path: root/Documentation
diff options
authorMauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab@redhat.com>2012-11-28 07:22:38 -0200
committerMauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab@redhat.com>2012-11-28 07:22:38 -0200
commitd033a308d81ec83908760a15a841c2bd0d5e0ea3 (patch)
tree647abd67987fe4d7fee80105fc823edf3f53b4f6 /Documentation
parentc6c22955f80f2db9614b01fe5a3d1cfcd8b3d848 (diff)
parente23739b4ade80a3a7f87198f008f6c44a7cbc9fd (diff)
Merge remote-tracking branch 'linus/master' into staging/for_v3.8
* linus/master: (1428 commits) futex: avoid wake_futex() for a PI futex_q watchdog: using u64 in get_sample_period() writeback: put unused inodes to LRU after writeback completion mm: vmscan: check for fatal signals iff the process was throttled Revert "mm: remove __GFP_NO_KSWAPD" proc: check vma->vm_file before dereferencing UAPI: strip the _UAPI prefix from header guards during header installation include/linux/bug.h: fix sparse warning related to BUILD_BUG_ON_INVALID Linux 3.7-rc7 powerpc/eeh: Do not invalidate PE properly ALSA: hda - Fix build without CONFIG_PM of/address: sparc: Declare of_iomap as an extern function for sparc again PM / QoS: fix wrong error-checking condition bnx2x: remove redundant warning log vxlan: fix command usage in its doc 8139cp: revert "set ring address before enabling receiver" MPI: Fix compilation on MIPS with GCC 4.4 and newer MIPS: Fix crash that occurs when function tracing is enabled MIPS: Merge overlapping bootmem ranges jbd: Fix lock ordering bug in journal_unmap_buffer() ...
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
21 files changed, 371 insertions, 95 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/00-INDEX b/Documentation/00-INDEX
index f54273e2ac9..ceb1ff73546 100644
--- a/Documentation/00-INDEX
+++ b/Documentation/00-INDEX
@@ -210,6 +210,8 @@ local_ops.txt
- semantics and behavior of local atomic operations.
- documentation on the runtime locking correctness validator.
+ - info on soft and hard lockup detectors (aka nmi_watchdog).
- full colour GIF image of Linux logo (penguin - Tux).
@@ -240,8 +242,6 @@ netlabel/
- directory with information on the NetLabel subsystem.
- directory with info on various aspects of networking with Linux.
- - info on NMI watchdog for SMP systems.
- documentation about no-mmu memory mapping support.
diff --git a/Documentation/DocBook/networking.tmpl b/Documentation/DocBook/networking.tmpl
index 59ad69a9d77..29df25016c7 100644
--- a/Documentation/DocBook/networking.tmpl
+++ b/Documentation/DocBook/networking.tmpl
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@
<sect1><title>Generic Network Statistics</title>
@@ -80,7 +80,7 @@
diff --git a/Documentation/IPMI.txt b/Documentation/IPMI.txt
index b2bea15137d..16eb4c9e923 100644
--- a/Documentation/IPMI.txt
+++ b/Documentation/IPMI.txt
@@ -42,13 +42,7 @@ The driver interface depends on your hardware. If your system
properly provides the SMBIOS info for IPMI, the driver will detect it
and just work. If you have a board with a standard interface (These
will generally be either "KCS", "SMIC", or "BT", consult your hardware
-manual), choose the 'IPMI SI handler' option. A driver also exists
-for direct I2C access to the IPMI management controller. Some boards
-support this, but it is unknown if it will work on every board. For
-this, choose 'IPMI SMBus handler', but be ready to try to do some
-figuring to see if it will work on your system if the SMBIOS/APCI
-information is wrong or not present. It is fairly safe to have both
-these enabled and let the drivers auto-detect what is present.
+manual), choose the 'IPMI SI handler' option.
You should generally enable ACPI on your system, as systems with IPMI
can have ACPI tables describing them.
@@ -58,8 +52,7 @@ their job correctly, the IPMI controller should be automatically
detected (via ACPI or SMBIOS tables) and should just work. Sadly,
many boards do not have this information. The driver attempts
standard defaults, but they may not work. If you fall into this
-situation, you need to read the section below named 'The SI Driver' or
-"The SMBus Driver" on how to hand-configure your system.
+situation, you need to read the section below named 'The SI Driver'.
IPMI defines a standard watchdog timer. You can enable this with the
'IPMI Watchdog Timer' config option. If you compile the driver into
@@ -104,12 +97,7 @@ driver, each open file for this device ties in to the message handler
as an IPMI user.
ipmi_si - A driver for various system interfaces. This supports KCS,
-SMIC, and BT interfaces. Unless you have an SMBus interface or your
-own custom interface, you probably need to use this.
-ipmi_smb - A driver for accessing BMCs on the SMBus. It uses the
-I2C kernel driver's SMBus interfaces to send and receive IPMI messages
-over the SMBus.
+SMIC, and BT interfaces.
ipmi_watchdog - IPMI requires systems to have a very capable watchdog
timer. This driver implements the standard Linux watchdog timer
@@ -482,53 +470,6 @@ for specifying an interface. Note that when removing an interface,
only the first three parameters (si type, address type, and address)
are used for the comparison. Any options are ignored for removing.
-The SMBus Driver
-The SMBus driver allows up to 4 SMBus devices to be configured in the
-system. By default, the driver will register any SMBus interfaces it finds
-in the I2C address range of 0x20 to 0x4f on any adapter. You can change this
-at module load time (for a module) with:
- modprobe ipmi_smb.o
- addr=<adapter1>,<i2caddr1>[,<adapter2>,<i2caddr2>[,...]]
- dbg=<flags1>,<flags2>...
- [defaultprobe=1] [dbg_probe=1]
-The addresses are specified in pairs, the first is the adapter ID and the
-second is the I2C address on that adapter.
-The debug flags are bit flags for each BMC found, they are:
-IPMI messages: 1, driver state: 2, timing: 4, I2C probe: 8
-Setting smb_defaultprobe to zero disabled the default probing of SMBus
-interfaces at address range 0x20 to 0x4f. This means that only the
-BMCs specified on the smb_addr line will be detected.
-Setting smb_dbg_probe to 1 will enable debugging of the probing and
-detection process for BMCs on the SMBusses.
-Discovering the IPMI compliant BMC on the SMBus can cause devices
-on the I2C bus to fail. The SMBus driver writes a "Get Device ID" IPMI
-message as a block write to the I2C bus and waits for a response.
-This action can be detrimental to some I2C devices. It is highly recommended
-that the known I2c address be given to the SMBus driver in the smb_addr
-parameter. The default address range will not be used when a smb_addr
-parameter is provided.
-When compiled into the kernel, the addresses can be specified on the
-kernel command line as:
- ipmb_smb.addr=<adapter1>,<i2caddr1>[,<adapter2>,<i2caddr2>[,...]]
- ipmi_smb.dbg=<flags1>,<flags2>...
- ipmi_smb.defaultprobe=0 ipmi_smb.dbg_probe=1
-These are the same options as on the module command line.
-Note that you might need some I2C changes if CONFIG_IPMI_PANIC_EVENT
-is enabled along with this, so the I2C driver knows to run to
-completion during sending a panic event.
Other Pieces
diff --git a/Documentation/arm64/memory.txt b/Documentation/arm64/memory.txt
index dbbdcbba75a..4110cca96bd 100644
--- a/Documentation/arm64/memory.txt
+++ b/Documentation/arm64/memory.txt
@@ -27,17 +27,17 @@ Start End Size Use
0000000000000000 0000007fffffffff 512GB user
-ffffff8000000000 ffffffbbfffcffff ~240GB vmalloc
+ffffff8000000000 ffffffbbfffeffff ~240GB vmalloc
-ffffffbbfffd0000 ffffffbcfffdffff 64KB [guard page]
+ffffffbbffff0000 ffffffbbffffffff 64KB [guard page]
-ffffffbbfffe0000 ffffffbcfffeffff 64KB PCI I/O space
+ffffffbc00000000 ffffffbdffffffff 8GB vmemmap
-ffffffbbffff0000 ffffffbcffffffff 64KB [guard page]
+ffffffbe00000000 ffffffbffbbfffff ~8GB [guard, future vmmemap]
-ffffffbc00000000 ffffffbdffffffff 8GB vmemmap
+ffffffbffbe00000 ffffffbffbe0ffff 64KB PCI I/O space
-ffffffbe00000000 ffffffbffbffffff ~8GB [guard, future vmmemap]
+ffffffbbffff0000 ffffffbcffffffff ~2MB [guard]
ffffffbffc000000 ffffffbfffffffff 64MB modules
diff --git a/Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt b/Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt
index c07f7b4fb88..71c4da41344 100644
--- a/Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt
+++ b/Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt
@@ -466,6 +466,10 @@ Note:
5.3 swappiness
Similar to /proc/sys/vm/swappiness, but affecting a hierarchy of groups only.
+Please note that unlike the global swappiness, memcg knob set to 0
+really prevents from any swapping even if there is a swap storage
+available. This might lead to memcg OOM killer if there are no file
+pages to reclaim.
Following cgroups' swappiness can't be changed.
- root cgroup (uses /proc/sys/vm/swappiness).
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/atmel-at91.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/atmel-at91.txt
index ecc81e36871..d187e9f7cf1 100644
--- a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/atmel-at91.txt
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/atmel-at91.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ PIT Timer required properties:
shared across all System Controller members.
TC/TCLIB Timer required properties:
-- compatible: Should be "atmel,<chip>-pit".
+- compatible: Should be "atmel,<chip>-tcb".
<chip> can be "at91rm9200" or "at91sam9x5"
- reg: Should contain registers location and length
- interrupts: Should contain all interrupts for the TC block
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/input/touchscreen/egalax-ts.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/input/touchscreen/egalax-ts.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..df70318a617
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/input/touchscreen/egalax-ts.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,19 @@
+* EETI eGalax Multiple Touch Controller
+Required properties:
+- compatible: must be "eeti,egalax_ts"
+- reg: i2c slave address
+- interrupt-parent: the phandle for the interrupt controller
+- interrupts: touch controller interrupt
+- wakeup-gpios: the gpio pin to be used for waking up the controller
+ as well as uased as irq pin
+ egalax_ts@04 {
+ compatible = "eeti,egalax_ts";
+ reg = <0x04>;
+ interrupt-parent = <&gpio1>;
+ interrupts = <9 2>;
+ wakeup-gpios = <&gpio1 9 0>;
+ };
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/net/mdio-gpio.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/net/mdio-gpio.txt
index bc954952901..c79bab02536 100644
--- a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/net/mdio-gpio.txt
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/net/mdio-gpio.txt
@@ -8,9 +8,16 @@ gpios property as described in section VIII.1 in the following order:
+Note: Each gpio-mdio bus should have an alias correctly numbered in "aliases"
-mdio {
+aliases {
+ mdio-gpio0 = <&mdio0>;
+mdio0: mdio {
compatible = "virtual,mdio-gpio";
#address-cells = <1>;
#size-cells = <0>;
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/pinctrl/nvidia,tegra20-pinmux.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/pinctrl/nvidia,tegra20-pinmux.txt
index c8e578263ce..683fde93c4f 100644
--- a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/pinctrl/nvidia,tegra20-pinmux.txt
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/pinctrl/nvidia,tegra20-pinmux.txt
@@ -93,7 +93,7 @@ Valid values for pin and group names are:
With some exceptions, these support nvidia,high-speed-mode,
nvidia,schmitt, nvidia,low-power-mode, nvidia,pull-down-strength,
- nvidia,pull-up-strength, nvidia,slew_rate-rising, nvidia,slew_rate-falling.
+ nvidia,pull-up-strength, nvidia,slew-rate-rising, nvidia,slew-rate-falling.
drive_ao1, drive_ao2, drive_at1, drive_at2, drive_cdev1, drive_cdev2,
drive_csus, drive_dap1, drive_dap2, drive_dap3, drive_dap4, drive_dbg,
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/pinctrl/nvidia,tegra30-pinmux.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/pinctrl/nvidia,tegra30-pinmux.txt
index c275b70349c..6f426ed7009 100644
--- a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/pinctrl/nvidia,tegra30-pinmux.txt
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/pinctrl/nvidia,tegra30-pinmux.txt
@@ -83,7 +83,7 @@ Valid values for pin and group names are:
drive groups:
These all support nvidia,pull-down-strength, nvidia,pull-up-strength,
- nvidia,slew_rate-rising, nvidia,slew_rate-falling. Most but not all
+ nvidia,slew-rate-rising, nvidia,slew-rate-falling. Most but not all
support nvidia,high-speed-mode, nvidia,schmitt, nvidia,low-power-mode.
ao1, ao2, at1, at2, at3, at4, at5, cdev1, cdev2, cec, crt, csus, dap1,
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt
index a1793d670cd..3844d21d6ca 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ Table of Contents
2 Modifying System Parameters
3 Per-Process Parameters
- 3.1 /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj - Adjust the oom-killer
+ 3.1 /proc/<pid>/oom_adj & /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj - Adjust the oom-killer
3.2 /proc/<pid>/oom_score - Display current oom-killer score
3.3 /proc/<pid>/io - Display the IO accounting fields
@@ -1320,10 +1320,10 @@ of the kernel.
-3.1 /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj- Adjust the oom-killer score
+3.1 /proc/<pid>/oom_adj & /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj- Adjust the oom-killer score
-This file can be used to adjust the badness heuristic used to select which
+These file can be used to adjust the badness heuristic used to select which
process gets killed in out of memory conditions.
The badness heuristic assigns a value to each candidate task ranging from 0
@@ -1361,6 +1361,12 @@ same system, cpuset, mempolicy, or memory controller resources to use at least
equivalent to discounting 50% of the task's allowed memory from being considered
as scoring against the task.
+For backwards compatibility with previous kernels, /proc/<pid>/oom_adj may also
+be used to tune the badness score. Its acceptable values range from -16
+(OOM_ADJUST_MIN) to +15 (OOM_ADJUST_MAX) and a special value of -17
+(OOM_DISABLE) to disable oom killing entirely for that task. Its value is
+scaled linearly with /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj.
The value of /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj may be reduced no lower than the last
value set by a CAP_SYS_RESOURCE process. To reduce the value any lower
@@ -1375,7 +1381,9 @@ minimal amount of work.
This file can be used to check the current score used by the oom-killer is for
-any given <pid>.
+any given <pid>. Use it together with /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj to tune which
+process should be killed in an out-of-memory situation.
3.3 /proc/<pid>/io - Display the IO accounting fields
diff --git a/Documentation/firmware_class/README b/Documentation/firmware_class/README
index 7eceaff63f5..815b711bcd8 100644
--- a/Documentation/firmware_class/README
+++ b/Documentation/firmware_class/README
@@ -18,32 +18,40 @@
High level behavior (mixed):
- kernel(driver): calls request_firmware(&fw_entry, $FIRMWARE, device)
- userspace:
+ 1), kernel(driver):
+ - calls request_firmware(&fw_entry, $FIRMWARE, device)
+ - kernel searchs the fimware image with name $FIRMWARE directly
+ in the below search path of root filesystem:
+ "/lib/firmware/updates/" UTS_RELEASE,
+ "/lib/firmware/updates",
+ "/lib/firmware/" UTS_RELEASE,
+ "/lib/firmware"
+ - If found, goto 7), else goto 2)
+ 2), userspace:
- /sys/class/firmware/xxx/{loading,data} appear.
- hotplug gets called with a firmware identifier in $FIRMWARE
and the usual hotplug environment.
- hotplug: echo 1 > /sys/class/firmware/xxx/loading
- kernel: Discard any previous partial load.
+ 3), kernel: Discard any previous partial load.
- userspace:
+ 4), userspace:
- hotplug: cat appropriate_firmware_image > \
- kernel: grows a buffer in PAGE_SIZE increments to hold the image as it
+ 5), kernel: grows a buffer in PAGE_SIZE increments to hold the image as it
comes in.
- userspace:
+ 6), userspace:
- hotplug: echo 0 > /sys/class/firmware/xxx/loading
- kernel: request_firmware() returns and the driver has the firmware
+ 7), kernel: request_firmware() returns and the driver has the firmware
image in fw_entry->{data,size}. If something went wrong
request_firmware() returns non-zero and fw_entry is set to
- kernel(driver): Driver code calls release_firmware(fw_entry) releasing
+ 8), kernel(driver): Driver code calls release_firmware(fw_entry) releasing
the firmware image and any related resource.
High level behavior (driver code):
diff --git a/Documentation/hwmon/coretemp b/Documentation/hwmon/coretemp
index c86b50c03ea..f17256f069b 100644
--- a/Documentation/hwmon/coretemp
+++ b/Documentation/hwmon/coretemp
@@ -105,6 +105,7 @@ Process Processor TjMax(C)
330/230 125
E680/660/640/620 90
E680T/660T/640T/620T 110
+ CE4170/4150/4110 110
45nm Core2 Processors
Solo ULV SU3500/3300 100
diff --git a/Documentation/hwmon/fam15h_power b/Documentation/hwmon/fam15h_power
index a92918e0bd6..80654813d04 100644
--- a/Documentation/hwmon/fam15h_power
+++ b/Documentation/hwmon/fam15h_power
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ Supported chips:
BIOS and Kernel Developer's Guide (BKDG) For AMD Family 15h Processors
(not yet published)
-Author: Andreas Herrmann <andreas.herrmann3@amd.com>
+Author: Andreas Herrmann <herrmann.der.user@googlemail.com>
diff --git a/Documentation/hwmon/submitting-patches b/Documentation/hwmon/submitting-patches
index 790f774a303..843751c41fe 100644
--- a/Documentation/hwmon/submitting-patches
+++ b/Documentation/hwmon/submitting-patches
@@ -60,8 +60,7 @@ increase the chances of your change being accepted.
* Add the driver to Kconfig and Makefile in alphabetical order.
-* Make sure that all dependencies are listed in Kconfig. For new drivers, it
- is most likely prudent to add a dependency on EXPERIMENTAL.
+* Make sure that all dependencies are listed in Kconfig.
* Avoid forward declarations if you can. Rearrange the code if necessary.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/netdev-features.txt b/Documentation/networking/netdev-features.txt
index 4164f5c02e4..f310edec8a7 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/netdev-features.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/netdev-features.txt
@@ -164,4 +164,4 @@ read the CRC recorded by the NIC on receipt of the packet.
This requests that the NIC receive all possible frames, including errored
frames (such as bad FCS, etc). This can be helpful when sniffing a link with
bad packets on it. Some NICs may receive more packets if also put into normal
-PROMISC mdoe.
+PROMISC mode.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/vxlan.txt b/Documentation/networking/vxlan.txt
index 5b34b762d7d..6d993510f09 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/vxlan.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/vxlan.txt
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ no entry is in the forwarding table.
# ip link delete vxlan0
3. Show vxlan info
- # ip -d show vxlan0
+ # ip -d link show vxlan0
It is possible to create, destroy and display the vxlan
forwarding table using the new bridge command.
@@ -41,7 +41,7 @@ forwarding table using the new bridge command.
# bridge fdb add to 00:17:42:8a:b4:05 dst dev vxlan0
2. Delete forwarding table entry
- # bridge fdb delete 00:17:42:8a:b4:05
+ # bridge fdb delete 00:17:42:8a:b4:05 dev vxlan0
3. Show forwarding table
# bridge fdb show dev vxlan0
diff --git a/Documentation/sysrq.txt b/Documentation/sysrq.txt
index 642f84495b2..2a4cdda4828 100644
--- a/Documentation/sysrq.txt
+++ b/Documentation/sysrq.txt
@@ -116,6 +116,7 @@ On all - write a character to /proc/sysrq-trigger. e.g.:
'w' - Dumps tasks that are in uninterruptable (blocked) state.
'x' - Used by xmon interface on ppc/powerpc platforms.
+ Show global PMU Registers on sparc64.
'y' - Show global CPU Registers [SPARC-64 specific]
diff --git a/Documentation/zh_CN/IRQ.txt b/Documentation/zh_CN/IRQ.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..956026d5cf8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/zh_CN/IRQ.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+Chinese translated version of Documentation/IRQ.txt
+If you have any comment or update to the content, please contact the
+original document maintainer directly. However, if you have a problem
+communicating in English you can also ask the Chinese maintainer for
+help. Contact the Chinese maintainer if this translation is outdated
+or if there is a problem with the translation.
+Maintainer: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederman@xmission.com>
+Chinese maintainer: Fu Wei <tekkamanninja@gmail.com>
+Documentation/IRQ.txt 的中文翻译
+英文版维护者: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederman@xmission.com>
+中文版维护者: 傅炜 Fu Wei <tekkamanninja@gmail.com>
+中文版翻译者: 傅炜 Fu Wei <tekkamanninja@gmail.com>
+中文版校译者: 傅炜 Fu Wei <tekkamanninja@gmail.com>
+何为 IRQ?
+一个 IRQ 是来自某个设备的一个中断请求。目前,它们可以来自一个硬件引脚,
+或来自一个数据包。多个设备可能连接到同个硬件引脚,从而共享一个 IRQ。
+一个 IRQ 编号是用于告知硬件中断源的内核标识。通常情况下,这是一个
+全局 irq_desc 数组的索引,但是除了在 linux/interrupt.h 中的实现,
+一个 IRQ 编号是设备上某个可能的中断源的枚举。通常情况下,枚举的编号是
+该引脚在系统内中断控制器的所有输入引脚中的编号。对于 ISA 总线中的情况,
+枚举的是在两个 i8259 中断控制器中 16 个输入引脚。
+架构可以对 IRQ 编号指定额外的含义,在硬件涉及任何手工配置的情况下,
+是被提倡的。ISA 的 IRQ 是一个分配这类额外含义的典型例子。
diff --git a/Documentation/zh_CN/arm64/booting.txt b/Documentation/zh_CN/arm64/booting.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..28fa325b746
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/zh_CN/arm64/booting.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,156 @@
+Chinese translated version of Documentation/arm64/booting.txt
+If you have any comment or update to the content, please contact the
+original document maintainer directly. However, if you have a problem
+communicating in English you can also ask the Chinese maintainer for
+help. Contact the Chinese maintainer if this translation is outdated
+or if there is a problem with the translation.
+Maintainer: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
+Chinese maintainer: Fu Wei <tekkamanninja@gmail.com>
+Documentation/arm64/booting.txt 的中文翻译
+英文版维护者: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
+中文版维护者: 傅炜 Fu Wei <tekkamanninja@gmail.com>
+中文版翻译者: 傅炜 Fu Wei <tekkamanninja@gmail.com>
+中文版校译者: 傅炜 Fu Wei <tekkamanninja@gmail.com>
+ 启动 AArch64 Linux
+ ==================
+作者: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
+日期: 2012 年 09 月 07 日
+本文档基于 Russell King 的 ARM 启动文档,且适用于所有公开发布的
+AArch64 Linux 内核代码。
+AArch64 异常模型由多个异常级别(EL0 - EL3)组成,对于 EL0 和 EL1
+异常级有对应的安全和非安全模式。EL2 是系统管理级,且仅存在于
+非安全模式下。EL3 是最高特权级,且仅存在于安全模式下。
+基于本文档的目的,我们将简单地使用‘引导装载程序’(‘boot loader’)
+这个术语来定义在将控制权交给 Linux 内核前 CPU 上执行的所有软件。
+1、设置和初始化 RAM
+1、设置和初始化 RAM
+必要性: 强制
+引导装载程序应该找到并初始化系统中所有内核用于保持系统变量数据的 RAM。
+RAM,或可能使用对这个设备已知的 RAM 信息,还可能使用任何引导装载程序
+必要性: 强制
+设备树数据块(dtb)大小必须不大于 2 MB,且位于从内核映像起始算起第一个
+512MB 内的 2MB 边界上。这使得内核可以通过初始页表中的单个节描述符来
+必要性: 可选
+AArch64 内核当前没有提供自解压代码,因此如果使用了压缩内核映像文件
+(比如 Image.gz),则需要通过引导装载程序(使用 gzip 等)来进行解压。
+必要性: 强制
+已解压的内核映像包含一个 32 字节的头,内容如下:
+ u32 magic = 0x14000008; /* 跳转到 stext, 小端 */
+ u32 res0 = 0; /* 保留 */
+ u64 text_offset; /* 映像装载偏移 */
+ u64 res1 = 0; /* 保留 */
+ u64 res2 = 0; /* 保留 */
+映像必须位于系统 RAM 起始处的特定偏移(当前是 0x80000)。系统 RAM
+的起始地址必须是以 2MB 对齐的。
+- 停止所有 DMA 设备,这样内存数据就不会因为虚假网络包或磁盘数据而
+ 被破坏。这可能可以节省你许多的调试时间。
+- 主 CPU 通用寄存器设置
+ x0 = 系统 RAM 中设备树数据块(dtb)的物理地址。
+ x1 = 0 (保留,将来可能使用)
+ x2 = 0 (保留,将来可能使用)
+ x3 = 0 (保留,将来可能使用)
+- CPU 模式
+ 所有形式的中断必须在 PSTATE.DAIF 中被屏蔽(Debug、SError、IRQ
+ 和 FIQ)。
+ CPU 必须处于 EL2(推荐,可访问虚拟化扩展)或非安全 EL1 模式下。
+- 高速缓存、MMU
+ MMU 必须关闭。
+ 指令缓存开启或关闭都可以。
+ 数据缓存必须关闭且无效。
+ 外部高速缓存(如果存在)必须配置并禁用。
+- 架构计时器
+ CNTFRQ 必须设定为计时器的频率。
+ 如果在 EL1 模式下进入内核,则 CNTHCTL_EL2 中的 EL1PCTEN (bit 0)
+ 必须置位。
+- 一致性
+ 通过内核启动的所有 CPU 在内核入口地址上必须处于相同的一致性域中。
+ 这可能要根据具体实现来定义初始化过程,以使能每个CPU上对维护操作的
+ 接收。
+- 系统寄存器
+ 在进入内核映像的异常级中,所有构架中可写的系统寄存器必须通过软件
+ 在一个更高的异常级别下初始化,以防止在 未知 状态下运行。
+引导装载程序必须在每个 CPU 处于以下状态时跳入内核入口:
+- 主 CPU 必须直接跳入内核映像的第一条指令。通过此 CPU 传递的设备树
+ 数据块必须在每个 CPU 节点中包含以下内容:
+ 1、‘enable-method’属性。目前,此字段支持的值仅为字符串“spin-table”。
+ 2、‘cpu-release-addr’标识一个 64-bit、初始化为零的内存位置。
+ 引导装载程序必须生成这些设备树属性,并在跳入内核入口之前将其插入
+ 数据块。
+- 任何辅助 CPU 必须在内存保留区(通过设备树中的 /memreserve/ 域传递
+ 给内核)中自旋于内核之外,轮询它们的 cpu-release-addr 位置(必须
+ 包含在保留区中)。可通过插入 wfe 指令来降低忙循环开销,而主 CPU 将
+ 发出 sev 指令。当对 cpu-release-addr 所指位置的读取操作返回非零值
+ 时,CPU 必须直接跳入此值所指向的地址。
+- 辅助 CPU 通用寄存器设置
+ x0 = 0 (保留,将来可能使用)
+ x1 = 0 (保留,将来可能使用)
+ x2 = 0 (保留,将来可能使用)
+ x3 = 0 (保留,将来可能使用)
diff --git a/Documentation/zh_CN/arm64/memory.txt b/Documentation/zh_CN/arm64/memory.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..83b51931470
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/zh_CN/arm64/memory.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,93 @@
+Chinese translated version of Documentation/arm64/memory.txt
+If you have any comment or update to the content, please contact the
+original document maintainer directly. However, if you have a problem
+communicating in English you can also ask the Chinese maintainer for
+help. Contact the Chinese maintainer if this translation is outdated
+or if there is a problem with the translation.
+Maintainer: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
+Chinese maintainer: Fu Wei <tekkamanninja@gmail.com>
+Documentation/arm64/memory.txt 的中文翻译
+英文版维护者: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
+中文版维护者: 傅炜 Fu Wei <tekkamanninja@gmail.com>
+中文版翻译者: 傅炜 Fu Wei <tekkamanninja@gmail.com>
+中文版校译者: 傅炜 Fu Wei <tekkamanninja@gmail.com>
+ Linux 在 AArch64 中的内存布局
+ ===========================
+作者: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
+日期: 2012 年 02 月 20 日
+本文档描述 AArch64 Linux 内核所使用的虚拟内存布局。此构架可以实现
+页大小为 4KB 的 4 级转换表和页大小为 64KB 的 3 级转换表。
+AArch64 Linux 使用页大小为 4KB 的 3 级转换表配置,对于用户和内核
+都有 39-bit (512GB) 的虚拟地址空间。对于页大小为 64KB的配置,仅
+使用 2 级转换表,但内存布局相同。
+用户地址空间的 63:39 位为 0,而内核地址空间的相应位为 1。TTBRx 的
+选择由虚拟地址的 63 位给出。swapper_pg_dir 仅包含内核(全局)映射,
+而用户 pgd 仅包含用户(非全局)映射。swapper_pgd_dir 地址被写入
+TTBR1 中,且从不写入 TTBR0。
+AArch64 Linux 内存布局:
+起始地址 结束地址 大小 用途
+0000000000000000 0000007fffffffff 512GB 用户空间
+ffffff8000000000 ffffffbbfffcffff ~240GB vmalloc
+ffffffbbfffd0000 ffffffbcfffdffff 64KB [防护页]
+ffffffbbfffe0000 ffffffbcfffeffff 64KB PCI I/O 空间
+ffffffbbffff0000 ffffffbcffffffff 64KB [防护页]
+ffffffbc00000000 ffffffbdffffffff 8GB vmemmap
+ffffffbe00000000 ffffffbffbffffff ~8GB [防护页,未来用于 vmmemap]
+ffffffbffc000000 ffffffbfffffffff 64MB 模块
+ffffffc000000000 ffffffffffffffff 256GB 内存空间
+4KB 页大小的转换表查找:
+|63 56|55 48|47 40|39 32|31 24|23 16|15 8|7 0|
+ | | | | | |
+ | | | | | v
+ | | | | | [11:0] 页内偏移
+ | | | | +-> [20:12] L3 索引
+ | | | +-----------> [29:21] L2 索引
+ | | +---------------------> [38:30] L1 索引
+ | +-------------------------------> [47:39] L0 索引 (未使用)
+ +-------------------------------------------------> [63] TTBR0/1
+64KB 页大小的转换表查找:
+|63 56|55 48|47 40|39 32|31 24|23 16|15 8|7 0|
+ | | | | |
+ | | | | v
+ | | | | [15:0] 页内偏移
+ | | | +----------> [28:16] L3 索引
+ | | +--------------------------> [41:29] L2 索引 (仅使用 38:29 )
+ | +-------------------------------> [47:42] L1 索引 (未使用)
+ +-------------------------------------------------> [63] TTBR0/1