Wnuma is the approximate NUMA factor. 1 is local. 1.2 would imply that remote accesses are 20% more expensive Balancing cost = Cpte * numa_pte_updates + Cnumahint * numa_hint_faults + Ci * numa_pages_migrated + Cpagecopy * numa_pages_migrated Note that numa_pages_migrated is used as a measure of how many pages were isolated even though it would miss pages that failed to migrate. A vmstat counter could have been added for it but the isolation cost is pretty marginal in comparison to the overall cost so it seemed overkill. The ideal way to measure automatic placement benefit would be to count the number of remote accesses versus local accesses and do something like benefit = (remote_accesses_before - remove_access_after) * Wnuma but the information is not readily available. As a workload converges, the expection would be that the number of remote numa hints would reduce to 0. convergence = numa_hint_faults_local / numa_hint_faults where this is measured for the last N number of numa hints recorded. When the workload is fully converged the value is 1. This can measure if the placement policy is converging and how fast it is doing it. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
2012-12-11mm: compaction: Add scanned and isolated counters for compactionMel Gorman
Compaction already has tracepoints to count scanned and isolated pages but it requires that ftrace be enabled and if that information has to be written to disk then it can be disruptive. This patch adds vmstat counters for compaction called compact_migrate_scanned, compact_free_scanned and compact_isolated. With these counters, it is possible to define a basic cost model for compaction. This approximates of how much work compaction is doing and can be compared that with an oprofile showing TLB misses and see if the cost of compaction is being offset by THP for example. Minimally a compaction patch can be evaluated in terms of whether it increases or decreases cost. The basic cost model looks like this Fundamental unit u: a word sizeof(void *) Ca = cost of struct page access = sizeof(struct page) / u Cmc = Cost migrate page copy = (Ca + PAGE_SIZE/u) * 2 Cmf = Cost migrate failure = Ca * 2 Ci = Cost page isolation = (Ca + Wi) where Wi is a constant that should reflect the approximate cost of the locking operation. Csm = Cost migrate scanning = Ca Csf = Cost free scanning = Ca Overall cost = (Csm * compact_migrate_scanned) + (Csf * compact_free_scanned) + (Ci * compact_isolated) + (Cmc * pgmigrate_success) + (Cmf * pgmigrate_failed) Where the values are read from /proc/vmstat. This is very basic and ignores certain costs such as the allocation cost to do a migrate page copy but any improvement to the model would still use the same vmstat counters. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
2012-12-11mm: compaction: Move migration fail/success stats to migrate.cMel Gorman
The compact_pages_moved and compact_pagemigrate_failed events are convenient for determining if compaction is active and to what degree migration is succeeding but it's at the wrong level. Other users of migration may also want to know if migration is working properly and this will be particularly true for any automated NUMA migration. This patch moves the counters down to migration with the new events called pgmigrate_success and pgmigrate_fail. The compact_blocks_moved counter is removed because while it was useful for debugging initially, it's worthless now as no meaningful conclusions can be drawn from its value. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
2012-10-09mm: remove unevictable_pgs_mlockfreedHugh Dickins
Simply remove UNEVICTABLE_MLOCKFREED and unevictable_pgs_mlockfreed line from /proc/vmstat: Johannes and Mel point out that it was very unlikely to have been used by any tool, and of course we can restore it easily enough if that turns out to be wrong. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Cc: Ying Han <yinghan@google.com> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09memory-hotplug: fix zone stat mismatchMinchan Kim
During memory-hotplug, I found NR_ISOLATED_[ANON|FILE] are increasing, causing the kernel to hang. When the system doesn't have enough free pages, it enters reclaim but never reclaim any pages due to too_many_isolated()==true and loops forever. The cause is that when we do memory-hotadd after memory-remove, __zone_pcp_update() clears a zone's ZONE_STAT_ITEMS in setup_pageset() although the vm_stat_diff of all CPUs still have values. In addtion, when we offline all pages of the zone, we reset them in zone_pcp_reset without draining so we loss some zone stat item. Reviewed-by: Wen Congyang <wency@cn.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Kamezawa Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Yasuaki Ishimatsu <isimatu.yasuaki@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09mm: remove free_page_mlockHugh Dickins
We should not be seeing non-0 unevictable_pgs_mlockfreed any longer. So remove free_page_mlock() from the page freeing paths: __PG_MLOCKED is already in PAGE_FLAGS_CHECK_AT_FREE, so free_pages_check() will now be checking it, reporting "BUG: Bad page state" if it's ever found set. Comment UNEVICTABLE_MLOCKFREED and unevictable_pgs_mlockfreed always 0. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Cc: Ying Han <yinghan@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09cma: count free CMA pagesBartlomiej Zolnierkiewicz
Add NR_FREE_CMA_PAGES counter to be later used for checking watermark in __zone_watermark_ok(). For simplicity and to avoid #ifdef hell make this counter always available (not only when CONFIG_CMA=y). [akpm@linux-foundation.org: use conventional migratetype naming] Signed-off-by: Bartlomiej Zolnierkiewicz <b.zolnierkie@samsung.com> Signed-off-by: Kyungmin Park <kyungmin.park@samsung.com> Cc: Marek Szyprowski <m.szyprowski@samsung.com> Cc: Michal Nazarewicz <mina86@mina86.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-08-21workqueue: make deferrable delayed_work initializer names consistentTejun Heo
Initalizers for deferrable delayed_work are confused. * __DEFERRED_WORK_INITIALIZER() * DECLARE_DEFERRED_WORK() * INIT_DELAYED_WORK_DEFERRABLE() Rename them to * __DEFERRABLE_WORK_INITIALIZER() * DECLARE_DEFERRABLE_WORK() * INIT_DEFERRABLE_WORK() This patch doesn't cause any functional changes. Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
2012-07-31mm: account for the number of times direct reclaimers get throttledMel Gorman
Under significant pressure when writing back to network-backed storage, direct reclaimers may get throttled. This is expected to be a short-lived event and the processes get woken up again but processes do get stalled. This patch counts how many times such stalling occurs. It's up to the administrator whether to reduce these stalls by increasing min_free_kbytes. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: David Miller <davem@davemloft.net> Cc: Neil Brown <neilb@suse.de> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Mike Christie <michaelc@cs.wisc.edu> Cc: Eric B Munson <emunson@mgebm.net> Cc: Eric Dumazet <eric.dumazet@gmail.com> Cc: Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <sebastian@breakpoint.cc> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-05-29mm/vmstat.c: remove debug fs entries on failure of file creation and made ↵Sasikantha babu
extfrag_debug_root dentry local Remove debug fs files and directory on failure. Since no one is using "extfrag_debug_root" dentry outside of extfrag_debug_init(), make it local to the function. Signed-off-by: Sasikantha babu <sasikanth.v19@gmail.com> Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-05-21mm: mmzone: MIGRATE_CMA migration type addedMichal Nazarewicz
The MIGRATE_CMA migration type has two main characteristics: (i) only movable pages can be allocated from MIGRATE_CMA pageblocks and (ii) page allocator will never change migration type of MIGRATE_CMA pageblocks. This guarantees (to some degree) that page in a MIGRATE_CMA page block can always be migrated somewhere else (unless there's no memory left in the system). It is designed to be used for allocating big chunks (eg. 10MiB) of physically contiguous memory. Once driver requests contiguous memory, pages from MIGRATE_CMA pageblocks may be migrated away to create a contiguous block. To minimise number of migrations, MIGRATE_CMA migration type is the last type tried when page allocator falls back to other migration types when requested. Signed-off-by: Michal Nazarewicz <mina86@mina86.com> Signed-off-by: Marek Szyprowski <m.szyprowski@samsung.com> Signed-off-by: Kyungmin Park <kyungmin.park@samsung.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Tested-by: Rob Clark <rob.clark@linaro.org> Tested-by: Ohad Ben-Cohen <ohad@wizery.com> Tested-by: Benjamin Gaignard <benjamin.gaignard@linaro.org> Tested-by: Robert Nelson <robertcnelson@gmail.com> Tested-by: Barry Song <Baohua.Song@csr.com>
2012-04-25mm: fix up the vmscan stat in vmstatYing Han
The "pgsteal" stat is confusing because it counts both direct reclaim as well as background reclaim. However, we have "kswapd_steal" which also counts background reclaim value. This patch fixes it and also makes it match the existng "pgscan_" stats. Test: pgsteal_kswapd_dma32 447623 pgsteal_kswapd_normal 42272677 pgsteal_kswapd_movable 0 pgsteal_direct_dma32 2801 pgsteal_direct_normal 44353270 pgsteal_direct_movable 0 Signed-off-by: Ying Han <yinghan@google.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Hillf Danton <dhillf@gmail.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: Dan Magenheimer <dan.magenheimer@oracle.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-01-12mm,x86,um: move CMPXCHG_LOCAL config optionHeiko Carstens
Move CMPXCHG_LOCAL and rename it to HAVE_CMPXCHG_LOCAL so architectures can simply select the option if it is supported. Signed-off-by: Heiko Carstens <heiko.carstens@de.ibm.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-10-31mm/vmstat.c: cache align vm_statDimitri Sivanich
Avoid false sharing of the vm_stat array. This was found to adversely affect tmpfs I/O performance. Tests run on a 640 cpu UV system. With 120 threads doing parallel writes, each to different tmpfs mounts: No patch: ~300 MB/sec With vm_stat alignment: ~430 MB/sec Signed-off-by: Dimitri Sivanich <sivanich@sgi.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@gentwo.org> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-10-31mm: vmscan: immediately reclaim end-of-LRU dirty pages when writeback completesMel Gorman
When direct reclaim encounters a dirty page, it gets recycled around the LRU for another cycle. This patch marks the page PageReclaim similar to deactivate_page() so that the page gets reclaimed almost immediately after the page gets cleaned. This is to avoid reclaiming clean pages that are younger than a dirty page encountered at the end of the LRU that might have been something like a use-once page. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <jweiner@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: Alex Elder <aelder@sgi.com> Cc: Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-10-31mm: vmscan: do not writeback filesystem pages in direct reclaimMel Gorman
Testing from the XFS folk revealed that there is still too much I/O from the end of the LRU in kswapd. Previously it was considered acceptable by VM people for a small number of pages to be written back from reclaim with testing generally showing about 0.3% of pages reclaimed were written back (higher if memory was low). That writing back a small number of pages is ok has been heavily disputed for quite some time and Dave Chinner explained it well; It doesn't have to be a very high number to be a problem. IO is orders of magnitude slower than the CPU time it takes to flush a page, so the cost of making a bad flush decision is very high. And single page writeback from the LRU is almost always a bad flush decision. To complicate matters, filesystems respond very differently to requests from reclaim according to Christoph Hellwig; xfs tries to write it back if the requester is kswapd ext4 ignores the request if it's a delayed allocation btrfs ignores the request As a result, each filesystem has different performance characteristics when under memory pressure and there are many pages being dirtied. In some cases, the request is ignored entirely so the VM cannot depend on the IO being dispatched. The objective of this series is to reduce writing of filesystem-backed pages from reclaim, play nicely with writeback that is already in progress and throttle reclaim appropriately when writeback pages are encountered. The assumption is that the flushers will always write pages faster than if reclaim issues the IO. A secondary goal is to avoid the problem whereby direct reclaim splices two potentially deep call stacks together. There is a potential new problem as reclaim has less control over how long before a page in a particularly zone or container is cleaned and direct reclaimers depend on kswapd or flusher threads to do the necessary work. However, as filesystems sometimes ignore direct reclaim requests already, it is not expected to be a serious issue. Patch 1 disables writeback of filesystem pages from direct reclaim entirely. Anonymous pages are still written. Patch 2 removes dead code in lumpy reclaim as it is no longer able to synchronously write pages. This hurts lumpy reclaim but there is an expectation that compaction is used for hugepage allocations these days and lumpy reclaim's days are numbered. Patches 3-4 add warnings to XFS and ext4 if called from direct reclaim. With patch 1, this "never happens" and is intended to catch regressions in this logic in the future. Patch 5 disables writeback of filesystem pages from kswapd unless the priority is raised to the point where kswapd is considered to be in trouble. Patch 6 throttles reclaimers if too many dirty pages are being encountered and the zones or backing devices are congested. Patch 7 invalidates dirty pages found at the end of the LRU so they are reclaimed quickly after being written back rather than waiting for a reclaimer to find them I consider this series to be orthogonal to the writeback work but it is worth noting that the writeback work affects the viability of patch 8 in particular. I tested this on ext4 and xfs using fs_mark, a simple writeback test based on dd and a micro benchmark that does a streaming write to a large mapping (exercises use-once LRU logic) followed by streaming writes to a mix of anonymous and file-backed mappings. The command line for fs_mark when botted with 512M looked something like ./fs_mark -d /tmp/fsmark-2676 -D 100 -N 150 -n 150 -L 25 -t 1 -S0 -s 10485760 The number of files was adjusted depending on the amount of available memory so that the files created was about 3xRAM. For multiple threads, the -d switch is specified multiple times. The test machine is x86-64 with an older generation of AMD processor with 4 cores. The underlying storage was 4 disks configured as RAID-0 as this was the best configuration of storage I had available. Swap is on a separate disk. Dirty ratio was tuned to 40% instead of the default of 20%. Testing was run with and without monitors to both verify that the patches were operating as expected and that any performance gain was real and not due to interference from monitors. Here is a summary of results based on testing XFS. 512M1P-xfs Files/s mean 32.69 ( 0.00%) 34.44 ( 5.08%) 512M1P-xfs Elapsed Time fsmark 51.41 48.29 512M1P-xfs Elapsed Time simple-wb 114.09 108.61 512M1P-xfs Elapsed Time mmap-strm 113.46 109.34 512M1P-xfs Kswapd efficiency fsmark 62% 63% 512M1P-xfs Kswapd efficiency simple-wb 56% 61% 512M1P-xfs Kswapd efficiency mmap-strm 44% 42% 512M-xfs Files/s mean 30.78 ( 0.00%) 35.94 (14.36%) 512M-xfs Elapsed Time fsmark 56.08 48.90 512M-xfs Elapsed Time simple-wb 112.22 98.13 512M-xfs Elapsed Time mmap-strm 219.15 196.67 512M-xfs Kswapd efficiency fsmark 54% 56% 512M-xfs Kswapd efficiency simple-wb 54% 55% 512M-xfs Kswapd efficiency mmap-strm 45% 44% 512M-4X-xfs Files/s mean 30.31 ( 0.00%) 33.33 ( 9.06%) 512M-4X-xfs Elapsed Time fsmark 63.26 55.88 512M-4X-xfs Elapsed Time simple-wb 100.90 90.25 512M-4X-xfs Elapsed Time mmap-strm 261.73 255.38 512M-4X-xfs Kswapd efficiency fsmark 49% 50% 512M-4X-xfs Kswapd efficiency simple-wb 54% 56% 512M-4X-xfs Kswapd efficiency mmap-strm 37% 36% 512M-16X-xfs Files/s mean 60.89 ( 0.00%) 65.22 ( 6.64%) 512M-16X-xfs Elapsed Time fsmark 67.47 58.25 512M-16X-xfs Elapsed Time simple-wb 103.22 90.89 512M-16X-xfs Elapsed Time mmap-strm 237.09 198.82 512M-16X-xfs Kswapd efficiency fsmark 45% 46% 512M-16X-xfs Kswapd efficiency simple-wb 53% 55% 512M-16X-xfs Kswapd efficiency mmap-strm 33% 33% Up until 512-4X, the FSmark improvements were statistically significant. For the 4X and 16X tests the results were within standard deviations but just barely. The time to completion for all tests is improved which is an important result. In general, kswapd efficiency is not affected by skipping dirty pages. 1024M1P-xfs Files/s mean 39.09 ( 0.00%) 41.15 ( 5.01%) 1024M1P-xfs Elapsed Time fsmark 84.14 80.41 1024M1P-xfs Elapsed Time simple-wb 210.77 184.78 1024M1P-xfs Elapsed Time mmap-strm 162.00 160.34 1024M1P-xfs Kswapd efficiency fsmark 69% 75% 1024M1P-xfs Kswapd efficiency simple-wb 71% 77% 1024M1P-xfs Kswapd efficiency mmap-strm 43% 44% 1024M-xfs Files/s mean 35.45 ( 0.00%) 37.00 ( 4.19%) 1024M-xfs Elapsed Time fsmark 94.59 91.00 1024M-xfs Elapsed Time simple-wb 229.84 195.08 1024M-xfs Elapsed Time mmap-strm 405.38 440.29 1024M-xfs Kswapd efficiency fsmark 79% 71% 1024M-xfs Kswapd efficiency simple-wb 74% 74% 1024M-xfs Kswapd efficiency mmap-strm 39% 42% 1024M-4X-xfs Files/s mean 32.63 ( 0.00%) 35.05 ( 6.90%) 1024M-4X-xfs Elapsed Time fsmark 103.33 97.74 1024M-4X-xfs Elapsed Time simple-wb 204.48 178.57 1024M-4X-xfs Elapsed Time mmap-strm 528.38 511.88 1024M-4X-xfs Kswapd efficiency fsmark 81% 70% 1024M-4X-xfs Kswapd efficiency simple-wb 73% 72% 1024M-4X-xfs Kswapd efficiency mmap-strm 39% 38% 1024M-16X-xfs Files/s mean 42.65 ( 0.00%) 42.97 ( 0.74%) 1024M-16X-xfs Elapsed Time fsmark 103.11 99.11 1024M-16X-xfs Elapsed Time simple-wb 200.83 178.24 1024M-16X-xfs Elapsed Time mmap-strm 397.35 459.82 1024M-16X-xfs Kswapd efficiency fsmark 84% 69% 1024M-16X-xfs Kswapd efficiency simple-wb 74% 73% 1024M-16X-xfs Kswapd efficiency mmap-strm 39% 40% All FSMark tests up to 16X had statistically significant improvements. For the most part, tests are completing faster with the exception of the streaming writes to a mixture of anonymous and file-backed mappings which were slower in two cases In the cases where the mmap-strm tests were slower, there was more swapping due to dirty pages being skipped. The number of additional pages swapped is almost identical to the fewer number of pages written from reclaim. In other words, roughly the same number of pages were reclaimed but swapping was slower. As the test is a bit unrealistic and stresses memory heavily, the small shift is acceptable. 4608M1P-xfs Files/s mean 29.75 ( 0.00%) 30.96 ( 3.91%) 4608M1P-xfs Elapsed Time fsmark 512.01 492.15 4608M1P-xfs Elapsed Time simple-wb 618.18 566.24 4608M1P-xfs Elapsed Time mmap-strm 488.05 465.07 4608M1P-xfs Kswapd efficiency fsmark 93% 86% 4608M1P-xfs Kswapd efficiency simple-wb 88% 84% 4608M1P-xfs Kswapd efficiency mmap-strm 46% 45% 4608M-xfs Files/s mean 27.60 ( 0.00%) 28.85 ( 4.33%) 4608M-xfs Elapsed Time fsmark 555.96 532.34 4608M-xfs Elapsed Time simple-wb 659.72 571.85 4608M-xfs Elapsed Time mmap-strm 1082.57 1146.38 4608M-xfs Kswapd efficiency fsmark 89% 91% 4608M-xfs Kswapd efficiency simple-wb 88% 82% 4608M-xfs Kswapd efficiency mmap-strm 48% 46% 4608M-4X-xfs Files/s mean 26.00 ( 0.00%) 27.47 ( 5.35%) 4608M-4X-xfs Elapsed Time fsmark 592.91 564.00 4608M-4X-xfs Elapsed Time simple-wb 616.65 575.07 4608M-4X-xfs Elapsed Time mmap-strm 1773.02 1631.53 4608M-4X-xfs Kswapd efficiency fsmark 90% 94% 4608M-4X-xfs Kswapd efficiency simple-wb 87% 82% 4608M-4X-xfs Kswapd efficiency mmap-strm 43% 43% 4608M-16X-xfs Files/s mean 26.07 ( 0.00%) 26.42 ( 1.32%) 4608M-16X-xfs Elapsed Time fsmark 602.69 585.78 4608M-16X-xfs Elapsed Time simple-wb 606.60 573.81 4608M-16X-xfs Elapsed Time mmap-strm 1549.75 1441.86 4608M-16X-xfs Kswapd efficiency fsmark 98% 98% 4608M-16X-xfs Kswapd efficiency simple-wb 88% 82% 4608M-16X-xfs Kswapd efficiency mmap-strm 44% 42% Unlike the other tests, the fsmark results are not statistically significant but the min and max times are both improved and for the most part, tests completed faster. There are other indications that this is an improvement as well. For example, in the vast majority of cases, there were fewer pages scanned by direct reclaim implying in many cases that stalls due to direct reclaim are reduced. KSwapd is scanning more due to skipping dirty pages which is unfortunate but the CPU usage is still acceptable In an earlier set of tests, I used blktrace and in almost all cases throughput throughout the entire test was higher. However, I ended up discarding those results as recording blktrace data was too heavy for my liking. On a laptop, I plugged in a USB stick and ran a similar tests of tests using it as backing storage. A desktop environment was running and for the entire duration of the tests, firefox and gnome terminal were launching and exiting to vaguely simulate a user. 1024M-xfs Files/s mean 0.41 ( 0.00%) 0.44 ( 6.82%) 1024M-xfs Elapsed Time fsmark 2053.52 1641.03 1024M-xfs Elapsed Time simple-wb 1229.53 768.05 1024M-xfs Elapsed Time mmap-strm 4126.44 4597.03 1024M-xfs Kswapd efficiency fsmark 84% 85% 1024M-xfs Kswapd efficiency simple-wb 92% 81% 1024M-xfs Kswapd efficiency mmap-strm 60% 51% 1024M-xfs Avg wait ms fsmark 5404.53 4473.87 1024M-xfs Avg wait ms simple-wb 2541.35 1453.54 1024M-xfs Avg wait ms mmap-strm 3400.25 3852.53 The mmap-strm results were hurt because firefox launching had a tendency to push the test out of memory. On the postive side, firefox launched marginally faster with the patches applied. Time to completion for many tests was faster but more importantly - the "Avg wait" time as measured by iostat was far lower implying the system would be more responsive. It was also the case that "Avg wait ms" on the root filesystem was lower. I tested it manually and while the system felt slightly more responsive while copying data to a USB stick, it was marginal enough that it could be my imagination. This patch: do not writeback filesystem pages in direct reclaim. When kswapd is failing to keep zones above the min watermark, a process will enter direct reclaim in the same manner kswapd does. If a dirty page is encountered during the scan, this page is written to backing storage using mapping->writepage. This causes two problems. First, it can result in very deep call stacks, particularly if the target storage or filesystem are complex. Some filesystems ignore write requests from direct reclaim as a result. The second is that a single-page flush is inefficient in terms of IO. While there is an expectation that the elevator will merge requests, this does not always happen. Quoting Christoph Hellwig; The elevator has a relatively small window it can operate on, and can never fix up a bad large scale writeback pattern. This patch prevents direct reclaim writing back filesystem pages by checking if current is kswapd. Anonymous pages are still written to swap as there is not the equivalent of a flusher thread for anonymous pages. If the dirty pages cannot be written back, they are placed back on the LRU lists. There is now a direct dependency on dirty page balancing to prevent too many pages in the system being dirtied which would prevent reclaim making forward progress. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: Johannes Weiner <jweiner@redhat.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: Alex Elder <aelder@sgi.com> Cc: Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-09-14numa: fix NUMA compile error when sysfs and procfs are disabledDavid Rientjes
The vmstat_text array is only defined for CONFIG_SYSFS or CONFIG_PROC_FS, yet it is referenced for per-node vmstat with CONFIG_NUMA: drivers/built-in.o: In function `node_read_vmstat': node.c:(.text+0x1106df): undefined reference to `vmstat_text' Introduced in commit fa25c503dfa2 ("mm: per-node vmstat: show proper vmstats"). Define the array for CONFIG_NUMA as well. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: remove unneeded ifdefs] Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Reported-by: Cong Wang <amwang@redhat.com> Acked-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@xenotime.net> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-05-25mm, mem-hotplug: update pcp->stat_threshold when memory hotplug occurKOSAKI Motohiro
Currently, cpu hotplug updates pcp->stat_threshold, but memory hotplug doesn't. There is no reason for this. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix CONFIG_SMP=n build] Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-05-25mm: per-node vmstat: show proper vmstatsKOSAKI Motohiro
commit 2ac390370a ("writeback: add /sys/devices/system/node/<node>/vmstat") added vmstat entry. But strangely it only show nr_written and nr_dirtied. # cat /sys/devices/system/node/node20/vmstat nr_written 0 nr_dirtied 0 Of course, It's not adequate. With this patch, the vmstat show all vm stastics as /proc/vmstat. # cat /sys/devices/system/node/node0/vmstat nr_free_pages 899224 nr_inactive_anon 201 nr_active_anon 17380 nr_inactive_file 31572 nr_active_file 28277 nr_unevictable 0 nr_mlock 0 nr_anon_pages 17321 nr_mapped 8640 nr_file_pages 60107 nr_dirty 33 nr_writeback 0 nr_slab_reclaimable 6850 nr_slab_unreclaimable 7604 nr_page_table_pages 3105 nr_kernel_stack 175 nr_unstable 0 nr_bounce 0 nr_vmscan_write 0 nr_writeback_temp 0 nr_isolated_anon 0 nr_isolated_file 0 nr_shmem 260 nr_dirtied 1050 nr_written 938 numa_hit 962872 numa_miss 0 numa_foreign 0 numa_interleave 8617 numa_local 962872 numa_other 0 nr_anon_transparent_hugepages 0 [akpm@linux-foundation.org: no externs in .c files] Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@xenotime.net> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-04-14mm: add VM counters for transparent hugepagesAndi Kleen
I found it difficult to make sense of transparent huge pages without having any counters for its actions. Add some counters to vmstat for allocation of transparent hugepages and fallback to smaller pages. Optional patch, but useful for development and understanding the system. Contains improvements from Andrea Arcangeli and Johannes Weiner [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] [hannes@cmpxchg.org: fix vmstat_text[] entries] Signed-off-by: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Acked-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-04-14vmstat: update comment regarding stat_thresholdChristoph Lameter
Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-03-22mm: add __GFP_OTHER_NODE flagAndi Kleen
Add a new __GFP_OTHER_NODE flag to tell the low level numa statistics in zone_statistics() that an allocation is on behalf of another thread. This way the local and remote counters can be still correct, even when background daemons like khugepaged are changing memory mappings. This only affects the accounting, but I think it's worth doing that right to avoid confusing users. I first tried to just pass down the right node, but this required a lot of changes to pass down this parameter and at least one addition of a 10th argument to a 9 argument function. Using the flag is a lot less intrusive. Open: should be also used for migration? [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] Signed-off-by: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-01-13thp: transparent hugepage vmstatAndrea Arcangeli
Add hugepage stat information to /proc/vmstat and /proc/meminfo. Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-01-13mm: vmstat: use a single setter function and callback for adjusting percpu ↵Mel Gorman
thresholds reduce_pgdat_percpu_threshold() and restore_pgdat_percpu_threshold() exist to adjust the per-cpu vmstat thresholds while kswapd is awake to avoid errors due to counter drift. The functions duplicate some code so this patch replaces them with a single set_pgdat_percpu_threshold() that takes a callback function to calculate the desired threshold as a parameter. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: readability tweak] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: set_pgdat_percpu_threshold(): don't use for_each_online_cpu] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-01-13mm: page allocator: adjust the per-cpu counter threshold when memory is lowMel Gorman
Commit aa45484 ("calculate a better estimate of NR_FREE_PAGES when memory is low") noted that watermarks were based on the vmstat NR_FREE_PAGES. To avoid synchronization overhead, these counters are maintained on a per-cpu basis and drained both periodically and when a threshold is above a threshold. On large CPU systems, the difference between the estimate and real value of NR_FREE_PAGES can be very high. The system can get into a case where pages are allocated far below the min watermark potentially causing livelock issues. The commit solved the problem by taking a better reading of NR_FREE_PAGES when memory was low. Unfortately, as reported by Shaohua Li this accurate reading can consume a large amount of CPU time on systems with many sockets due to cache line bouncing. This patch takes a different approach. For large machines where counter drift might be unsafe and while kswapd is awake, the per-cpu thresholds for the target pgdat are reduced to limit the level of drift to what should be a safe level. This incurs a performance penalty in heavy memory pressure by a factor that depends on the workload and the machine but the machine should function correctly without accidentally exhausting all memory on a node. There is an additional cost when kswapd wakes and sleeps but the event is not expected to be frequent - in Shaohua's test case, there was one recorded sleep and wake event at least. To ensure that kswapd wakes up, a safe version of zone_watermark_ok() is introduced that takes a more accurate reading of NR_FREE_PAGES when called from wakeup_kswapd, when deciding whether it is really safe to go back to sleep in sleeping_prematurely() and when deciding if a zone is really balanced or not in balance_pgdat(). We are still using an expensive function but limiting how often it is called. When the test case is reproduced, the time spent in the watermark functions is reduced. The following report is on the percentage of time spent cumulatively spent in the functions zone_nr_free_pages(), zone_watermark_ok(), __zone_watermark_ok(), zone_watermark_ok_safe(), zone_page_state_snapshot(), zone_page_state(). vanilla 11.6615% disable-threshold 0.2584% David said: : We had to pull aa454840 "mm: page allocator: calculate a better estimate : of NR_FREE_PAGES when memory is low and kswapd is awake" from 2.6.36 : internally because tests showed that it would cause the machine to stall : as the result of heavy kswapd activity. I merged it back with this fix as : it is pending in the -mm tree and it solves the issue we were seeing, so I : definitely think this should be pushed to -stable (and I would seriously : consider it for 2.6.37 inclusion even at this late date). Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reported-by: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Tested-by: Nicolas Bareil <nico@chdir.org> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Kyle McMartin <kyle@mcmartin.ca> Cc: <stable@kernel.org> [, 2.6.36.x] Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-01-07Merge branch 'for-2.6.38' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/percpu * 'for-2.6.38' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/percpu: (30 commits) gameport: use this_cpu_read instead of lookup x86: udelay: Use this_cpu_read to avoid address calculation x86: Use this_cpu_inc_return for nmi counter x86: Replace uses of current_cpu_data with this_cpu ops x86: Use this_cpu_ops to optimize code vmstat: User per cpu atomics to avoid interrupt disable / enable irq_work: Use per cpu atomics instead of regular atomics cpuops: Use cmpxchg for xchg to avoid lock semantics x86: this_cpu_cmpxchg and this_cpu_xchg operations percpu: Generic this_cpu_cmpxchg() and this_cpu_xchg support percpu,x86: relocate this_cpu_add_return() and friends connector: Use this_cpu operations xen: Use this_cpu_inc_return taskstats: Use this_cpu_ops random: Use this_cpu_inc_return fs: Use this_cpu_inc_return in buffer.c highmem: Use this_cpu_xx_return() operations vmstat: Use this_cpu_inc_return for vm statistics x86: Support for this_cpu_add, sub, dec, inc_return percpu: Generic support for this_cpu_add, sub, dec, inc_return ... Fixed up conflicts: in arch/x86/kernel/{apic/nmi.c, apic/x2apic_uv_x.c, process.c} as per Tejun.
2011-01-07Merge branch 'for-2.6.38' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/wqLinus Torvalds
* 'for-2.6.38' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/wq: (33 commits) usb: don't use flush_scheduled_work() speedtch: don't abuse struct delayed_work media/video: don't use flush_scheduled_work() media/video: explicitly flush request_module work ioc4: use static work_struct for ioc4_load_modules() init: don't call flush_scheduled_work() from do_initcalls() s390: don't use flush_scheduled_work() rtc: don't use flush_scheduled_work() mmc: update workqueue usages mfd: update workqueue usages dvb: don't use flush_scheduled_work() leds-wm8350: don't use flush_scheduled_work() mISDN: don't use flush_scheduled_work() macintosh/ams: don't use flush_scheduled_work() vmwgfx: don't use flush_scheduled_work() tpm: don't use flush_scheduled_work() sonypi: don't use flush_scheduled_work() hvsi: don't use flush_scheduled_work() xen: don't use flush_scheduled_work() gdrom: don't use flush_scheduled_work() ... Fixed up trivial conflict in drivers/media/video/bt8xx/bttv-input.c as per Tejun.
2010-12-18vmstat: User per cpu atomics to avoid interrupt disable / enableChristoph Lameter
Currently the operations to increment vm counters must disable interrupts in order to not mess up their housekeeping of counters. So use this_cpu_cmpxchg() to avoid the overhead. Since we can no longer count on preremption being disabled we still have some minor issues. The fetching of the counter thresholds is racy. A threshold from another cpu may be applied if we happen to be rescheduled on another cpu. However, the following vmstat operation will then bring the counter again under the threshold limit. The operations for __xxx_zone_state are not changed since the caller has taken care of the synchronization needs (and therefore the cycle count is even less than the optimized version for the irq disable case provided here). The optimization using this_cpu_cmpxchg will only be used if the arch supports efficient this_cpu_ops (must have CONFIG_CMPXCHG_LOCAL set!) The use of this_cpu_cmpxchg reduces the cycle count for the counter operations by %80 (inc_zone_page_state goes from 170 cycles to 32). Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com>
2010-12-17vmstat: Use this_cpu_inc_return for vm statisticsChristoph Lameter
this_cpu_inc_return() saves us a memory access there. Code size does not change. V1->V2: - Fixed the location of the __per_cpu pointer attributes - Sparse checked V2->V3: - Move fixes to __percpu attribute usage to earlier patch Reviewed-by: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org> Acked-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com> Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
2010-12-17vmstat: Optimize zone counter modifications through the use of this cpu ↵Christoph Lameter
operations this cpu operations can be used to slightly optimize the function. The changes will avoid some address calculations and replace them with the use of the percpu segment register. If one would have this_cpu_inc_return and this_cpu_dec_return then it would be possible to optimize inc_zone_page_state and dec_zone_page_state even more. V1->V2: - Fix __dec_zone_state overflow handling - Use s8 variables for temporary storage. V2->V3: - Put __percpu annotations in correct places. Reviewed-by: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org> Acked-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com> Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
2010-12-15workqueue: convert cancel_rearming_delayed_work[queue]() users to ↵Tejun Heo
cancel_delayed_work_sync() cancel_rearming_delayed_work[queue]() has been superceded by cancel_delayed_work_sync() quite some time ago. Convert all the in-kernel users. The conversions are completely equivalent and trivial. Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Acked-by: "David S. Miller" <davem@davemloft.net> Acked-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@suse.de> Acked-by: Evgeniy Polyakov <zbr@ioremap.net> Cc: Jeff Garzik <jgarzik@pobox.com> Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org> Cc: Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab@infradead.org> Cc: netdev@vger.kernel.org Cc: Anton Vorontsov <cbou@mail.ru> Cc: David Woodhouse <dwmw2@infradead.org> Cc: "J. Bruce Fields" <bfields@fieldses.org> Cc: Neil Brown <neilb@suse.de> Cc: Alex Elder <aelder@sgi.com> Cc: xfs-masters@oss.sgi.com Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@cs.helsinki.fi> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: netfilter-devel@vger.kernel.org Cc: Trond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com> Cc: linux-nfs@vger.kernel.org
2010-12-02vmstat: fix dirty threshold orderingWu Fengguang
The nr_dirty_[background_]threshold fields are misplaced before the numa_* fields, and users will read strange values. This is the right order. Before patch, nr_dirty_background_threshold will read as 0 (the value from numa_miss). numa_hit 128501 numa_miss 0 numa_foreign 0 numa_interleave 7388 numa_local 128501 numa_other 0 nr_dirty_threshold 144291 nr_dirty_background_threshold 72145 Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-11-03vmstat: fix offset calculation on void*Wu Fengguang
Fix regression introduced by commit 79da826aee6 ("writeback: report dirty thresholds in /proc/vmstat"). The incorrect pointer arithmetic can result in problems like this: BUG: unable to handle kernel paging request at 07c06d16 IP: [<c050c336>] strnlen+0x6/0x20 Call Trace: [<c050a249>] ? string+0x39/0xe0 [<c042be6b>] ? __wake_up_common+0x4b/0x80 [<c050afcc>] ? vsnprintf+0x1ec/0x380 [<c04b380e>] ? seq_printf+0x2e/0x60 [<c04829a6>] ? vmstat_show+0x26/0x30 [<c04b3bb6>] ? seq_read+0xa6/0x380 [<c04b3b10>] ? seq_read+0x0/0x380 [<c04d5d2f>] ? proc_reg_read+0x5f/0x90 [<c049c4a1>] ? vfs_read+0xa1/0x140 [<c04d5cd0>] ? proc_reg_read+0x0/0x90 [<c049c981>] ? sys_read+0x41/0x70 [<c0402bd0>] ? sysenter_do_call+0x12/0x26 Reported-by: Tetsuo Handa <penguin-kernel@I-love.SAKURA.ne.jp> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-26vmstat: include compaction.h when CONFIG_COMPACTIONNamhyung Kim
This removes following warning from sparse: mm/vmstat.c:466:5: warning: symbol 'fragmentation_index' was not declared. Should it be static? [akpm@linux-foundation.org: move the include to top-of-file] Signed-off-by: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-26writeback: report dirty thresholds in /proc/vmstatMichael Rubin
The kernel already exposes the user desired thresholds in /proc/sys/vm with dirty_background_ratio and background_ratio. But the kernel may alter the number requested without giving the user any indication that is the case. Knowing the actual ratios the kernel is honoring can help app developers understand how their buffered IO will be sent to the disk. $ grep threshold /proc/vmstat nr_dirty_threshold 409111 nr_dirty_background_threshold 818223 Signed-off-by: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-26writeback: add nr_dirtied and nr_written to /proc/vmstatMichael Rubin
To help developers and applications gain visibility into writeback behaviour adding two entries to vm_stat_items and /proc/vmstat. This will allow us to track the "written" and "dirtied" counts. # grep nr_dirtied /proc/vmstat nr_dirtied 3747 # grep nr_written /proc/vmstat nr_written 3618 Signed-off-by: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Reviewed-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-09-09mm: page allocator: calculate a better estimate of NR_FREE_PAGES when memory ↵Christoph Lameter
is low and kswapd is awake Ordinarily watermark checks are based on the vmstat NR_FREE_PAGES as it is cheaper than scanning a number of lists. To avoid synchronization overhead, counter deltas are maintained on a per-cpu basis and drained both periodically and when the delta is above a threshold. On large CPU systems, the difference between the estimated and real value of NR_FREE_PAGES can be very high. If NR_FREE_PAGES is much higher than number of real free page in buddy, the VM can allocate pages below min watermark, at worst reducing the real number of pages to zero. Even if the OOM killer kills some victim for freeing memory, it may not free memory if the exit path requires a new page resulting in livelock. This patch introduces a zone_page_state_snapshot() function (courtesy of Christoph) that takes a slightly more accurate view of an arbitrary vmstat counter. It is used to read NR_FREE_PAGES while kswapd is awake to avoid the watermark being accidentally broken. The estimate is not perfect and may result in cache line bounces but is expected to be lighter than the IPI calls necessary to continually drain the per-cpu counters while kswapd is awake. Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-09-09vmstat: update zone stat threshold when onlining a cpuKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki
refresh_zone_stat_thresholds() calculates parameter based on the number of online cpus. It's called at cpu offlining but needs to be called at onlining, too. Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-09vmscan: kill prev_priority completelyKOSAKI Motohiro
Since 2.6.28 zone->prev_priority is unused. Then it can be removed safely. It reduce stack usage slightly. Now I have to say that I'm sorry. 2 years ago, I thought prev_priority can be integrate again, it's useful. but four (or more) times trying haven't got good performance number. Thus I give up such approach. The rest of this changelog is notes on prev_priority and why it existed in the first place and why it might be not necessary any more. This information is based heavily on discussions between Andrew Morton, Rik van Riel and Kosaki Motohiro who is heavily quotes from. Historically prev_priority was important because it determined when the VM would start unmapping PTE pages. i.e. there are no balances of note within the VM, Anon vs File and Mapped vs Unmapped. Without prev_priority, there is a potential risk of unnecessarily increasing minor faults as a large amount of read activity of use-once pages could push mapped pages to the end of the LRU and get unmapped. There is no proof this is still a problem but currently it is not considered to be. Active files are not deactivated if the active file list is smaller than the inactive list reducing the liklihood that file-mapped pages are being pushed off the LRU and referenced executable pages are kept on the active list to avoid them getting pushed out by read activity. Even if it is a problem, prev_priority prev_priority wouldn't works nowadays. First of all, current vmscan still a lot of UP centric code. it expose some weakness on some dozens CPUs machine. I think we need more and more improvement. The problem is, current vmscan mix up per-system-pressure, per-zone-pressure and per-task-pressure a bit. example, prev_priority try to boost priority to other concurrent priority. but if the another task have mempolicy restriction, it is unnecessary, but also makes wrong big latency and exceeding reclaim. per-task based priority + prev_priority adjustment make the emulation of per-system pressure. but it have two issue 1) too rough and brutal emulation 2) we need per-zone pressure, not per-system. Another example, currently DEF_PRIORITY is 12. it mean the lru rotate about 2 cycle (1/4096 + 1/2048 + 1/1024 + .. + 1) before invoking OOM-Killer. but if 10,0000 thrreads enter DEF_PRIORITY reclaim at the same time, the system have higher memory pressure than priority==0 (1/4096*10,000 > 2). prev_priority can't solve such multithreads workload issue. In other word, prev_priority concept assume the sysmtem don't have lots threads." Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-09mm: use for_each_online_cpu() in vmstatMinchan Kim
The sum_vm_events passes cpumask for for_each_cpu(). But it's useless since we have for_each_online_cpu. Althougth it's tirival overhead, it's not good about coding consistency. Let's use for_each_online_cpu instead of for_each_cpu with cpumask argument. Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>