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authorDavidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com>2014-04-07 15:37:25 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2014-04-07 16:35:53 -0700
commit615d6e8756c87149f2d4c1b93d471bca002bd849 (patch)
tree45b039ccafb606a30e53c1012775efe848e789ed /kernel
parentd7c1755179b82d954f593ca5285b9360f2f62e9c (diff)
downloadlinux-615d6e8756c87149f2d4c1b93d471bca002bd849.tar.gz
mm: per-thread vma caching
This patch is a continuation of efforts trying to optimize find_vma(), avoiding potentially expensive rbtree walks to locate a vma upon faults. The original approach (https://lkml.org/lkml/2013/11/1/410), where the largest vma was also cached, ended up being too specific and random, thus further comparison with other approaches were needed. There are two things to consider when dealing with this, the cache hit rate and the latency of find_vma(). Improving the hit-rate does not necessarily translate in finding the vma any faster, as the overhead of any fancy caching schemes can be too high to consider. We currently cache the last used vma for the whole address space, which provides a nice optimization, reducing the total cycles in find_vma() by up to 250%, for workloads with good locality. On the other hand, this simple scheme is pretty much useless for workloads with poor locality. Analyzing ebizzy runs shows that, no matter how many threads are running, the mmap_cache hit rate is less than 2%, and in many situations below 1%. The proposed approach is to replace this scheme with a small per-thread cache, maximizing hit rates at a very low maintenance cost. Invalidations are performed by simply bumping up a 32-bit sequence number. The only expensive operation is in the rare case of a seq number overflow, where all caches that share the same address space are flushed. Upon a miss, the proposed replacement policy is based on the page number that contains the virtual address in question. Concretely, the following results are seen on an 80 core, 8 socket x86-64 box: 1) System bootup: Most programs are single threaded, so the per-thread scheme does improve ~50% hit rate by just adding a few more slots to the cache. +----------------+----------+------------------+ | caching scheme | hit-rate | cycles (billion) | +----------------+----------+------------------+ | baseline | 50.61% | 19.90 | | patched | 73.45% | 13.58 | +----------------+----------+------------------+ 2) Kernel build: This one is already pretty good with the current approach as we're dealing with good locality. +----------------+----------+------------------+ | caching scheme | hit-rate | cycles (billion) | +----------------+----------+------------------+ | baseline | 75.28% | 11.03 | | patched | 88.09% | 9.31 | +----------------+----------+------------------+ 3) Oracle 11g Data Mining (4k pages): Similar to the kernel build workload. +----------------+----------+------------------+ | caching scheme | hit-rate | cycles (billion) | +----------------+----------+------------------+ | baseline | 70.66% | 17.14 | | patched | 91.15% | 12.57 | +----------------+----------+------------------+ 4) Ebizzy: There's a fair amount of variation from run to run, but this approach always shows nearly perfect hit rates, while baseline is just about non-existent. The amounts of cycles can fluctuate between anywhere from ~60 to ~116 for the baseline scheme, but this approach reduces it considerably. For instance, with 80 threads: +----------------+----------+------------------+ | caching scheme | hit-rate | cycles (billion) | +----------------+----------+------------------+ | baseline | 1.06% | 91.54 | | patched | 99.97% | 14.18 | +----------------+----------+------------------+ [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix nommu build, per Davidlohr] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: document vmacache_valid() logic] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: attempt to untangle header files] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: add vmacache_find() BUG_ON] [hughd@google.com: add vmacache_valid_mm() (from Oleg)] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: adjust and enhance comments] Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Reviewed-by: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Tested-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'kernel')
-rw-r--r--kernel/debug/debug_core.c14
-rw-r--r--kernel/fork.c7
2 files changed, 17 insertions, 4 deletions
diff --git a/kernel/debug/debug_core.c b/kernel/debug/debug_core.c
index 99982a70dda..2956c8da160 100644
--- a/kernel/debug/debug_core.c
+++ b/kernel/debug/debug_core.c
@@ -49,6 +49,7 @@
#include <linux/pid.h>
#include <linux/smp.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/vmacache.h>
#include <linux/rcupdate.h>
#include <asm/cacheflush.h>
@@ -224,10 +225,17 @@ static void kgdb_flush_swbreak_addr(unsigned long addr)
if (!CACHE_FLUSH_IS_SAFE)
return;
- if (current->mm && current->mm->mmap_cache) {
- flush_cache_range(current->mm->mmap_cache,
- addr, addr + BREAK_INSTR_SIZE);
+ if (current->mm) {
+ int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < VMACACHE_SIZE; i++) {
+ if (!current->vmacache[i])
+ continue;
+ flush_cache_range(current->vmacache[i],
+ addr, addr + BREAK_INSTR_SIZE);
+ }
}
+
/* Force flush instruction cache if it was outside the mm */
flush_icache_range(addr, addr + BREAK_INSTR_SIZE);
}
diff --git a/kernel/fork.c b/kernel/fork.c
index e40c0a01d5a..bc0e96b78df 100644
--- a/kernel/fork.c
+++ b/kernel/fork.c
@@ -28,6 +28,8 @@
#include <linux/mman.h>
#include <linux/mmu_notifier.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/vmacache.h>
#include <linux/nsproxy.h>
#include <linux/capability.h>
#include <linux/cpu.h>
@@ -364,7 +366,7 @@ static int dup_mmap(struct mm_struct *mm, struct mm_struct *oldmm)
mm->locked_vm = 0;
mm->mmap = NULL;
- mm->mmap_cache = NULL;
+ mm->vmacache_seqnum = 0;
mm->map_count = 0;
cpumask_clear(mm_cpumask(mm));
mm->mm_rb = RB_ROOT;
@@ -882,6 +884,9 @@ static int copy_mm(unsigned long clone_flags, struct task_struct *tsk)
if (!oldmm)
return 0;
+ /* initialize the new vmacache entries */
+ vmacache_flush(tsk);
+
if (clone_flags & CLONE_VM) {
atomic_inc(&oldmm->mm_users);
mm = oldmm;