path: root/mm/quicklist.c
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2011-10-31mm: delete various needless include <linux/module.h>Paul Gortmaker
There is nothing modular in these files, and no reason to drag in all the 357 headers that module.h brings with it, since it just slows down compiles. Signed-off-by: Paul Gortmaker <paul.gortmaker@windriver.com>
2010-03-30include cleanup: Update gfp.h and slab.h includes to prepare for breaking ↵Tejun Heo
implicit slab.h inclusion from percpu.h percpu.h is included by sched.h and module.h and thus ends up being included when building most .c files. percpu.h includes slab.h which in turn includes gfp.h making everything defined by the two files universally available and complicating inclusion dependencies. percpu.h -> slab.h dependency is about to be removed. Prepare for this change by updating users of gfp and slab facilities include those headers directly instead of assuming availability. As this conversion needs to touch large number of source files, the following script is used as the basis of conversion. http://userweb.kernel.org/~tj/misc/slabh-sweep.py The script does the followings. * Scan files for gfp and slab usages and update includes such that only the necessary includes are there. ie. if only gfp is used, gfp.h, if slab is used, slab.h. * When the script inserts a new include, it looks at the include blocks and try to put the new include such that its order conforms to its surrounding. It's put in the include block which contains core kernel includes, in the same order that the rest are ordered - alphabetical, Christmas tree, rev-Xmas-tree or at the end if there doesn't seem to be any matching order. * If the script can't find a place to put a new include (mostly because the file doesn't have fitting include block), it prints out an error message indicating which .h file needs to be added to the file. The conversion was done in the following steps. 1. The initial automatic conversion of all .c files updated slightly over 4000 files, deleting around 700 includes and adding ~480 gfp.h and ~3000 slab.h inclusions. The script emitted errors for ~400 files. 2. Each error was manually checked. Some didn't need the inclusion, some needed manual addition while adding it to implementation .h or embedding .c file was more appropriate for others. This step added inclusions to around 150 files. 3. The script was run again and the output was compared to the edits from #2 to make sure no file was left behind. 4. Several build tests were done and a couple of problems were fixed. e.g. lib/decompress_*.c used malloc/free() wrappers around slab APIs requiring slab.h to be added manually. 5. The script was run on all .h files but without automatically editing them as sprinkling gfp.h and slab.h inclusions around .h files could easily lead to inclusion dependency hell. Most gfp.h inclusion directives were ignored as stuff from gfp.h was usually wildly available and often used in preprocessor macros. Each slab.h inclusion directive was examined and added manually as necessary. 6. percpu.h was updated not to include slab.h. 7. Build test were done on the following configurations and failures were fixed. CONFIG_GCOV_KERNEL was turned off for all tests (as my distributed build env didn't work with gcov compiles) and a few more options had to be turned off depending on archs to make things build (like ipr on powerpc/64 which failed due to missing writeq). * x86 and x86_64 UP and SMP allmodconfig and a custom test config. * powerpc and powerpc64 SMP allmodconfig * sparc and sparc64 SMP allmodconfig * ia64 SMP allmodconfig * s390 SMP allmodconfig * alpha SMP allmodconfig * um on x86_64 SMP allmodconfig 8. percpu.h modifications were reverted so that it could be applied as a separate patch and serve as bisection point. Given the fact that I had only a couple of failures from tests on step 6, I'm fairly confident about the coverage of this conversion patch. If there is a breakage, it's likely to be something in one of the arch headers which should be easily discoverable easily on most builds of the specific arch. Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Guess-its-ok-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com>
2009-09-24cpumask: use new-style cpumask ops in mm/quicklist.Rusty Russell
This slipped past the previous sweeps. Signed-off-by: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org>
2009-06-24percpu: cleanup percpu array definitionsTejun Heo
Currently, the following three different ways to define percpu arrays are in use. 1. DEFINE_PER_CPU(elem_type[array_len], array_name); 2. DEFINE_PER_CPU(elem_type, array_name[array_len]); 3. DEFINE_PER_CPU(elem_type, array_name)[array_len]; Unify to #1 which correctly separates the roles of the two parameters and thus allows more flexibility in the way percpu variables are defined. [ Impact: cleanup ] Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com> Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jeremy Fitzhardinge <jeremy@xensource.com> Cc: linux-mm@kvack.org Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2009-03-13cpumask: replace node_to_cpumask with cpumask_of_node.Rusty Russell
Impact: cleanup node_to_cpumask (and the blecherous node_to_cpumask_ptr which contained a declaration) are replaced now everyone implements cpumask_of_node. Signed-off-by: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au>
2008-09-02mm: size of quicklists shouldn't be proportional to the number of CPUsKOSAKI Motohiro
Quicklists store pages for each CPU as caches. (Each CPU can cache node_free_pages/16 pages) It is used for page table cache. exit() will increase the cache size, while fork() consumes it. So for example if an apache-style application runs (one parent and many child model), one CPU process will fork() while another CPU will process the middleware work and exit(). At that time, the CPU on which the parent runs doesn't have page table cache at all. Others (on which children runs) have maximum caches. QList_max = (#ofCPUs - 1) x Free / 16 => QList_max / (Free + QList_max) = (#ofCPUs - 1) / (16 + #ofCPUs - 1) So, How much quicklist memory is used in the maximum case? This is proposional to # of CPUs because the limit of per cpu quicklist cache doesn't see the number of cpus. Above calculation mean Number of CPUs per node 2 4 8 16 ============================== ==================== QList_max / (Free + QList_max) 5.8% 16% 30% 48% Wow! Quicklist can spend about 50% memory at worst case. My demonstration program is here -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- #define _GNU_SOURCE #include <stdio.h> #include <errno.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <string.h> #include <sched.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <sys/mman.h> #include <sys/wait.h> #define BUFFSIZE 512 int max_cpu(void) /* get max number of logical cpus from /proc/cpuinfo */ { FILE *fd; char *ret, buffer[BUFFSIZE]; int cpu = 1; fd = fopen("/proc/cpuinfo", "r"); if (fd == NULL) { perror("fopen(/proc/cpuinfo)"); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } while (1) { ret = fgets(buffer, BUFFSIZE, fd); if (ret == NULL) break; if (!strncmp(buffer, "processor", 9)) cpu = atoi(strchr(buffer, ':') + 2); } fclose(fd); return cpu; } void cpu_bind(int cpu) /* bind current process to one cpu */ { cpu_set_t mask; int ret; CPU_ZERO(&mask); CPU_SET(cpu, &mask); ret = sched_setaffinity(0, sizeof(mask), &mask); if (ret == -1) { perror("sched_setaffinity()"); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } sched_yield(); /* not necessary */ } #define MMAP_SIZE (10 * 1024 * 1024) /* 10 MB */ #define FORK_INTERVAL 1 /* 1 second */ main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int cpu_max, nextcpu; long pagesize; pid_t pid; /* set max number of logical cpu */ if (argc > 1) cpu_max = atoi(argv[1]) - 1; else cpu_max = max_cpu(); /* get the page size */ pagesize = sysconf(_SC_PAGESIZE); if (pagesize == -1) { perror("sysconf(_SC_PAGESIZE)"); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } /* prepare parent process */ cpu_bind(0); nextcpu = cpu_max; loop: /* select destination cpu for child process by round-robin rule */ if (++nextcpu > cpu_max) nextcpu = 1; pid = fork(); if (pid == 0) { /* child action */ char *p; int i; /* consume page tables */ p = mmap(0, MMAP_SIZE, PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_ANONYMOUS, 0, 0); i = MMAP_SIZE / pagesize; while (i-- > 0) { *p = 1; p += pagesize; } /* move to other cpu */ cpu_bind(nextcpu); /* printf("a child moved to cpu%d after mmap().\n", nextcpu); fflush(stdout); */ /* back page tables to pgtable_quicklist */ exit(0); } else if (pid > 0) { /* parent action */ sleep(FORK_INTERVAL); waitpid(pid, NULL, WNOHANG); } goto loop; } ---------------------------------------- When above program which does task migration runs, my 8GB box spends 800MB of memory for quicklist. This is not memory leak but doesn't seem good. % cat /proc/meminfo MemTotal: 7701568 kB MemFree: 4724672 kB (snip) Quicklists: 844800 kB because - My machine spec is number of numa node: 2 number of cpus: 8 (4CPU x2 node) total mem: 8GB (4GB x2 node) free mem: about 5GB - Then, 4.7GB x 16% ~= 880MB. So, Quicklist can use 800MB. So, if following spec machine run that program CPUs: 64 (8cpu x 8node) Mem: 1TB (128GB x8node) Then, quicklist can waste 300GB (= 1TB x 30%). It is too large. So, I don't like cache policies which is proportional to # of cpus. My patch changes the number of caches from: per-cpu-cache-amount = memory_on_node / 16 to per-cpu-cache-amount = memory_on_node / 16 / number_of_cpus_on_node. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Keiichiro Tokunaga <tokunaga.keiich@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Tested-by: David Miller <davem@davemloft.net> Acked-by: Mike Travis <travis@sgi.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-01-14quicklists: Only consider memory that can be used with GFP_KERNELChristoph Lameter
Quicklists calculates the size of the quicklists based on the number of free pages. This must be the number of free pages that can be allocated with GFP_KERNEL. node_page_state() includes the pages in ZONE_HIGHMEM and ZONE_MOVABLE which may lead the quicklists to become too large causing OOM. Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Tested-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2007-05-07Quicklists for page table pagesChristoph Lameter
On x86_64 this cuts allocation overhead for page table pages down to a fraction (kernel compile / editing load. TSC based measurement of times spend in each function): no quicklist pte_alloc 1569048 4.3s(401ns/2.7us/179.7us) pmd_alloc 780988 2.1s(337ns/2.7us/86.1us) pud_alloc 780072 2.2s(424ns/2.8us/300.6us) pgd_alloc 260022 1s(920ns/4us/263.1us) quicklist: pte_alloc 452436 573.4ms(8ns/1.3us/121.1us) pmd_alloc 196204 174.5ms(7ns/889ns/46.1us) pud_alloc 195688 172.4ms(7ns/881ns/151.3us) pgd_alloc 65228 9.8ms(8ns/150ns/6.1us) pgd allocations are the most complex and there we see the most dramatic improvement (may be we can cut down the amount of pgds cached somewhat?). But even the pte allocations still see a doubling of performance. 1. Proven code from the IA64 arch. The method used here has been fine tuned for years and is NUMA aware. It is based on the knowledge that accesses to page table pages are sparse in nature. Taking a page off the freelists instead of allocating a zeroed pages allows a reduction of number of cachelines touched in addition to getting rid of the slab overhead. So performance improves. This is particularly useful if pgds contain standard mappings. We can save on the teardown and setup of such a page if we have some on the quicklists. This includes avoiding lists operations that are otherwise necessary on alloc and free to track pgds. 2. Light weight alternative to use slab to manage page size pages Slab overhead is significant and even page allocator use is pretty heavy weight. The use of a per cpu quicklist means that we touch only two cachelines for an allocation. There is no need to access the page_struct (unless arch code needs to fiddle around with it). So the fast past just means bringing in one cacheline at the beginning of the page. That same cacheline may then be used to store the page table entry. Or a second cacheline may be used if the page table entry is not in the first cacheline of the page. The current code will zero the page which means touching 32 cachelines (assuming 128 byte). We get down from 32 to 2 cachelines in the fast path. 3. x86_64 gets lightweight page table page management. This will allow x86_64 arch code to faster repopulate pgds and other page table entries. The list operations for pgds are reduced in the same way as for i386 to the point where a pgd is allocated from the page allocator and when it is freed back to the page allocator. A pgd can pass through the quicklists without having to be reinitialized. 64 Consolidation of code from multiple arches So far arches have their own implementation of quicklist management. This patch moves that feature into the core allowing an easier maintenance and consistent management of quicklists. Page table pages have the characteristics that they are typically zero or in a known state when they are freed. This is usually the exactly same state as needed after allocation. So it makes sense to build a list of freed page table pages and then consume the pages already in use first. Those pages have already been initialized correctly (thus no need to zero them) and are likely already cached in such a way that the MMU can use them most effectively. Page table pages are used in a sparse way so zeroing them on allocation is not too useful. Such an implementation already exits for ia64. Howver, that implementation did not support constructors and destructors as needed by i386 / x86_64. It also only supported a single quicklist. The implementation here has constructor and destructor support as well as the ability for an arch to specify how many quicklists are needed. Quicklists are defined by an arch defining CONFIG_QUICKLIST. If more than one quicklist is necessary then we can define NR_QUICK for additional lists. F.e. i386 needs two and thus has config NR_QUICK int default 2 If an arch has requested quicklist support then pages can be allocated from the quicklist (or from the page allocator if the quicklist is empty) via: quicklist_alloc(<quicklist-nr>, <gfpflags>, <constructor>) Page table pages can be freed using: quicklist_free(<quicklist-nr>, <destructor>, <page>) Pages must have a definite state after allocation and before they are freed. If no constructor is specified then pages will be zeroed on allocation and must be zeroed before they are freed. If a constructor is used then the constructor will establish a definite page state. F.e. the i386 and x86_64 pgd constructors establish certain mappings. Constructors and destructors can also be used to track the pages. i386 and x86_64 use a list of pgds in order to be able to dynamically update standard mappings. Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Cc: "David S. Miller" <davem@davemloft.net> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@suse.de> Cc: "Luck, Tony" <tony.luck@intel.com> Cc: William Lee Irwin III <wli@holomorphy.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>