path: root/Documentation
diff options
authorDavid S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>2012-04-10 14:30:45 -0400
committerDavid S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>2012-04-10 14:30:45 -0400
commit06eb4eafbdc0796d741d139a44f1253278da8611 (patch)
treefbdb44317130c371928154c9e6903e699fe2b995 /Documentation
parent32ed53b83ea5ec26a4dba90e18f5e0ff6c71eb48 (diff)
parentf68e556e23d1a4176b563bcb25d8baf2c5313f91 (diff)
Merge git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/net
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
112 files changed, 2348 insertions, 1700 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/ABI/stable/sysfs-driver-usb-usbtmc b/Documentation/ABI/stable/sysfs-driver-usb-usbtmc
index 23a43b8207e..2a7f9a00cb0 100644
--- a/Documentation/ABI/stable/sysfs-driver-usb-usbtmc
+++ b/Documentation/ABI/stable/sysfs-driver-usb-usbtmc
@@ -55,7 +55,7 @@ What: /sys/bus/usb/drivers/usbtmc/devices/*/auto_abort
Date: August 2008
Contact: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
- This file determines if the the transaction of the USB TMC
+ This file determines if the transaction of the USB TMC
device is to be automatically aborted if there is any error.
For more details about this, please see the document,
"Universal Serial Bus Test and Measurement Class Specification
diff --git a/Documentation/ABI/testing/debugfs-olpc b/Documentation/ABI/testing/debugfs-olpc
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..bd76cc6d55f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/ABI/testing/debugfs-olpc
@@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
+What: /sys/kernel/debug/olpc-ec/cmd
+Date: Dec 2011
+KernelVersion: 3.4
+Contact: devel@lists.laptop.org
+A generic interface for executing OLPC Embedded Controller commands and
+reading their responses.
+To execute a command, write data with the format: CC:N A A A A
+CC is the (hex) command, N is the count of expected reply bytes, and A A A A
+are optional (hex) arguments.
+To read the response (if any), read from the generic node after executing
+a command. Hex reply bytes will be returned, *whether or not* they came from
+the immediately previous command.
diff --git a/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-block-dm b/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-block-dm
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..87ca5691e29
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-block-dm
@@ -0,0 +1,25 @@
+What: /sys/block/dm-<num>/dm/name
+Date: January 2009
+KernelVersion: 2.6.29
+Contact: dm-devel@redhat.com
+Description: Device-mapper device name.
+ Read-only string containing mapped device name.
+Users: util-linux, device-mapper udev rules
+What: /sys/block/dm-<num>/dm/uuid
+Date: January 2009
+KernelVersion: 2.6.29
+Contact: dm-devel@redhat.com
+Description: Device-mapper device UUID.
+ Read-only string containing DM-UUID or empty string
+ if DM-UUID is not set.
+Users: util-linux, device-mapper udev rules
+What: /sys/block/dm-<num>/dm/suspended
+Date: June 2009
+KernelVersion: 2.6.31
+Contact: dm-devel@redhat.com
+Description: Device-mapper device suspend state.
+ Contains the value 1 while the device is suspended.
+ Otherwise it contains 0. Read-only attribute.
+Users: util-linux, device-mapper udev rules
diff --git a/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-event_source-devices-format b/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-event_source-devices-format
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..079afc71363
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-bus-event_source-devices-format
@@ -0,0 +1,14 @@
+Where: /sys/bus/event_source/devices/<dev>/format
+Date: January 2012
+Kernel Version: 3.3
+Contact: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@redhat.com>
+ Attribute group to describe the magic bits that go into
+ perf_event_attr::config[012] for a particular pmu.
+ Each attribute of this group defines the 'hardware' bitmask
+ we want to export, so that userspace can deal with sane
+ name/value pairs.
+ Example: 'config1:1,6-10,44'
+ Defines contents of attribute that occupies bits 1,6-10,44 of
+ perf_event_attr::config1.
diff --git a/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-driver-samsung-laptop b/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-driver-samsung-laptop
index e82e7c2b8f8..678819a3f8b 100644
--- a/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-driver-samsung-laptop
+++ b/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-driver-samsung-laptop
@@ -17,3 +17,21 @@ Description: Some Samsung laptops have different "performance levels"
Specifically, not all support the "overclock" option,
and it's still unknown if this value even changes
anything, other than making the user feel a bit better.
+What: /sys/devices/platform/samsung/battery_life_extender
+Date: December 1, 2011
+KernelVersion: 3.3
+Contact: Corentin Chary <corentin.chary@gmail.com>
+Description: Max battery charge level can be modified, battery cycle
+ life can be extended by reducing the max battery charge
+ level.
+ 0 means normal battery mode (100% charge)
+ 1 means battery life extender mode (80% charge)
+What: /sys/devices/platform/samsung/usb_charge
+Date: December 1, 2011
+KernelVersion: 3.3
+Contact: Corentin Chary <corentin.chary@gmail.com>
+Description: Use your USB ports to charge devices, even
+ when your laptop is powered off.
+ 1 means enabled, 0 means disabled.
diff --git a/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-firmware-acpi b/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-firmware-acpi
index 4f9ba3c2fca..dd930c8db41 100644
--- a/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-firmware-acpi
+++ b/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-firmware-acpi
@@ -1,3 +1,23 @@
+What: /sys/firmware/acpi/bgrt/
+Date: January 2012
+Contact: Matthew Garrett <mjg@redhat.com>
+ The BGRT is an ACPI 5.0 feature that allows the OS
+ to obtain a copy of the firmware boot splash and
+ some associated metadata. This is intended to be used
+ by boot splash applications in order to interact with
+ the firmware boot splash in order to avoid jarring
+ transitions.
+ image: The image bitmap. Currently a 32-bit BMP.
+ status: 1 if the image is valid, 0 if firmware invalidated it.
+ type: 0 indicates image is in BMP format.
+ version: The version of the BGRT. Currently 1.
+ xoffset: The number of pixels between the left of the screen
+ and the left edge of the image.
+ yoffset: The number of pixels between the top of the screen
+ and the top edge of the image.
What: /sys/firmware/acpi/interrupts/
Date: February 2008
Contact: Len Brown <lenb@kernel.org>
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingStyle b/Documentation/CodingStyle
index 2b90d328b3b..c58b236bbe0 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingStyle
+++ b/Documentation/CodingStyle
@@ -793,6 +793,35 @@ own custom mode, or may have some other magic method for making indentation
work correctly.
+ Chapter 19: Inline assembly
+In architecture-specific code, you may need to use inline assembly to interface
+with CPU or platform functionality. Don't hesitate to do so when necessary.
+However, don't use inline assembly gratuitously when C can do the job. You can
+and should poke hardware from C when possible.
+Consider writing simple helper functions that wrap common bits of inline
+assembly, rather than repeatedly writing them with slight variations. Remember
+that inline assembly can use C parameters.
+Large, non-trivial assembly functions should go in .S files, with corresponding
+C prototypes defined in C header files. The C prototypes for assembly
+functions should use "asmlinkage".
+You may need to mark your asm statement as volatile, to prevent GCC from
+removing it if GCC doesn't notice any side effects. You don't always need to
+do so, though, and doing so unnecessarily can limit optimization.
+When writing a single inline assembly statement containing multiple
+instructions, put each instruction on a separate line in a separate quoted
+string, and end each string except the last with \n\t to properly indent the
+next instruction in the assembly output:
+ asm ("magic %reg1, #42\n\t"
+ "more_magic %reg2, %reg3"
+ : /* outputs */ : /* inputs */ : /* clobbers */);
Appendix I: References
diff --git a/Documentation/DMA-attributes.txt b/Documentation/DMA-attributes.txt
index b768cc0e402..5c72eed8956 100644
--- a/Documentation/DMA-attributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/DMA-attributes.txt
@@ -31,3 +31,21 @@ may be weakly ordered, that is that reads and writes may pass each other.
Since it is optional for platforms to implement DMA_ATTR_WEAK_ORDERING,
those that do not will simply ignore the attribute and exhibit default
+DMA_ATTR_WRITE_COMBINE specifies that writes to the mapping may be
+buffered to improve performance.
+Since it is optional for platforms to implement DMA_ATTR_WRITE_COMBINE,
+those that do not will simply ignore the attribute and exhibit default
+DMA_ATTR_NON_CONSISTENT lets the platform to choose to return either
+consistent or non-consistent memory as it sees fit. By using this API,
+you are guaranteeing to the platform that you have all the correct and
+necessary sync points for this memory in the driver.
diff --git a/Documentation/DocBook/device-drivers.tmpl b/Documentation/DocBook/device-drivers.tmpl
index 9c27e5125dd..7514dbf0a67 100644
--- a/Documentation/DocBook/device-drivers.tmpl
+++ b/Documentation/DocBook/device-drivers.tmpl
@@ -446,4 +446,21 @@ X!Idrivers/video/console/fonts.c
+ <chapter id="hsi">
+ <title>High Speed Synchronous Serial Interface (HSI)</title>
+ <para>
+ High Speed Synchronous Serial Interface (HSI) is a
+ serial interface mainly used for connecting application
+ engines (APE) with cellular modem engines (CMT) in cellular
+ handsets.
+ HSI provides multiplexing for up to 16 logical channels,
+ low-latency and full duplex communication.
+ </para>
+ </chapter>
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 9b4bc5c76f3..30b656ece7a 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -1,3 +1,3 @@
obj-m := DocBook/ accounting/ auxdisplay/ connector/ \
filesystems/ filesystems/configfs/ ia64/ laptops/ networking/ \
- pcmcia/ spi/ timers/ vm/ watchdog/src/
+ pcmcia/ spi/ timers/ watchdog/src/
diff --git a/Documentation/acpi/apei/einj.txt b/Documentation/acpi/apei/einj.txt
index e7cc3639721..e20b6daaced 100644
--- a/Documentation/acpi/apei/einj.txt
+++ b/Documentation/acpi/apei/einj.txt
@@ -53,6 +53,14 @@ directory apei/einj. The following files are provided.
This file is used to set the second error parameter value. Effect of
parameter depends on error_type specified.
+- notrigger
+ The EINJ mechanism is a two step process. First inject the error, then
+ perform some actions to trigger it. Setting "notrigger" to 1 skips the
+ trigger phase, which *may* allow the user to cause the error in some other
+ context by a simple access to the cpu, memory location, or device that is
+ the target of the error injection. Whether this actually works depends
+ on what operations the BIOS actually includes in the trigger phase.
BIOS versions based in the ACPI 4.0 specification have limited options
to control where the errors are injected. Your BIOS may support an
extension (enabled with the param_extension=1 module parameter, or
diff --git a/Documentation/aoe/aoe.txt b/Documentation/aoe/aoe.txt
index b5aada9f20c..5f5aa16047f 100644
--- a/Documentation/aoe/aoe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/aoe/aoe.txt
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ CREATING DEVICE NODES
sh Documentation/aoe/mkshelf.sh /dev/etherd 0
There is also an autoload script that shows how to edit
- /etc/modprobe.conf to ensure that the aoe module is loaded when
+ /etc/modprobe.d/aoe.conf to ensure that the aoe module is loaded when
diff --git a/Documentation/aoe/autoload.sh b/Documentation/aoe/autoload.sh
index 78dad1334c6..815dff4691c 100644
--- a/Documentation/aoe/autoload.sh
+++ b/Documentation/aoe/autoload.sh
@@ -1,8 +1,8 @@
# set aoe to autoload by installing the
-# aliases in /etc/modprobe.conf
+# aliases in /etc/modprobe.d/
if test ! -r $f || test ! -w $f; then
echo "cannot configure $f for module autoloading" 1>&2
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/floppy.txt b/Documentation/blockdev/floppy.txt
index 6ccab88705c..470fe4b5e37 100644
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/floppy.txt
+++ b/Documentation/blockdev/floppy.txt
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@ you can put:
options floppy omnibook messages
-in /etc/modprobe.conf.
+in a configuration file in /etc/modprobe.d/.
The floppy driver related options are:
diff --git a/Documentation/cgroups/cpusets.txt b/Documentation/cgroups/cpusets.txt
index 5c51ed406d1..cefd3d8bbd1 100644
--- a/Documentation/cgroups/cpusets.txt
+++ b/Documentation/cgroups/cpusets.txt
@@ -217,7 +217,7 @@ and name space for cpusets, with a minimum of additional kernel code.
The cpus and mems files in the root (top_cpuset) cpuset are
read-only. The cpus file automatically tracks the value of
-cpu_online_map using a CPU hotplug notifier, and the mems file
+cpu_online_mask using a CPU hotplug notifier, and the mems file
automatically tracks the value of node_states[N_HIGH_MEMORY]--i.e.,
nodes with memory--using the cpuset_track_online_nodes() hook.
diff --git a/Documentation/clk.txt b/Documentation/clk.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..1943fae014f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/clk.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,233 @@
+ The Common Clk Framework
+ Mike Turquette <mturquette@ti.com>
+This document endeavours to explain the common clk framework details,
+and how to port a platform over to this framework. It is not yet a
+detailed explanation of the clock api in include/linux/clk.h, but
+perhaps someday it will include that information.
+ Part 1 - introduction and interface split
+The common clk framework is an interface to control the clock nodes
+available on various devices today. This may come in the form of clock
+gating, rate adjustment, muxing or other operations. This framework is
+enabled with the CONFIG_COMMON_CLK option.
+The interface itself is divided into two halves, each shielded from the
+details of its counterpart. First is the common definition of struct
+clk which unifies the framework-level accounting and infrastructure that
+has traditionally been duplicated across a variety of platforms. Second
+is a common implementation of the clk.h api, defined in
+drivers/clk/clk.c. Finally there is struct clk_ops, whose operations
+are invoked by the clk api implementation.
+The second half of the interface is comprised of the hardware-specific
+callbacks registered with struct clk_ops and the corresponding
+hardware-specific structures needed to model a particular clock. For
+the remainder of this document any reference to a callback in struct
+clk_ops, such as .enable or .set_rate, implies the hardware-specific
+implementation of that code. Likewise, references to struct clk_foo
+serve as a convenient shorthand for the implementation of the
+hardware-specific bits for the hypothetical "foo" hardware.
+Tying the two halves of this interface together is struct clk_hw, which
+is defined in struct clk_foo and pointed to within struct clk. This
+allows easy for navigation between the two discrete halves of the common
+clock interface.
+ Part 2 - common data structures and api
+Below is the common struct clk definition from
+include/linux/clk-private.h, modified for brevity:
+ struct clk {
+ const char *name;
+ const struct clk_ops *ops;
+ struct clk_hw *hw;
+ char **parent_names;
+ struct clk **parents;
+ struct clk *parent;
+ struct hlist_head children;
+ struct hlist_node child_node;
+ ...
+ };
+The members above make up the core of the clk tree topology. The clk
+api itself defines several driver-facing functions which operate on
+struct clk. That api is documented in include/linux/clk.h.
+Platforms and devices utilizing the common struct clk use the struct
+clk_ops pointer in struct clk to perform the hardware-specific parts of
+the operations defined in clk.h:
+ struct clk_ops {
+ int (*prepare)(struct clk_hw *hw);
+ void (*unprepare)(struct clk_hw *hw);
+ int (*enable)(struct clk_hw *hw);
+ void (*disable)(struct clk_hw *hw);
+ int (*is_enabled)(struct clk_hw *hw);
+ unsigned long (*recalc_rate)(struct clk_hw *hw,
+ unsigned long parent_rate);
+ long (*round_rate)(struct clk_hw *hw, unsigned long,
+ unsigned long *);
+ int (*set_parent)(struct clk_hw *hw, u8 index);
+ u8 (*get_parent)(struct clk_hw *hw);
+ int (*set_rate)(struct clk_hw *hw, unsigned long);
+ void (*init)(struct clk_hw *hw);
+ };
+ Part 3 - hardware clk implementations
+The strength of the common struct clk comes from its .ops and .hw pointers
+which abstract the details of struct clk from the hardware-specific bits, and
+vice versa. To illustrate consider the simple gateable clk implementation in
+struct clk_gate {
+ struct clk_hw hw;
+ void __iomem *reg;
+ u8 bit_idx;
+ ...
+struct clk_gate contains struct clk_hw hw as well as hardware-specific
+knowledge about which register and bit controls this clk's gating.
+Nothing about clock topology or accounting, such as enable_count or
+notifier_count, is needed here. That is all handled by the common
+framework code and struct clk.
+Let's walk through enabling this clk from driver code:
+ struct clk *clk;
+ clk = clk_get(NULL, "my_gateable_clk");
+ clk_prepare(clk);
+ clk_enable(clk);
+The call graph for clk_enable is very simple:
+ clk->ops->enable(clk->hw);
+ [resolves to...]
+ clk_gate_enable(hw);
+ [resolves struct clk gate with to_clk_gate(hw)]
+ clk_gate_set_bit(gate);
+And the definition of clk_gate_set_bit:
+static void clk_gate_set_bit(struct clk_gate *gate)
+ u32 reg;
+ reg = __raw_readl(gate->reg);
+ reg |= BIT(gate->bit_idx);
+ writel(reg, gate->reg);
+Note that to_clk_gate is defined as:
+#define to_clk_gate(_hw) container_of(_hw, struct clk_gate, clk)
+This pattern of abstraction is used for every clock hardware
+ Part 4 - supporting your own clk hardware
+When implementing support for a new type of clock it only necessary to
+include the following header:
+#include <linux/clk-provider.h>
+include/linux/clk.h is included within that header and clk-private.h
+must never be included from the code which implements the operations for
+a clock. More on that below in Part 5.
+To construct a clk hardware structure for your platform you must define
+the following:
+struct clk_foo {
+ struct clk_hw hw;
+ ... hardware specific data goes here ...
+To take advantage of your data you'll need to support valid operations
+for your clk:
+struct clk_ops clk_foo_ops {
+ .enable = &clk_foo_enable;
+ .disable = &clk_foo_disable;
+Implement the above functions using container_of:
+#define to_clk_foo(_hw) container_of(_hw, struct clk_foo, hw)
+int clk_foo_enable(struct clk_hw *hw)
+ struct clk_foo *foo;
+ foo = to_clk_foo(hw);
+ ... perform magic on foo ...
+ return 0;
+Below is a matrix detailing which clk_ops are mandatory based upon the
+hardware capbilities of that clock. A cell marked as "y" means
+mandatory, a cell marked as "n" implies that either including that
+callback is invalid or otherwise uneccesary. Empty cells are either
+optional or must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
+ clock hardware characteristics
+ -----------------------------------------------------------
+ | gate | change rate | single parent | multiplexer | root |
+ |------|-------------|---------------|-------------|------|
+.prepare | | | | | |
+.unprepare | | | | | |
+ | | | | | |
+.enable | y | | | | |
+.disable | y | | | | |
+.is_enabled | y | | | | |
+ | | | | | |
+.recalc_rate | | y | | | |
+.round_rate | | y | | | |
+.set_rate | | y | | | |
+ | | | | | |
+.set_parent | | | n | y | n |
+.get_parent | | | n | y | n |
+ | | | | | |
+.init | | | | | |
+ -----------------------------------------------------------
+Finally, register your clock at run-time with a hardware-specific
+registration function. This function simply populates struct clk_foo's
+data and then passes the common struct clk parameters to the framework
+with a call to:
+See the basic clock types in drivers/clk/clk-*.c for examples.
+ Part 5 - static initialization of clock data
+For platforms with many clocks (often numbering into the hundreds) it
+may be desirable to statically initialize some clock data. This
+presents a problem since the definition of struct clk should be hidden
+from everyone except for the clock core in drivers/clk/clk.c.
+To get around this problem struct clk's definition is exposed in
+include/linux/clk-private.h along with some macros for more easily
+initializing instances of the basic clock types. These clocks must
+still be initialized with the common clock framework via a call to
+clk-private.h must NEVER be included by code which implements struct
+clk_ops callbacks, nor must it be included by any logic which pokes
+around inside of struct clk at run-time. To do so is a layering
+To better enforce this policy, always follow this simple rule: any
+statically initialized clock data MUST be defined in a separate file
+from the logic that implements its ops. Basically separate the logic
+from the data and all is well.
diff --git a/Documentation/cpu-hotplug.txt b/Documentation/cpu-hotplug.txt
index a20bfd415e4..66ef8f35613 100644
--- a/Documentation/cpu-hotplug.txt
+++ b/Documentation/cpu-hotplug.txt
@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@ maxcpus=n Restrict boot time cpus to n. Say if you have 4 cpus, using
other cpus later online, read FAQ's for more info.
additional_cpus=n (*) Use this to limit hotpluggable cpus. This option sets
- cpu_possible_map = cpu_present_map + additional_cpus
+ cpu_possible_mask = cpu_present_mask + additional_cpus
cede_offline={"off","on"} Use this option to disable/enable putting offlined
processors to an extended H_CEDE state on
@@ -64,11 +64,11 @@ should only rely on this to count the # of cpus, but *MUST* not rely
on the apicid values in those tables for disabled apics. In the event
BIOS doesn't mark such hot-pluggable cpus as disabled entries, one could
use this parameter "additional_cpus=x" to represent those cpus in the
possible_cpus=n [s390,x86_64] use this to set hotpluggable cpus.
This option sets possible_cpus bits in
- cpu_possible_map. Thus keeping the numbers of bits set
+ cpu_possible_mask. Thus keeping the numbers of bits set
constant even if the machine gets rebooted.
CPU maps and such
@@ -76,7 +76,7 @@ CPU maps and such
[More on cpumaps and primitive to manipulate, please check
include/linux/cpumask.h that has more descriptive text.]
-cpu_possible_map: Bitmap of possible CPUs that can ever be available in the
+cpu_possible_mask: Bitmap of possible CPUs that can ever be available in the
system. This is used to allocate some boot time memory for per_cpu variables
that aren't designed to grow/shrink as CPUs are made available or removed.
Once set during boot time discovery phase, the map is static, i.e no bits
@@ -84,13 +84,13 @@ are added or removed anytime. Trimming it accurately for your system needs
upfront can save some boot time memory. See below for how we use heuristics
in x86_64 case to keep this under check.
-cpu_online_map: Bitmap of all CPUs currently online. Its set in __cpu_up()
+cpu_online_mask: Bitmap of all CPUs currently online. Its set in __cpu_up()
after a cpu is available for kernel scheduling and ready to receive
interrupts from devices. Its cleared when a cpu is brought down using
__cpu_disable(), before which all OS services including interrupts are
migrated to another target CPU.
-cpu_present_map: Bitmap of CPUs currently present in the system. Not all
+cpu_present_mask: Bitmap of CPUs currently present in the system. Not all
of them may be online. When physical hotplug is processed by the relevant
subsystem (e.g ACPI) can change and new bit either be added or removed
from the map depending on the event is hot-add/hot-remove. There are currently
@@ -99,22 +99,22 @@ at which time hotplug is disabled.
You really dont need to manipulate any of the system cpu maps. They should
be read-only for most use. When setting up per-cpu resources almost always use
-cpu_possible_map/for_each_possible_cpu() to iterate.
+cpu_possible_mask/for_each_possible_cpu() to iterate.
Never use anything other than cpumask_t to represent bitmap of CPUs.
#include <linux/cpumask.h>
- for_each_possible_cpu - Iterate over cpu_possible_map
- for_each_online_cpu - Iterate over cpu_online_map
- for_each_present_cpu - Iterate over cpu_present_map
+ for_each_possible_cpu - Iterate over cpu_possible_mask
+ for_each_online_cpu - Iterate over cpu_online_mask
+ for_each_present_cpu - Iterate over cpu_present_mask
for_each_cpu_mask(x,mask) - Iterate over some random collection of cpu mask.
#include <linux/cpu.h>
get_online_cpus() and put_online_cpus():
The above calls are used to inhibit cpu hotplug operations. While the
-cpu_hotplug.refcount is non zero, the cpu_online_map will not change.
+cpu_hotplug.refcount is non zero, the cpu_online_mask will not change.
If you merely need to avoid cpus going away, you could also use
preempt_disable() and preempt_enable() for those sections.
Just remember the critical section cannot call any
diff --git a/Documentation/cpuidle/sysfs.txt b/Documentation/cpuidle/sysfs.txt
index 50d7b164275..9d28a3406e7 100644
--- a/Documentation/cpuidle/sysfs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/cpuidle/sysfs.txt
@@ -36,6 +36,7 @@ drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Feb 8 10:42 state3
total 0
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 desc
+-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 disable
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 latency
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 name
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 power
@@ -45,6 +46,7 @@ total 0
total 0
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 desc
+-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 disable
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 latency
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 name
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 power
@@ -54,6 +56,7 @@ total 0
total 0
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 desc
+-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 disable
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 latency
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 name
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 power
@@ -63,6 +66,7 @@ total 0
total 0
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 desc
+-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 disable
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 latency
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 name
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Feb 8 10:42 power
@@ -72,6 +76,7 @@ total 0
* desc : Small description about the idle state (string)
+* disable : Option to disable this idle state (bool)
* latency : Latency to exit out of this idle state (in microseconds)
* name : Name of the idle state (string)
* power : Power consumed while in this idle state (in milliwatts)
diff --git a/Documentation/device-mapper/thin-provisioning.txt b/Documentation/device-mapper/thin-provisioning.txt
index 1ff044d87ca..3370bc4d7b9 100644
--- a/Documentation/device-mapper/thin-provisioning.txt
+++ b/Documentation/device-mapper/thin-provisioning.txt
@@ -75,10 +75,12 @@ less sharing than average you'll need a larger-than-average metadata device.
As a guide, we suggest you calculate the number of bytes to use in the
metadata device as 48 * $data_dev_size / $data_block_size but round it up
-to 2MB if the answer is smaller. The largest size supported is 16GB.
+to 2MB if the answer is smaller. If you're creating large numbers of
+snapshots which are recording large amounts of change, you may find you
+need to increase this.
-If you're creating large numbers of snapshots which are recording large
-amounts of change, you may need find you need to increase this.
+The largest size supported is 16GB: If the device is larger,
+a warning will be issued and the excess space will not be used.
Reloading a pool table
@@ -167,6 +169,38 @@ ii) Using an internal snapshot.
dmsetup create snap --table "0 2097152 thin /dev/mapper/pool 1"
+External snapshots
+You can use an external _read only_ device as an origin for a
+thinly-provisioned volume. Any read to an unprovisioned area of the
+thin device will be passed through to the origin. Writes trigger
+the allocation of new blocks as usual.
+One use case for this is VM hosts that want to run guests on
+thinly-provisioned volumes but have the base image on another device
+(possibly shared between many VMs).
+You must not write to the origin device if you use this technique!
+Of course, you may write to the thin device and take internal snapshots
+of the thin volume.
+i) Creating a snapshot of an external device
+ This is the same as creating a thin device.
+ You don't mention the origin at this stage.
+ dmsetup message /dev/mapper/pool 0 "create_thin 0"
+ii) Using a snapshot of an external device.
+ Append an extra parameter to the thin target specifying the origin:
+ dmsetup create snap --table "0 2097152 thin /dev/mapper/pool 0 /dev/image"
+ N.B. All descendants (internal snapshots) of this snapshot require the
+ same extra origin parameter.
@@ -189,7 +223,13 @@ i) Constructor
<low water mark (blocks)> [<number of feature args> [<arg>]*]
Optional feature arguments:
- - 'skip_block_zeroing': skips the zeroing of newly-provisioned blocks.
+ skip_block_zeroing: Skip the zeroing of newly-provisioned blocks.
+ ignore_discard: Disable discard support.
+ no_discard_passdown: Don't pass discards down to the underlying
+ data device, but just remove the mapping.
Data block size must be between 64KB (128 sectors) and 1GB
(2097152 sectors) inclusive.
@@ -237,16 +277,6 @@ iii) Messages
Deletes a thin device. Irreversible.
- trim <dev id> <new size in sectors>
- Delete mappings from the end of a thin device. Irreversible.
- You might want to use this if you're reducing the size of
- your thinly-provisioned device. In many cases, due to the
- sharing of blocks between devices, it is not possible to
- determine in advance how much space 'trim' will release. (In
- future a userspace tool might be able to perform this
- calculation.)
set_transaction_id <current id> <new id>
Userland volume managers, such as LVM, need a way to
@@ -262,7 +292,7 @@ iii) Messages
i) Constructor
- thin <pool dev> <dev id>
+ thin <pool dev> <dev id> [<external origin dev>]
pool dev:
the thin-pool device, e.g. /dev/mapper/my_pool or 253:0
@@ -271,6 +301,11 @@ i) Constructor
the internal device identifier of the device to be
+ external origin dev:
+ an optional block device outside the pool to be treated as a
+ read-only snapshot origin: reads to unprovisioned areas of the
+ thin target will be mapped to this device.
The pool doesn't store any size against the thin devices. If you
load a thin target that is smaller than you've been using previously,
then you'll have no access to blocks mapped beyond the end. If you
diff --git a/Documentation/device-mapper/verity.txt b/Documentation/device-mapper/verity.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..32e48797a14
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/device-mapper/verity.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,194 @@
+Device-Mapper's "verity" target provides transparent integrity checking of
+block devices using a cryptographic digest provided by the kernel crypto API.
+This target is read-only.
+Construction Parameters
+ <version> <dev> <hash_dev> <hash_start>
+ <data_block_size> <hash_block_size>
+ <num_data_blocks> <hash_start_block>
+ <algorithm> <digest> <salt>
+ This is the version number of the on-disk format.
+ 0 is the original format used in the Chromium OS.
+ The salt is appended when hashing, digests are stored continuously and
+ the rest of the block is padded with zeros.
+ 1 is the current format that should be used for new devices.
+ The salt is prepended when hashing and each digest is
+ padded with zeros to the power of two.
+ This is the device containing the data the integrity of which needs to be
+ checked. It may be specified as a path, like /dev/sdaX, or a device number,
+ <major>:<minor>.
+ This is the device that that supplies the hash tree data. It may be
+ specified similarly to the device path and may be the same device. If the
+ same device is used, the hash_start should be outside of the dm-verity
+ configured device size.
+ The block size on a data device. Each block corresponds to one digest on
+ the hash device.
+ The size of a hash block.
+ The number of data blocks on the data device. Additional blocks are
+ inaccessible. You can place hashes to the same partition as data, in this
+ case hashes are placed after <num_data_blocks>.
+ This is the offset, in <hash_block_size>-blocks, from the start of hash_dev
+ to the root block of the hash tree.
+ The cryptographic hash algorithm used for this device. This should
+ be the name of the algorithm, like "sha1".
+ The hexadecimal encoding of the cryptographic hash of the root hash block
+ and the salt. This hash should be trusted as there is no other authenticity
+ beyond this point.
+ The hexadecimal encoding of the salt value.
+Theory of operation
+dm-verity is meant to be setup as part of a verified boot path. This
+may be anything ranging from a boot using tboot or trustedgrub to just
+booting from a known-good device (like a USB drive or CD).
+When a dm-verity device is configured, it is expected that the caller
+has been authenticated in some way (cryptographic signatures, etc).
+After instantiation, all hashes will be verified on-demand during
+disk access. If they cannot be verified up to the root node of the
+tree, the root hash, then the I/O will fail. This should identify
+tampering with any data on the device and the hash data.
+Cryptographic hashes are used to assert the integrity of the device on a
+per-block basis. This allows for a lightweight hash computation on first read
+into the page cache. Block hashes are stored linearly-aligned to the nearest
+block the size of a page.
+Hash Tree
+Each node in the tree is a cryptographic hash. If it is a leaf node, the hash
+is of some block data on disk. If it is an intermediary node, then the hash is
+of a number of child nodes.
+Each entry in the tree is a collection of neighboring nodes that fit in one
+block. The number is determined based on block_size and the size of the
+selected cryptographic digest algorithm. The hashes are linearly-ordered in
+this entry and any unaligned trailing space is ignored but included when
+calculating the parent node.
+The tree looks something like:
+alg = sha256, num_blocks = 32768, block_size = 4096
+ [ root ]
+ / . . . \
+ [entry_0] [entry_1]
+ / . . . \ . . . \
+ [entry_0_0] . . . [entry_0_127] . . . . [entry_1_127]
+ / ... \ / . . . \ / \
+ blk_0 ... blk_127 blk_16256 blk_16383 blk_32640 . . . blk_32767
+On-disk format
+Below is the recommended on-disk format. The verity kernel code does not
+read the on-disk header. It only reads the hash blocks which directly
+follow the header. It is expected that a user-space tool will verify the
+integrity of the verity_header and then call dmsetup with the correct
+parameters. Alternatively, the header can be omitted and the dmsetup
+parameters can be passed via the kernel command-line in a rooted chain
+of trust where the command-line is verified.
+The on-disk format is especially useful in cases where the hash blocks
+are on a separate partition. The magic number allows easy identification
+of the partition contents. Alternatively, the hash blocks can be stored
+in the same partition as the data to be verified. In such a configuration
+the filesystem on the partition would be sized a little smaller than
+the full-partition, leaving room for the hash blocks.
+struct superblock {
+ uint8_t signature[8]
+ "verity\0\0";
+ uint8_t version;
+ 1 - current format
+ uint8_t data_block_bits;
+ log2(data block size)
+ uint8_t hash_block_bits;
+ log2(hash block size)
+ uint8_t pad1[1];
+ zero padding
+ uint16_t salt_size;
+ big-endian salt size
+ uint8_t pad2[2];
+ zero padding
+ uint32_t data_blocks_hi;
+ big-endian high 32 bits of the 64-bit number of data blocks
+ uint32_t data_blocks_lo;
+ big-endian low 32 bits of the 64-bit number of data blocks
+ uint8_t algorithm[16];
+ cryptographic algorithm
+ uint8_t salt[384];
+ salt (the salt size is specified above)
+ uint8_t pad3[88];
+ zero padding to 512-byte boundary
+Directly following the header (and with sector number padded to the next hash
+block boundary) are the hash blocks which are stored a depth at a time
+(starting from the root), sorted in order of increasing index.
+V (for Valid) is returned if every check performed so far was valid.
+If any check failed, C (for Corruption) is returned.
+Setup a device:
+ dmsetup create vroot --table \
+ "0 2097152 "\
+ "verity 1 /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 4096 4096 2097152 1 "\
+ "4392712ba01368efdf14b05c76f9e4df0d53664630b5d48632ed17a137f39076 "\
+ "1234000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000"
+A command line tool veritysetup is available to compute or verify
+the hash tree or activate the kernel driver. This is available from
+the LVM2 upstream repository and may be supplied as a package called
+ git://sources.redhat.com/git/lvm2
+ http://sourceware.org/git/?p=lvm2.git
+ http://sourceware.org/cgi-bin/cvsweb.cgi/LVM2/verity?cvsroot=lvm2
+veritysetup -a vroot /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 \
+ 4392712ba01368efdf14b05c76f9e4df0d53664630b5d48632ed17a137f39076
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/atmel-at91.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/atmel-at91.txt
index 1aeaf6f2a1b..ecc81e36871 100644
--- a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/atmel-at91.txt
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/atmel-at91.txt
@@ -30,3 +30,63 @@ One interrupt per TC channel in a TC block:
reg = <0xfffdc000 0x100>;
interrupts = <26 4 27 4 28 4>;
+RSTC Reset Controller required properties:
+- compatible: Should be "atmel,<chip>-rstc".
+ <chip> can be "at91sam9260" or "at91sam9g45"
+- reg: Should contain registers location and length
+ rstc@fffffd00 {
+ compatible = "atmel,at91sam9260-rstc";
+ reg = <0xfffffd00 0x10>;
+ };
+RAMC SDRAM/DDR Controller required properties:
+- compatible: Should be "atmel,at91sam9260-sdramc",
+ "atmel,at91sam9g45-ddramc",
+- reg: Should contain registers location and length
+ For at91sam9263 and at91sam9g45 you must specify 2 entries.
+ ramc0: ramc@ffffe800 {
+ compatible = "atmel,at91sam9g45-ddramc";
+ reg = <0xffffe800 0x200>;
+ };
+ ramc0: ramc@ffffe400 {
+ compatible = "atmel,at91sam9g45-ddramc";
+ reg = <0xffffe400 0x200
+ 0xffffe600 0x200>;
+ };
+SHDWC Shutdown Controller
+required properties:
+- compatible: Should be "atmel,<chip>-shdwc".
+ <chip> can be "at91sam9260", "at91sam9rl" or "at91sam9x5".
+- reg: Should contain registers location and length
+optional properties:
+- atmel,wakeup-mode: String, operation mode of the wakeup mode.
+ Supported values are: "none", "high", "low", "any".
+- atmel,wakeup-counter: Counter on Wake-up 0 (between 0x0 and 0xf).
+optional at91sam9260 properties:
+- atmel,wakeup-rtt-timer: boolean to enable Real-time Timer Wake-up.
+optional at91sam9rl properties:
+- atmel,wakeup-rtc-timer: boolean to enable Real-time Clock Wake-up.
+- atmel,wakeup-rtt-timer: boolean to enable Real-time Timer Wake-up.
+optional at91sam9x5 properties:
+- atmel,wakeup-rtc-timer: boolean to enable Real-time Clock Wake-up.
+ rstc@fffffd00 {
+ compatible = "atmel,at91sam9260-rstc";
+ reg = <0xfffffd00 0x10>;
+ };
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/atmel-pmc.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/atmel-pmc.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..389bed5056e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/atmel-pmc.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
+* Power Management Controller (PMC)
+Required properties:
+- compatible: Should be "atmel,at91rm9200-pmc"
+- reg: Should contain PMC registers location and length
+ pmc: pmc@fffffc00 {
+ compatible = "atmel,at91rm9200-pmc";
+ reg = <0xfffffc00 0x100>;
+ };
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/spear.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/spear.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..f8e54f09232
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/arm/spear.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+ST SPEAr Platforms Device Tree Bindings
+Boards with the ST SPEAr600 SoC shall have the following properties:
+Required root node property:
+compatible = "st,spear600";
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/gpio/gpio-omap.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/gpio/gpio-omap.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..bff51a2fee1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/gpio/gpio-omap.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,36 @@
+OMAP GPIO controller bindings
+Required properties:
+- compatible:
+ - "ti,omap2-gpio" for OMAP2 controllers
+ - "ti,omap3-gpio" for OMAP3 controllers
+ - "ti,omap4-gpio" for OMAP4 controllers
+- #gpio-cells : Should be two.
+ - first cell is the pin number
+ - second cell is used to specify optional parameters (unused)
+- gpio-controller : Marks the device node as a GPIO controller.
+- #interrupt-cells : Should be 2.
+- interrupt-controller: Mark the device node as an interrupt controller
+ The first cell is the GPIO number.
+ The second cell is used to specify flags:
+ bits[3:0] trigger type and level flags:
+ 1 = low-to-high edge triggered.
+ 2 = high-to-low edge triggered.
+ 4 = active high level-sensitive.
+ 8 = active low level-sensitive.
+OMAP specific properties:
+- ti,hwmods: Name of the hwmod associated to the GPIO:
+ "gpio<X>", <X> being the 1-based instance number from the HW spec
+gpio4: gpio4 {
+ compatible = "ti,omap4-gpio";
+ ti,hwmods = "gpio4";
+ #gpio-cells = <2>;
+ gpio-controller;
+ #interrupt-cells = <2>;
+ interrupt-controller;
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/gpio/gpio-twl4030.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/gpio/gpio-twl4030.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..16695d9cf1e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/gpio/gpio-twl4030.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,23 @@
+twl4030 GPIO controller bindings
+Required properties:
+- compatible:
+ - "ti,twl4030-gpio" for twl4030 GPIO controller
+- #gpio-cells : Should be two.
+ - first cell is the pin number
+ - second cell is used to specify optional parameters (unused)
+- gpio-controller : Marks the device node as a GPIO controller.
+- #interrupt-cells : Should be 2.
+- interrupt-controller: Mark the device node as an interrupt controller
+ The first cell is the GPIO number.
+ The second cell is not used.
+twl_gpio: gpio {
+ compatible = "ti,twl4030-gpio";
+ #gpio-cells = <2>;
+ gpio-controller;
+ #interrupt-cells = <2>;
+ interrupt-controller;
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/gpio/gpio_i2c.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/gpio/gpio_i2c.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..4f8ec947c6b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/gpio/gpio_i2c.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,32 @@
+Device-Tree bindings for i2c gpio driver
+Required properties:
+ - compatible = "i2c-gpio";
+ - gpios: sda and scl gpio
+Optional properties:
+ - i2c-gpio,sda-open-drain: sda as open drain
+ - i2c-gpio,scl-open-drain: scl as open drain
+ - i2c-gpio,scl-output-only: scl as output only
+ - i2c-gpio,delay-us: delay between GPIO operations (may depend on each platform)
+ - i2c-gpio,timeout-ms: timeout to get data
+Example nodes:
+i2c@0 {
+ compatible = "i2c-gpio";
+ gpios = <&pioA 23 0 /* sda */
+ &pioA 24 0 /* scl */
+ >;
+ i2c-gpio,sda-open-drain;
+ i2c-gpio,scl-open-drain;
+ i2c-gpio,delay-us = <2>; /* ~100 kHz */
+ #address-cells = <1>;
+ #size-cells = <0>;
+ rv3029c2@56 {
+ compatible = "rv3029c2";
+ reg = <0x56>;
+ };
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/gpio/sodaville.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/gpio/sodaville.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..563eff22b97
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/gpio/sodaville.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,48 @@
+GPIO controller on CE4100 / Sodaville SoCs
+The bindings for CE4100's GPIO controller match the generic description
+which is covered by the gpio.txt file in this folder.
+The only additional property is the intel,muxctl property which holds the
+value which is written into the MUXCNTL register.
+There is no compatible property for now because the driver is probed via
+PCI id (vendor 0x8086 device 0x2e67).
+The interrupt specifier consists of two cells encoded as follows:
+ - <1st cell>: The interrupt-number that identifies the interrupt source.
+ - <2nd cell>: The level-sense information, encoded as follows:
+ 4 - active high level-sensitive
+ 8 - active low level-sensitive
+Example of the GPIO device and one user:
+ pcigpio: gpio@b,1 {
+ /* two cells for GPIO and interrupt */
+ #gpio-cells = <2>;
+ #interrupt-cells = <2>;
+ compatible = "pci8086,2e67.2",
+ "pci8086,2e67",
+ "pciclassff0000",
+ "pciclassff00";
+ reg = <0x15900 0x0 0x0 0x0 0x0>;
+ /* Interrupt line of the gpio device */
+ interrupts = <15 1>;
+ /* It is an interrupt and GPIO controller itself */
+ interrupt-controller;
+ gpio-controller;
+ intel,muxctl = <0>;
+ };
+ testuser@20 {
+ compatible = "example,testuser";
+ /* User the 11th GPIO line as an active high triggered
+ * level interrupt
+ */
+ interrupts = <11 8>;
+ interrupt-parent = <&pcigpio>;
+ /* Use this GPIO also with the gpio functions */
+ gpios = <&pcigpio 11 0>;
+ };
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mmc/ti-omap-hsmmc.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mmc/ti-omap-hsmmc.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..dbd4368ab8c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mmc/ti-omap-hsmmc.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,33 @@
+* TI Highspeed MMC host controller for OMAP
+The Highspeed MMC Host Controller on TI OMAP family
+provides an interface for MMC, SD, and SDIO types of memory cards.
+Required properties:
+- compatible:
+ Should be "ti,omap2-hsmmc", for OMAP2 controllers
+ Should be "ti,omap3-hsmmc", for OMAP3 controllers
+ Should be "ti,omap4-hsmmc", for OMAP4 controllers
+- ti,hwmods: Must be "mmc<n>", n is controller instance starting 1
+- reg : should contain hsmmc registers location and length
+Optional properties:
+ti,dual-volt: boolean, supports dual voltage cards
+<supply-name>-supply: phandle to the regulator device tree node
+"supply-name" examples are "vmmc", "vmmc_aux" etc
+ti,bus-width: Number of data lines, default assumed is 1 if the property is missing.
+cd-gpios: GPIOs for card detection
+wp-gpios: GPIOs for write protection
+ti,non-removable: non-removable slot (like eMMC)
+ti,needs-special-reset: Requires a special softreset sequence
+ mmc1: mmc@0x4809c000 {
+ compatible = "ti,omap4-hsmmc";
+ reg = <0x4809c000 0x400>;
+ ti,hwmods = "mmc1";
+ ti,dual-volt;
+ ti,bus-width = <4>;
+ vmmc-supply = <&vmmc>; /* phandle to regulator node */
+ ti,non-removable;
+ };
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/arm-versatile.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/arm-versatile.txt
index 476845db94d..beace4b89da 100644
--- a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/arm-versatile.txt
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/arm-versatile.txt
@@ -4,5 +4,5 @@ Required properties:
- compatible : must be "arm,versatile-flash";
- bank-width : width in bytes of flash interface.
-Optional properties:
-- Subnode partition map from mtd flash binding
+The device tree may optionally contain sub-nodes describing partitions of the
+address space. See partition.txt for more detail.
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/atmel-dataflash.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/atmel-dataflash.txt
index ef66ddd01da..1889a4db5b7 100644
--- a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/atmel-dataflash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/atmel-dataflash.txt
@@ -3,6 +3,9 @@
Required properties:
- compatible : "atmel,<model>", "atmel,<series>", "atmel,dataflash".
+The device tree may optionally contain sub-nodes describing partitions of the
+address space. See partition.txt for more detail.
flash@1 {
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/atmel-nand.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/atmel-nand.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..a20069502f5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/atmel-nand.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,41 @@
+Atmel NAND flash
+Required properties:
+- compatible : "atmel,at91rm9200-nand".
+- reg : should specify localbus address and size used for the chip,
+ and if availlable the ECC.
+- atmel,nand-addr-offset : offset for the address latch.
+- atmel,nand-cmd-offset : offset for the command latch.
+- #address-cells, #size-cells : Must be present if the device has sub-nodes
+ representing partitions.
+- gpios : specifies the gpio pins to control the NAND device. detect is an
+ optional gpio and may be set to 0 if not present.
+Optional properties:
+- nand-ecc-mode : String, operation mode of the NAND ecc mode, soft by default.
+ Supported values are: "none", "soft", "hw", "hw_syndrome", "hw_oob_first",
+ "soft_bch".
+- nand-bus-width : 8 or 16 bus width if not present 8
+- nand-on-flash-bbt: boolean to enable on flash bbt option if not present false
+nand0: nand@40000000,0 {
+ compatible = "atmel,at91rm9200-nand";
+ #address-cells = <1>;
+ #size-cells = <1>;
+ reg = <0x40000000 0x10000000
+ 0xffffe800 0x200
+ >;
+ atmel,nand-addr-offset = <21>; /* ale */
+ atmel,nand-cmd-offset = <22>; /* cle */
+ nand-on-flash-bbt;
+ nand-ecc-mode = "soft";
+ gpios = <&pioC 13 0 /* rdy */
+ &pioC 14 0 /* nce */
+ 0 /* cd */
+ >;
+ partition@0 {
+ ...
+ };
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/fsl-upm-nand.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/fsl-upm-nand.txt
index 00f1f546b32..fce4894f5a9 100644
--- a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/fsl-upm-nand.txt
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/fsl-upm-nand.txt
@@ -19,6 +19,10 @@ Optional properties:
read registers (tR). Required if property "gpios" is not used
(R/B# pins not connected).
+Each flash chip described may optionally contain additional sub-nodes
+describing partitions of the address space. See partition.txt for more
upm@1,0 {
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/fsmc-nand.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/fsmc-nand.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..e2c663b354d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/fsmc-nand.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,33 @@
+Required properties:
+- compatible : "st,spear600-fsmc-nand"
+- reg : Address range of the mtd chip
+- reg-names: Should contain the reg names "fsmc_regs" and "nand_data"
+- st,ale-off : Chip specific offset to ALE
+- st,cle-off : Chip specific offset to CLE
+Optional properties:
+- bank-width : Width (in bytes) of the device. If not present, the width
+ defaults to 1 byte
+- nand-skip-bbtscan: Indicates the the BBT scanning should be skipped
+ fsmc: flash@d1800000 {
+ compatible = "st,spear600-fsmc-nand";
+ #address-cells = <1>;
+ #size-cells = <1>;
+ reg = <0xd1800000 0x1000 /* FSMC Register */
+ 0xd2000000 0x4000>; /* NAND Base */
+ reg-names = "fsmc_regs", "nand_data";
+ st,ale-off = <0x20000>;
+ st,cle-off = <0x10000>;
+ bank-width = <1>;
+ nand-skip-bbtscan;
+ partition@0 {
+ ...
+ };
+ };
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/gpio-control-nand.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/gpio-control-nand.txt
index 719f4dc58df..36ef07d3c90 100644
--- a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/gpio-control-nand.txt
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/gpio-control-nand.txt
@@ -25,6 +25,9 @@ Optional properties:
GPIO state and before and after command byte writes, this register will be
read to ensure that the GPIO accesses have completed.
+The device tree may optionally contain sub-nodes describing partitions of the
+address space. See partition.txt for more detail.
gpio-nand@1,0 {
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/mtd-physmap.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/mtd-physmap.txt
index 80152cb567d..a63c2bd7de2 100644
--- a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/mtd-physmap.txt
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/mtd-physmap.txt
@@ -23,27 +23,8 @@ are defined:
- vendor-id : Contains the flash chip's vendor id (1 byte).
- device-id : Contains the flash chip's device id (1 byte).
-In addition to the information on the mtd bank itself, the
-device tree may optionally contain additional information
-describing partitions of the address space. This can be
-used on platforms which have strong conventions about which
-portions of a flash are used for what purposes, but which don't
-use an on-flash partition table such as RedBoot.
-Each partition is represented as a sub-node of the mtd device.
-Each node's name represents the name of the corresponding
-partition of the mtd device.
-Flash partitions
- - reg : The partition's offset and size within the mtd bank.
- - label : (optional) The label / name for this partition.
- If omitted, the label is taken from the node name (excluding
- the unit address).
- - read-only : (optional) This parameter, if present, is a hint to
- Linux that this partition should only be mounted
- read-only. This is usually used for flash partitions
- containing early-boot firmware images or data which should not
- be clobbered.
+The device tree may optionally contain sub-nodes describing partitions of the
+address space. See partition.txt for more detail.
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/nand.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/nand.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..03855c8c492
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/nand.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,7 @@
+* MTD generic binding
+- nand-ecc-mode : String, operation mode of the NAND ecc mode.
+ Supported values are: "none", "soft", "hw", "hw_syndrome", "hw_oob_first",
+ "soft_bch".
+- nand-bus-width : 8 or 16 bus width if not present 8
+- nand-on-flash-bbt: boolean to enable on flash bbt option if not present false
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/partition.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/partition.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..f114ce1657c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/partition.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,38 @@
+Representing flash partitions in devicetree
+Partitions can be represented by sub-nodes of an mtd device. This can be used
+on platforms which have strong conventions about which portions of a flash are
+used for what purposes, but which don't use an on-flash partition table such
+as RedBoot.
+#address-cells & #size-cells must both be present in the mtd device and be
+equal to 1.
+Required properties:
+- reg : The partition's offset and size within the mtd bank.
+Optional properties:
+- label : The label / name for this partition. If omitted, the label is taken
+ from the node name (excluding the unit address).
+- read-only : This parameter, if present, is a hint to Linux that this
+ partition should only be mounted read-only. This is usually used for flash
+ partitions containing early-boot firmware images or data which should not be
+ clobbered.
+flash@0 {
+ #address-cells = <1>;
+ #size-cells = <1>;
+ partition@0 {
+ label = "u-boot";
+ reg = <0x0000000 0x100000>;
+ read-only;
+ };
+ uimage@100000 {
+ reg = <0x0100000 0x200000>;
+ };
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/spear_smi.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/spear_smi.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..7248aadd89e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/mtd/spear_smi.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,31 @@
+Required properties:
+- compatible : "st,spear600-smi"
+- reg : Address range of the mtd chip
+- #address-cells, #size-cells : Must be present if the device has sub-nodes
+ representing partitions.
+- interrupt-parent: Should be the phandle for the interrupt controller
+ that services interrupts for this device
+- interrupts: Should contain the STMMAC interrupts
+- clock-rate : Functional clock rate of SMI in Hz
+Optional properties:
+- st,smi-fast-mode : Flash supports read in fast mode
+ smi: flash@fc000000 {
+ compatible = "st,spear600-smi";
+ #address-cells = <1>;
+ #size-cells = <1>;
+ reg = <0xfc000000 0x1000>;
+ interrupt-parent = <&vic1>;
+ interrupts = <12>;
+ clock-rate = <50000000>; /* 50MHz */
+ flash@f8000000 {
+ st,smi-fast-mode;
+ ...
+ };
+ };
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/power_supply/max17042_battery.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/power_supply/max17042_battery.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..5bc9b685cf8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/power_supply/max17042_battery.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,18 @@
+Required properties :
+ - compatible : "maxim,max17042"
+Optional properties :
+ - maxim,rsns-microohm : Resistance of rsns resistor in micro Ohms
+ (datasheet-recommended value is 10000).
+ Defining this property enables current-sense functionality.
+ battery-charger@36 {
+ compatible = "maxim,max17042";
+ reg = <0x36>;
+ maxim,rsns-microohm = <10000>;
+ };
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/regulator/anatop-regulator.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/regulator/anatop-regulator.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..357758cb6e9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/regulator/anatop-regulator.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
+Anatop Voltage regulators
+Required properties:
+- compatible: Must be "fsl,anatop-regulator"
+- anatop-reg-offset: Anatop MFD register offset
+- anatop-vol-bit-shift: Bit shift for the register
+- anatop-vol-bit-width: Number of bits used in the register
+- anatop-min-bit-val: Minimum value of this register
+- anatop-min-voltage: Minimum voltage of this regulator
+- anatop-max-voltage: Maximum voltage of this regulator
+Any property defined as part of the core regulator
+binding, defined in regulator.txt, can also be used.
+ regulator-vddpu {
+ compatible = "fsl,anatop-regulator";
+ regulator-name = "vddpu";
+ regulator-min-microvolt = <725000>;
+ regulator-max-microvolt = <1300000>;
+ regulator-always-on;
+ anatop-reg-offset = <0x140>;
+ anatop-vol-bit-shift = <9>;
+ anatop-vol-bit-width = <5>;
+ anatop-min-bit-val = <1>;
+ anatop-min-voltage = <725000>;
+ anatop-max-voltage = <1300000>;
+ };
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/usb/atmel-usb.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/usb/atmel-usb.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..60bd2150a3e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/usb/atmel-usb.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,49 @@
+Atmel SOC USB controllers
+Required properties:
+ - compatible: Should be "atmel,at91rm9200-ohci" for USB controllers
+ used in host mode.
+ - num-ports: Number of ports.
+ - atmel,vbus-gpio: If present, specifies a gpio that needs to be
+ activated for the bus to be powered.
+ - atmel,oc-gpio: If present, specifies a gpio that needs to be
+ activated for the overcurrent detection.
+usb0: ohci@00500000 {
+ compatible = "atmel,at91rm9200-ohci", "usb-ohci";
+ reg = <0x00500000 0x100000>;
+ interrupts = <20 4>;
+ num-ports = <2>;
+Required properties:
+ - compatible: Should be "atmel,at91sam9g45-ehci" for USB controllers
+ used in host mode.
+usb1: ehci@00800000 {
+ compatible = "atmel,at91sam9g45-ehci", "usb-ehci";
+ reg = <0x00800000 0x100000>;
+ interrupts = <22 4>;
+AT91 USB device controller
+Required properties:
+ - compatible: Should be "atmel,at91rm9200-udc"
+ - reg: Address and length of the register set for the device
+ - interrupts: Should contain macb interrupt
+Optional properties:
+ - atmel,vbus-gpio: If present, specifies a gpio that needs to be
+ activated for the bus to be powered.
+usb1: gadget@fffa4000 {
+ compatible = "atmel,at91rm9200-udc";
+ reg = <0xfffa4000 0x4000>;
+ interrupts = <10 4>;
+ atmel,vbus-gpio = <&pioC 5 0>;
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/usb/tegra-usb.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/usb/tegra-usb.txt
index 035d63d5646..007005ddbe1 100644
--- a/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/usb/tegra-usb.txt
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/bindings/usb/tegra-usb.txt
@@ -11,3 +11,16 @@ Required properties :
- phy_type : Should be one of "ulpi" or "utmi".
- nvidia,vbus-gpio : If present, specifies a gpio that needs to be
activated for the bus to be powered.
+Optional properties:
+ - dr_mode : dual role mode. Indicates the working mode for
+ nvidia,tegra20-ehci compatible controllers. Can be "host", "peripheral",
+ or "otg". Default to "host" if not defined for backward compatibility.
+ host means this is a host controller
+ peripheral means it is device controller
+ otg means it can operate as either ("on the go")
+ - nvidia,has-legacy-mode : boolean indicates whether this controller can
+ operate in legacy mode (as APX 2500 / 2600). In legacy mode some
+ registers are accessed through the APB_MISC base address instead of
+ the USB controller. Since this is a legacy issue it probably does not
+ warrant a compatible string of its own.
diff --git a/Documentation/devicetree/usage-model.txt b/Documentation/devicetree/usage-model.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..c5a80099b71
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/devicetree/usage-model.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,412 @@
+Linux and the Device Tree
+The Linux usage model for device tree data
+Author: Grant Likely <grant.likely@secretlab.ca>
+This article describes how Linux uses the device tree. An overview of
+the device tree data format can be found on the device tree usage page
+at devicetree.org[1].
+[1] http://devicetree.org/Device_Tree_Usage
+The "Open Firmware Device Tree", or simply Device Tree (DT), is a data
+structure and language for describing hardware. More specifically, it
+is a description of hardware that is readable by an operating system
+so that the operating system doesn't need to hard code details of the
+Structurally, the DT is a tree, or acyclic graph with named nodes, and
+nodes may have an arbitrary number of named properties encapsulating
+arbitrary data. A mechanism also exists to create arbitrary
+links from one node to another outside of the natural tree structure.
+Conceptually, a common set of usage conventions, called 'bindings',
+is defined for how data should appear in the tree to describe typical
+hardware characteristics including data busses, interrupt lines, GPIO
+connections, and peripheral devices.
+As much as possible, hardware is described using existing bindings to
+maximize use of existing support code, but since property and node
+names are simply text strings, it is easy to extend existing bindings
+or create new ones by defining new nodes and properties. Be wary,
+however, of creating a new binding without first doing some homework
+about what already exists. There are currently two different,
+incompatible, bindings for i2c busses that came about because the new
+binding was created without first investigating how i2c devices were
+already being enumerated in existing systems.
+1. History
+The DT was originally created by Open Firmware as part of the
+communication method for passing data from Open Firmware to a client
+program (like to an operating system). An operating system used the
+Device Tree to discover the topology of the hardware at runtime, and
+thereby support a majority of available hardware without hard coded
+information (assuming drivers were available for all devices).
+Since Open Firmware is commonly used on PowerPC and SPARC platforms,
+the Linux support for those architectures has for a long time used the
+Device Tree.
+In 2005, when PowerPC Linux began a major cleanup and to merge 32-bit
+and 64-bit support, the decision was made to require DT support on all
+powerpc platforms, regardless of whether or not they used Open
+Firmware. To do this, a DT representation called the Flattened Device
+Tree (FDT) was created which could be passed to the kernel as a binary
+blob without requiring a real Open Firmware implementation. U-Boot,
+kexec, and other bootloaders were modified to support both passing a
+Device Tree Binary (dtb) and to modify a dtb at boot time. DT was
+also added to the PowerPC boot wrapper (arch/powerpc/boot/*) so that
+a dtb could be wrapped up with the kernel image to support booting
+existing non-DT aware firmware.
+Some time later, FDT infrastructure was generalized to be usable by
+all architectures. At the time of this writing, 6 mainlined
+architectures (arm, microblaze, mips, powerpc, sparc, and x86) and 1
+out of mainline (nios) have some level of DT support.
+2. Data Model
+If you haven't already read the Device Tree Usage[1] page,
+then go read it now. It's okay, I'll wait....
+2.1 High Level View
+The most important thing to understand is that the DT is simply a data
+structure that describes the hardware. There is nothing magical about
+it, and it doesn't magically make all hardware configuration problems
+go away. What it does do is provide a language for decoupling the
+hardware configuration from the board and device driver support in the
+Linux kernel (or any other operating system for that matter). Using
+it allows board and device support to become data driven; to make
+setup decisions based on data passed into the kernel instead of on
+per-machine hard coded selections.
+Ideally, data driven platform setup should result in less code
+duplication and make it easier to support a wide range of hardware
+with a single kernel image.
+Linux uses DT data for three major purposes:
+1) platform identification,
+2) runtime configuration, and
+3) device population.
+2.2 Platform Identification
+First and foremost, the kernel will use data in the DT to identify the
+specific machine. In a perfect world, the specific platform shouldn't
+matter to the kernel because all platform details would be described
+perfectly by the device tree in a consistent and reliable manner.
+Hardware is not perfect though, and so the kernel must identify the
+machine during early boot so that it has the opportunity to run
+machine-specific fixups.
+In the majority of cases, the machine identity is irrelevant, and the
+kernel will instead select setup code based on the machine's core
+CPU or SoC. On ARM for example, setup_arch() in
+arch/arm/kernel/setup.c will call setup_machine_fdt() in
+arch/arm/kernel/devicetree.c which searches through the machine_desc
+table and selects the machine_desc which best matches the device tree
+data. It determines the best match by looking at the 'compatible'
+property in the root device tree node, and comparing it with the
+dt_compat list in struct machine_desc.
+The 'compatible' property contains a sorted list of strings starting
+with the exact name of the machine, followed by an optional list of
+boards it is compatible with sorted from most compatible to least. For
+example, the root compatible properties for the TI BeagleBoard and its
+successor, the BeagleBoard xM board might look like:
+ compatible = "ti,omap3-beagleboard", "ti,omap3450", "ti,omap3";
+ compatible = "ti,omap3-beagleboard-xm", "ti,omap3450", "ti,omap3";
+Where "ti,omap3-beagleboard-xm" specifies the exact model, it also
+claims that it compatible with the OMAP 3450 SoC, and the omap3 family
+of SoCs in general. You'll notice that the list is sorted from most
+specific (exact board) to least specific (SoC family).
+Astute readers might point out that the Beagle xM could also claim
+compatibility with the original Beagle board. However, one should be
+cautioned about doing so at the board level since there is typically a
+high level of change from one board to another, even within the same
+product line, and it is hard to nail down exactly what is meant when one
+board claims to be compatible with another. For the top level, it is
+better to err on the side of caution and not claim one board is
+compatible with another. The notable exception would be when one
+board is a carrier for another, such as a CPU module attached to a
+carrier board.
+One more note on compatible values. Any string used in a compatible
+property must be documented as to what it indicates. Add
+documentation for compatible strings in Documentation/devicetree/bindings.
+Again on ARM, for each machine_desc, the kernel looks to see if
+any of the dt_compat list entries appear in the compatible property.
+If one does, then that machine_desc is a candidate for driving the
+machine. After searching the entire table of machine_descs,
+setup_machine_fdt() returns the 'most compatible' machine_desc based
+on which entry in the compatible property each machine_desc matches
+against. If no matching machine_desc is found, then it returns NULL.
+The reasoning behind this scheme is the observation that in the majority
+of cases, a single machine_desc can support a large number of boards
+if they all use the same SoC, or same family of SoCs. However,
+invariably there will be some exceptions where a specific board will
+require special setup code that is not useful in the generic case.
+Special cases could be handled by explicitly checking for the
+troublesome board(s) in generic setup code, but doing so very quickly
+becomes ugly and/or unmaintainable if it is more than just a couple of
+Instead, the compatible list allows a generic machine_desc to provide
+support for a wide common set of boards by specifying "less
+compatible" value in the dt_compat list. In the example above,
+generic board support can claim compatibility with "ti,omap3" or
+"ti,omap3450". If a bug was discovered on the original beagleboard
+that required special workaround code during early boot, then a new
+machine_desc could be added which implements the workarounds and only
+matches on "ti,omap3-beagleboard".
+PowerPC uses a slightly different scheme where it calls the .probe()
+hook from each machine_desc, and the first one returning TRUE is used.
+However, this approach does not take into account the priority of the
+compatible list, and probably should be avoided for new architecture
+2.3 Runtime configuration
+In most cases, a DT will be the sole method of communicating data from
+firmware to the kernel, so also gets used to pass in runtime and
+configuration data like the kernel parameters string and the location
+of an initrd image.
+Most of this data is contained in the /chosen node, and when booting
+Linux it will look something like this:
+ chosen {
+ bootargs = "console=ttyS0,115200 loglevel=8";
+ initrd-start = <0xc8000000>;
+ initrd-end = <0xc8200000>;
+ };
+The bootargs property contains the kernel arguments, and the initrd-*
+properties define the address and size of an initrd blob. The
+chosen node may also optionally contain an arbitrary number of
+additional properties for platform-specific configuration data.
+During early boot, the architecture setup code calls of_scan_flat_dt()
+several times with different helper callbacks to parse device tree
+data before paging is setup. The of_scan_flat_dt() code scans through
+the device tree and uses the helpers to extract information required
+during early boot. Typically the early_init_dt_scan_chosen() helper
+is used to parse the chosen node including kernel parameters,
+early_init_dt_scan_root() to initialize the DT address space model,
+and early_init_dt_scan_memory() to determine the size and
+location of usable RAM.
+On ARM, the function setup_machine_fdt() is responsible for early
+scanning of the device tree after selecting the correct machine_desc
+that supports the board.
+2.4 Device population
+After the board has been identified, and after the early configuration data
+has been parsed, then kernel initialization can proceed in the normal
+way. At some point in this process, unflatten_device_tree() is called
+to convert the data into a more efficient runtime representation.
+This is also when machine-specific setup hooks will get called, like
+the machine_desc .init_early(), .init_irq() and .init_machine() hooks
+on ARM. The remainder of this section uses examples from the ARM
+implementation, but all architectures will do pretty much the same
+thing when using a DT.
+As can be guessed by the names, .init_early() is used for any machine-
+specific setup that needs to be executed early in the boot process,
+and .init_irq() is used to set up interrupt handling. Using a DT
+doesn't materially change the behaviour of either of these functions.
+If a DT is provided, then both .init_early() and .init_irq() are able
+to call any of the DT query functions (of_* in include/linux/of*.h) to
+get additional data about the platform.
+The most interesting hook in the DT context is .init_machine() which
+is primarily responsible for populating the Linux device model with
+data about the platform. Historically this has been implemented on
+embedded platforms by defining a set of static clock structures,
+platform_devices, and other data in the board support .c file, and
+registering it en-masse in .init_machine(). When DT is used, then
+instead of hard coding static devices for each platform, the list of
+devices can be obtained by parsing the DT, and allocating device
+structures dynamically.
+The simplest case is when .init_machine() is only responsible for
+registering a block of platform_devices. A platform_device is a concept
+used by Linux for memory or I/O mapped devices which cannot be detected
+by hardware, and for 'composite' or 'virtual' devices (more on those
+later). While there is no 'platform device' terminology for the DT,
+platform devices roughly correspond to device nodes at the root of the
+tree and children of simple memory mapped bus nodes.
+About now is a good time to lay out an example. Here is part of the
+device tree for the NVIDIA Tegra board.
+ compatible = "nvidia,harmony", "nvidia,tegra20";
+ #address-cells = <1>;
+ #size-cells = <1>;
+ interrupt-parent = <&intc>;
+ chosen { };
+ aliases { };
+ memory {
+ device_type = "memory";
+ reg = <0x00000000 0x40000000>;
+ };
+ soc {
+ compatible = "nvidia,tegra20-soc", "simple-bus";
+ #address-cells = <1>;
+ #size-cells = <1>;
+ ranges;
+ intc: interrupt-controller@50041000 {
+ compatible = "nvidia,tegra20-gic";
+ interrupt-controller;
+ #interrupt-cells = <1>;
+ reg = <0x50041000 0x1000>, < 0x50040100 0x0100 >;
+ };
+ serial@70006300 {
+ compatible = "nvidia,tegra20-uart";
+ reg = <0x70006300 0x100>;
+ interrupts = <122>;
+ };
+ i2s1: i2s@70002800 {
+ compatible = "nvidia,tegra20-i2s";
+ reg = <0x70002800 0x100>;
+ interrupts = <77>;
+ codec = <&wm8903>;
+ };
+ i2c@7000c000 {
+ compatible = "nvidia,tegra20-i2c";
+ #address-cells = <1>;
+ #size-cells = <0>;
+ reg = <0x7000c000 0x100>;
+ interrupts = <70>;
+ wm8903: codec@1a {
+ compatible = "wlf,wm8903";
+ reg = <0x1a>;
+ interrupts = <347>;
+ };
+ };
+ };
+ sound {
+ compatible = "nvidia,harmony-sound";
+ i2s-controller = <&i2s1>;
+ i2s-codec = <&wm8903>;
+ };
+At .machine_init() time, Tegra board support code will need to look at
+this DT and decide which nodes to create platform_devices for.
+However, looking at the tree, it is not immediately obvious what kind
+of device each node represents, or even if a node represents a device
+at all. The /chosen, /aliases, and /memory nodes are informational
+nodes that don't describe devices (although arguably memory could be
+considered a device). The children of the /soc node are memory mapped
+devices, but the codec@1a is an i2c device, and the sound node
+represents not a device, but rather how other devices are connected
+together to create the audio subsystem. I know what each device is
+because I'm familiar with the board design, but how does the kernel
+know what to do with each node?
+The trick is that the kernel starts at the root of the tree and looks
+for nodes that have a 'compatible' property. First, it is generally
+assumed that any node with a 'compatible' property represents a device
+of some kind, and second, it can be assumed that any node at the root
+of the tree is either directly attached to the processor bus, or is a
+miscellaneous system device that cannot be described any other way.
+For each of these nodes, Linux allocates and registers a
+platform_device, which in turn may get bound to a platform_driver.
+Why is using a platform_device for these nodes a safe assumption?
+Well, for the way that Linux models devices, just about all bus_types
+assume that its devices are children of a bus controller. For
+example, each i2c_client is a child of an i2c_master. Each spi_device
+is a child of an SPI bus. Similarly for USB, PCI, MDIO, etc. The
+same hierarchy is also found in the DT, where I2C device nodes only
+ever appear as children of an I2C bus node. Ditto for SPI, MDIO, USB,
+etc. The only devices which do not require a specific type of parent
+device are platform_devices (and amba_devices, but more on that
+later), which will happily live at the base of the Linux /sys/devices
+tree. Therefore, if a DT node is at the root of the tree, then it
+really probably is best registered as a platform_device.
+Linux board support code calls of_platform_populate(NULL, NULL, NULL)
+to kick off discovery of devices at the root of the tree. The
+parameters are all NULL because when starting from the root of the
+tree, there is no need to provide a starting node (the first NULL), a
+parent struct device (the last NULL), and we're not using a match
+table (yet). For a board that only needs to register devices,
+.init_machine() can be completely empty except for the
+of_platform_populate() call.
+In the Tegra example, this accounts for the /soc and /sound nodes, but
+what about the children of the SoC node? Shouldn't they be registered
+as platform devices too? For Linux DT support, the generic behaviour
+is for child devices to be registered by the parent's device driver at
+driver .probe() time. So, an i2c bus device driver will register a
+i2c_client for each child node, an SPI bus driver will register
+its spi_device children, and similarly for other bus_types.
+According to that model, a driver could be written that binds to the
+SoC node and simply registers platform_devices for each of its
+children. The board support code would allocate and register an SoC
+device, a (theoretical) SoC device driver could bind to the SoC device,
+and register platform_devices for /soc/interrupt-controller, /soc/serial,
+/soc/i2s, and /soc/i2c in its .probe() hook. Easy, right?
+Actually, it turns out that registering children of some
+platform_devices as more platform_devices is a common pattern, and the
+device tree support code reflects that and makes the above example
+simpler. The second argument to of_platform_populate() is an
+of_device_id table, and any node that matches an entry in that table
+will also get its child nodes registered. In the tegra case, the code
+can look something like this:
+static void __init harmony_init_machine(void)
+ /* ... */
+ of_platform_populate(NULL, of_default_bus_match_table, NULL, NULL);
+"simple-bus" is defined in the ePAPR 1.0 specification as a property
+meaning a simple memory mapped bus, so the of_platform_populate() code
+could be written to just assume simple-bus compatible nodes will
+always be traversed. However, we pass it in as an argument so that
+board support code can always override the default behaviour.
+[Need to add discussion of adding i2c/spi/etc child devices]
+Appendix A: AMBA devices
+ARM Primecells are a certain kind of device attached to the ARM AMBA
+bus which include some support for hardware detection and power
+management. In Linux, struct amba_device and the amba_bus_type is
+used to represent Primecell devices. However, the fiddly bit is that
+not all devices on an AMBA bus are Primecells, and for Linux it is
+typical for both amba_device and platform_device instances to be
+siblings of the same bus segment.
+When using the DT, this creates problems for of_platform_populate()
+because it must decide whether to register each node as either a
+platform_device or an amba_device. This unfortunately complicates the
+device creation model a little bit, but the solution turns out not to
+be too invasive. If a node is compatible with "arm,amba-primecell", then
+of_platform_populate() will register it as an amba_device instead of a
diff --git a/Documentation/dma-buf-sharing.txt b/Documentation/dma-buf-sharing.txt
index 225f96d88f5..3bbd5c51605 100644
--- a/Documentation/dma-buf-sharing.txt
+++ b/Documentation/dma-buf-sharing.txt
@@ -32,8 +32,12 @@ The buffer-user
*IMPORTANT*: [see https://lkml.org/lkml/2011/12/20/211 for more details]
For this first version, A buffer shared using the dma_buf sharing API:
- *may* be exported to user space using "mmap" *ONLY* by exporter, outside of
- this framework.
-- may be used *ONLY* by importers that do not need CPU access to the buffer.
+ this framework.
+- with this new iteration of the dma-buf api cpu access from the kernel has been
+ enable, see below for the details.
+dma-buf operations for device dma only
The dma_buf buffer sharing API usage contains the following steps:
@@ -219,10 +223,120 @@ NOTES:
If the exporter chooses not to allow an attach() operation once a
map_dma_buf() API has been called, it simply returns an error.
-Miscellaneous notes:
+Kernel cpu access to a dma-buf buffer object
+The motivation to allow cpu access from the kernel to a dma-buf object from the
+importers side are:
+- fallback operations, e.g. if the devices is connected to a usb bus and the
+ kernel needs to shuffle the data around first before sending it away.
+- full transparency for existing users on the importer side, i.e. userspace
+ should not notice the difference between a normal object from that subsystem
+ and an imported one backed by a dma-buf. This is really important for drm
+ opengl drivers that expect to still use all the existing upload/download
+ paths.
+Access to a dma_buf from the kernel context involves three steps:
+1. Prepare access, which invalidate any necessary caches and make the object
+ available for cpu access.
+2. Access the object page-by-page with the dma_buf map apis
+3. Finish access, which will flush any necessary cpu caches and free reserved
+ resources.
+1. Prepare access
+ Before an importer can access a dma_buf object with the cpu from the kernel
+ context, it needs to notify the exporter of the access that is about to
+ happen.
+ Interface:
+ int dma_buf_begin_cpu_access(struct dma_buf *dmabuf,
+ size_t start, size_t len,
+ enum dma_data_direction direction)
+ This allows the exporter to ensure that the memory is actually available for
+ cpu access - the exporter might need to allocate or swap-in and pin the
+ backing storage. The exporter also needs to ensure that cpu access is
+ coherent for the given range and access direction. The range and access
+ direction can be used by the exporter to optimize the cache flushing, i.e.
+ access outside of the range or with a different direction (read instead of
+ write) might return stale or even bogus data (e.g. when the exporter needs to
+ copy the data to temporary storage).
+ This step might fail, e.g. in oom conditions.
+2. Accessing the buffer
+ To support dma_buf objects residing in highmem cpu access is page-based using
+ an api similar to kmap. Accessing a dma_buf is done in aligned chunks of
+ PAGE_SIZE size. Before accessing a chunk it needs to be mapped, which returns
+ a pointer in kernel virtual address space. Afterwards the chunk needs to be
+ unmapped again. There is no limit on how often a given chunk can be mapped
+ and unmapped, i.e. the importer does not need to call begin_cpu_access again
+ before mapping the same chunk again.
+ Interfaces:
+ void *dma_buf_kmap(struct dma_buf *, unsigned long);
+ void dma_buf_kunmap(struct dma_buf *, unsigned long, void *);
+ There are also atomic variants of these interfaces. Like for kmap they
+ facilitate non-blocking fast-paths. Neither the importer nor the exporter (in
+ the callback) is allowed to block when using these.
+ Interfaces:
+ void *dma_buf_kmap_atomic(struct dma_buf *, unsigned long);
+ void dma_buf_kunmap_atomic(struct dma_buf *, unsigned long, void *);
+ For importers all the restrictions of using kmap apply, like the limited
+ supply of kmap_atomic slots. Hence an importer shall only hold onto at most 2
+ atomic dma_buf kmaps at the same time (in any given process context).
+ dma_buf kmap calls outside of the range specified in begin_cpu_access are
+ undefined. If the range is not PAGE_SIZE aligned, kmap needs to succeed on
+ the partial chunks at the beginning and end but may return stale or bogus
+ data outside of the range (in these partial chunks).
+ Note that these calls need to always succeed. The exporter needs to complete
+ any preparations that might fail in begin_cpu_access.
+3. Finish access
+ When the importer is done accessing the range specified in begin_cpu_access,
+ it needs to announce this to the exporter (to facilitate cache flushing and
+ unpinning of any pinned resources). The result of of any dma_buf kmap calls
+ after end_cpu_access is undefined.
+ Interface:
+ void dma_buf_end_cpu_access(struct dma_buf *dma_buf,
+ size_t start, size_t len,
+ enum dma_data_direction dir);
+Miscellaneous notes
- Any exporters or users of the dma-buf buffer sharing framework must have
a 'select DMA_SHARED_BUFFER' in their respective Kconfigs.
+- In order to avoid fd leaks on exec, the FD_CLOEXEC flag must be set
+ on the file descriptor. This is not just a resource leak, but a
+ potential security hole. It could give the newly exec'd application
+ access to buffers, via the leaked fd, to which it should otherwise
+ not be permitted access.
+ The problem with doing this via a separate fcntl() call, versus doing it
+ atomically when the fd is created, is that this is inherently racy in a
+ multi-threaded app[3]. The issue is made worse when it is library code
+ opening/creating the file descriptor, as the application may not even be
+ aware of the fd's.
+ To avoid this problem, userspace must have a way to request O_CLOEXEC
+ flag be set when the dma-buf fd is created. So any API provided by
+ the exporting driver to create a dmabuf fd must provide a way to let
+ userspace control setting of O_CLOEXEC flag passed in to dma_buf_fd().
[1] struct dma_buf_ops in include/linux/dma-buf.h
[2] All interfaces mentioned above defined in include/linux/dma-buf.h
+[3] https://lwn.net/Articles/236486/
diff --git a/Documentation/dontdiff b/Documentation/dontdiff
index 0c083c5c2fa..b4a898f43c3 100644
--- a/Documentation/dontdiff
+++ b/Documentation/dontdiff
@@ -158,7 +158,6 @@ logo_*.c
diff --git a/Documentation/fb/intel810.txt b/Documentation/fb/intel810.txt
index be3e7836abe..a8e9f5bca6f 100644
--- a/Documentation/fb/intel810.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fb/intel810.txt
@@ -211,7 +211,7 @@ Using the same setup as described above, load the module like this:
modprobe i810fb vram=2 xres=1024 bpp=8 hsync1=30 hsync2=55 vsync1=50 \
vsync2=85 accel=1 mtrr=1
-Or just add the following to /etc/modprobe.conf
+Or just add the following to a configuration file in /etc/modprobe.d/
options i810fb vram=2 xres=1024 bpp=16 hsync1=30 hsync2=55 vsync1=50 \
vsync2=85 accel=1 mtrr=1
diff --git a/Documentation/fb/intelfb.txt b/Documentation/fb/intelfb.txt
index dd9e944ea62..feac4e4d696 100644
--- a/Documentation/fb/intelfb.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fb/intelfb.txt
@@ -120,7 +120,7 @@ Using the same setup as described above, load the module like this:
modprobe intelfb mode=800x600-32@75 vram=8 accel=1 hwcursor=1
-Or just add the following to /etc/modprobe.conf
+Or just add the following to a configuration file in /etc/modprobe.d/
options intelfb mode=800x600-32@75 vram=8 accel=1 hwcursor=1
diff --git a/Documentation/feature-removal-schedule.txt b/Documentation/feature-removal-schedule.txt
index 0cad4803ffa..709e08e9a22 100644
--- a/Documentation/feature-removal-schedule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/feature-removal-schedule.txt
@@ -6,14 +6,6 @@ be removed from this file.
-What: x86 floppy disable_hlt
-When: 2012
-Why: ancient workaround of dubious utility clutters the
- code used by everybody else.
-Who: Len Brown <len.brown@intel.com>
What: CONFIG_APM_CPU_IDLE, and its ability to call APM BIOS in idle
When: 2012
Why: This optional sub-feature of APM is of dubious reliability,
@@ -529,3 +521,13 @@ When: 3.5
Why: The old kmap_atomic() with two arguments is deprecated, we only
keep it for backward compatibility for few cycles and then drop it.
Who: Cong Wang <amwang@redhat.com>
+What: get_robust_list syscall
+When: 2013
+Why: There appear to be no production users of the get_robust_list syscall,
+ and it runs the risk of leaking address locations, allowing the bypass
+ of ASLR. It was only ever intended for debugging, so it should be
+ removed.
+Who: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4.txt
index 8c10bf375c7..1b7f9acbcbb 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/ext4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/ext4.txt
@@ -144,9 +144,6 @@ journal_async_commit Commit block can be written to disk without waiting
mount the device. This will enable 'journal_checksum'
-journal=update Update the ext4 file system's journal to the current
- format.
journal_dev=devnum When the external journal device's major/minor numbers
have changed, this option allows the user to specify
the new journal location. The journal device is
@@ -356,11 +353,6 @@ nouid32 Disables 32-bit UIDs and GIDs. This is for
interoperability with older kernels which only
store and expect 16-bit values.
-resize Allows to resize filesystem to the end of the last
- existing block group, further resize has to be done
- with resize2fs either online, or offline. It can be
- used only with conjunction with remount.
block_validity This options allows to enables/disables the in-kernel
noblock_validity facility for tracking filesystem metadata blocks
within internal data structures. This allows multi-
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/files.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/files.txt
index ac2facc50d2..46dfc6b038c 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/files.txt
@@ -113,8 +113,8 @@ the fdtable structure -
if (fd >= 0) {
/* locate_fd() may have expanded fdtable, load the ptr */
fdt = files_fdtable(files);
- FD_SET(fd, fdt->open_fds);
- FD_CLR(fd, fdt->close_on_exec);
+ __set_open_fd(fd, fdt);
+ __clear_close_on_exec(fd, fdt);
diff --git a/Documentation/gpio.txt b/Documentation/gpio.txt
index 792faa3c06c..620a07844e8 100644
--- a/Documentation/gpio.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gpio.txt
@@ -271,9 +271,26 @@ Some platforms may also use knowledge about what GPIOs are active for
power management, such as by powering down unused chip sectors and, more
easily, gating off unused clocks.
-Note that requesting a GPIO does NOT cause it to be configured in any
-way; it just marks that GPIO as in use. Separate code must handle any
-pin setup (e.g. controlling which pin the GPIO uses, pullup/pulldown).
+For GPIOs that use pins known to the pinctrl subsystem, that subsystem should
+be informed of their use; a gpiolib driver's .request() operation may call
+pinctrl_request_gpio(), and a gpiolib driver's .free() operation may call
+pinctrl_free_gpio(). The pinctrl subsystem allows a pinctrl_request_gpio()
+to succeed concurrently with a pin or pingroup being "owned" by a device for
+pin multiplexing.
+Any programming of pin multiplexing hardware that is needed to route the
+GPIO signal to the appropriate pin should occur within a GPIO driver's
+.direction_input() or .direction_output() operations, and occur after any
+setup of an output GPIO's value. This allows a glitch-free migration from a
+pin's special function to GPIO. This is sometimes required when using a GPIO
+to implement a workaround on signals typically driven by a non-GPIO HW block.
+Some platforms allow some or all GPIO signals to be routed to different pins.
+Similarly, other aspects of the GPIO or pin may need to be configured, such as
+pullup/pulldown. Platform software should arrange that any such details are
+configured prior to gpio_request() being called for those GPIOs, e.g. using
+the pinctrl subsystem's mapping table, so that GPIO users need not be aware
+of these details.
Also note that it's your responsibility to have stopped using a GPIO
before you free it.
@@ -302,6 +319,8 @@ where 'flags' is currently defined to specify the following properties:
* GPIOF_INIT_LOW - as output, set initial level to LOW
* GPIOF_INIT_HIGH - as output, set initial level to HIGH
+ * GPIOF_OPEN_DRAIN - gpio pin is open drain type.
+ * GPIOF_OPEN_SOURCE - gpio pin is open source type.
since GPIOF_INIT_* are only valid when configured as output, so group valid
combinations as:
@@ -310,8 +329,19 @@ combinations as:
* GPIOF_OUT_INIT_LOW - configured as output, initial level LOW
* GPIOF_OUT_INIT_HIGH - configured as output, initial level HIGH
-In the future, these flags can be extended to support more properties such
-as open-drain status.
+When setting the flag as GPIOF_OPEN_DRAIN then it will assume that pins is
+open drain type. Such pins will not be driven to 1 in output mode. It is
+require to connect pull-up on such pins. By enabling this flag, gpio lib will
+make the direction to input when it is asked to set value of 1 in output mode
+to make the pin HIGH. The pin is make to LOW by driving value 0 in output mode.
+When setting the flag as GPIOF_OPEN_SOURCE then it will assume that pins is
+open source type. Such pins will not be driven to 0 in output mode. It is
+require to connect pull-down on such pin. By enabling this flag, gpio lib will
+make the direction to input when it is asked to set value of 0 in output mode
+to make the pin LOW. The pin is make to HIGH by driving value 1 in output mode.
+In the future, these flags can be extended to support more properties.
Further more, to ease the claim/release of multiple GPIOs, 'struct gpio' is
introduced to encapsulate all three fields as:
diff --git a/Documentation/hwmon/k10temp b/Documentation/hwmon/k10temp
index a10f73624ad..90956b61802 100644
--- a/Documentation/hwmon/k10temp
+++ b/Documentation/hwmon/k10temp
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ Supported chips:
Socket S1G2: Athlon (X2), Sempron (X2), Turion X2 (Ultra)
* AMD Family 12h processors: "Llano" (E2/A4/A6/A8-Series)
* AMD Family 14h processors: "Brazos" (C/E/G/Z-Series)
-* AMD Family 15h processors: "Bulldozer"
+* AMD Family 15h processors: "Bulldozer" (FX-Series), "Trinity"
Prefix: 'k10temp'
Addresses scanned: PCI space
diff --git a/Documentation/i2c/busses/i2c-i801 b/Documentation/i2c/busses/i2c-i801
index 2871fd50034..71f55bbcefc 100644
--- a/Documentation/i2c/busses/i2c-i801
+++ b/Documentation/i2c/busses/i2c-i801
@@ -20,6 +20,7 @@ Supported adapters:
* Intel Patsburg (PCH)
* Intel DH89xxCC (PCH)
* Intel Panther Point (PCH)
+ * Intel Lynx Point (PCH)
Datasheets: Publicly available at the Intel website
On Intel Patsburg and later chipsets, both the normal host SMBus controller
diff --git a/Documentation/i2c/busses/scx200_acb b/Documentation/i2c/busses/scx200_acb
index 7c07883d4df..ce83c871fe9 100644
--- a/Documentation/i2c/busses/scx200_acb
+++ b/Documentation/i2c/busses/scx200_acb
@@ -28,5 +28,5 @@ If the scx200_acb driver is built into the kernel, add the following
parameter to your boot command line:
If the scx200_acb driver is built as a module, add the following line to
-the file /etc/modprobe.conf instead:
+a configuration file in /etc/modprobe.d/ instead:
options scx200_acb base=0x810,0x820
diff --git a/Documentation/ide/ide.txt b/Documentation/ide/ide.txt
index e77bebfa7b0..7aca987c23d 100644
--- a/Documentation/ide/ide.txt
+++ b/Documentation/ide/ide.txt
@@ -169,7 +169,7 @@ When using ide.c as a module in combination with kmod, add:
alias block-major-3 ide-probe
-to /etc/modprobe.conf.
+to a configuration file in /etc/modprobe.d/.
When ide.c is used as a module, you can pass command line parameters to the
driver using the "options=" keyword to insmod, while replacing any ',' with
diff --git a/Documentation/input/input.txt b/Documentation/input/input.txt
index b3d6787b4fb..666c06c5ab0 100644
--- a/Documentation/input/input.txt
+++ b/Documentation/input/input.txt
@@ -250,8 +250,8 @@ And so on up to event31.
a USB keyboard works and is correctly connected to the kernel keyboard
- Doing a cat /dev/input/mouse0 (c, 13, 32) will verify that a mouse
-is also emulated, characters should appear if you move it.
+ Doing a "cat /dev/input/mouse0" (c, 13, 32) will verify that a mouse
+is also emulated; characters should appear if you move it.
You can test the joystick emulation with the 'jstest' utility,
available in the joystick package (see Documentation/input/joystick.txt).
diff --git a/Documentation/ioctl/ioctl-number.txt b/Documentation/ioctl/ioctl-number.txt
index 3b7488fc337..e34b531dc31 100644
--- a/Documentation/ioctl/ioctl-number.txt
+++ b/Documentation/ioctl/ioctl-number.txt
@@ -225,6 +225,7 @@ Code Seq#(hex) Include File Comments
'j' 00-3F linux/joystick.h
'k' 00-0F linux/spi/spidev.h conflict!
'k' 00-05 video/kyro.h conflict!
+'k' 10-17 linux/hsi/hsi_char.h HSI character device
'l' 00-3F linux/tcfs_fs.h transparent cryptographic file system
'l' 40-7F linux/udf_fs_i.h in development:
diff --git a/Documentation/isdn/README.gigaset b/Documentation/isdn/README.gigaset
index ef3343eaa00..7534c6039ad 100644
--- a/Documentation/isdn/README.gigaset
+++ b/Documentation/isdn/README.gigaset
@@ -97,8 +97,7 @@ GigaSet 307x Device Driver
2.5.): 1=on (default), 0=off
Depending on your distribution you may want to create a separate module
- configuration file /etc/modprobe.d/gigaset for these, or add them to a
- custom file like /etc/modprobe.conf.local.
+ configuration file like /etc/modprobe.d/gigaset.conf for these.
2.2. Device nodes for user space programs
@@ -212,8 +211,8 @@ GigaSet 307x Device Driver
options ppp_async flag_time=0
- to an appropriate module configuration file, like /etc/modprobe.d/gigaset
- or /etc/modprobe.conf.local.
+ to an appropriate module configuration file, like
+ /etc/modprobe.d/gigaset.conf.
Unimodem mode is needed for making some devices [e.g. SX100] work which
do not support the regular Gigaset command set. If debug output (see
@@ -237,8 +236,8 @@ GigaSet 307x Device Driver
modprobe usb_gigaset startmode=0
or by adding a line like
options usb_gigaset startmode=0
- to an appropriate module configuration file, like /etc/modprobe.d/gigaset
- or /etc/modprobe.conf.local.
+ to an appropriate module configuration file, like
+ /etc/modprobe.d/gigaset.conf
2.6. Call-ID (CID) mode
@@ -310,7 +309,7 @@ GigaSet 307x Device Driver
options isdn dialtimeout=15
- to /etc/modprobe.d/gigaset, /etc/modprobe.conf.local or a similar file.
+ to /etc/modprobe.d/gigaset.conf or a similar file.
The isdnlog program emits error messages or just doesn't work.
@@ -350,8 +349,7 @@ GigaSet 307x Device Driver
The initial value can be set using the debug parameter when loading the
module "gigaset", e.g. by adding a line
options gigaset debug=0
- to your module configuration file, eg. /etc/modprobe.d/gigaset or
- /etc/modprobe.conf.local.
+ to your module configuration file, eg. /etc/modprobe.d/gigaset.conf
Generated debugging information can be found
- as output of the command
diff --git a/Documentation/kbuild/kconfig.txt b/Documentation/kbuild/kconfig.txt
index c313d71324b..9d5f2a90dca 100644
--- a/Documentation/kbuild/kconfig.txt
+++ b/Documentation/kbuild/kconfig.txt
@@ -28,12 +28,10 @@ new (default) values, so you can use:
grep "(NEW)" conf.new
-to see the new config symbols or you can 'diff' the previous and
-new .config files to see the differences:
+to see the new config symbols or you can use diffconfig to see the
+differences between the previous and new .config files:
- diff .config.old .config | less
-(Yes, we need something better here.)
+ scripts/diffconfig .config.old .config | less
Environment variables for '*config'
diff --git a/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt b/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
index 58eac231fe6..c1601e5a8b7 100644
--- a/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
+++ b/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
@@ -1699,6 +1699,12 @@ bytes respectively. Such letter suffixes can also be entirely omitted.
The default is to send the implementation identification
+ nfsd.nfs4_disable_idmapping=
+ [NFSv4] When set to the default of '1', the NFSv4
+ server will return only numeric uids and gids to
+ clients using auth_sys, and will accept numeric uids
+ and gids from such clients. This is intended to ease
+ migration from NFSv2/v3.
[NFS] [OBJLAYOUT] sets the pathname to the program which
@@ -1869,6 +1875,8 @@ bytes respectively. Such letter suffixes can also be entirely omitted.
shutdown the other cpus. Instead use the REBOOT_VECTOR
+ nomodule Disable module load
nopat [X86] Disable PAT (page attribute table extension of
pagetables) support.
diff --git a/Documentation/laptops/asus-laptop.txt b/Documentation/laptops/asus-laptop.txt
index 803e51f6768..a1e04d67928 100644
--- a/Documentation/laptops/asus-laptop.txt
+++ b/Documentation/laptops/asus-laptop.txt
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@ Status
- Try "modprobe asus_acpi". Check your dmesg (simply type dmesg). You should
+ Try "modprobe asus-laptop". Check your dmesg (simply type dmesg). You should
see some lines like this :
Asus Laptop Extras version 0.42
diff --git a/Documentation/laptops/sony-laptop.txt b/Documentation/laptops/sony-laptop.txt
index 2bd4e82e5d9..0d5ac7f5287 100644
--- a/Documentation/laptops/sony-laptop.txt
+++ b/Documentation/laptops/sony-laptop.txt
@@ -17,6 +17,11 @@ subsystem. See the logs of acpid or /proc/acpi/event and
devices are created by the driver. Additionally, loading the driver with the
debug option will report all events in the kernel log.
+The "scancodes" passed to the input system (that can be remapped with udev)
+are indexes to the table "sony_laptop_input_keycode_map" in the sony-laptop.c
+module. For example the "FN/E" key combination (EJECTCD on some models)
+generates the scancode 20 (0x14).
Backlight control:
If your laptop model supports it, you will find sysfs files in the
diff --git a/Documentation/laptops/sonypi.txt b/Documentation/laptops/sonypi.txt
index 4857acfc50f..606bdb9ce03 100644
--- a/Documentation/laptops/sonypi.txt
+++ b/Documentation/laptops/sonypi.txt
@@ -110,7 +110,7 @@ Module use:
In order to automatically load the sonypi module on use, you can put those
-lines in your /etc/modprobe.conf file:
+lines a configuration file in /etc/modprobe.d/:
alias char-major-10-250 sonypi
options sonypi minor=250
diff --git a/Documentation/mono.txt b/Documentation/mono.txt
index e8e1758e87d..d01ac605219 100644
--- a/Documentation/mono.txt
+++ b/Documentation/mono.txt
@@ -38,11 +38,11 @@ if [ ! -e /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register ]; then
/sbin/modprobe binfmt_misc
# Some distributions, like Fedora Core, perform
# the following command automatically when the
- # binfmt_misc module is loaded into the kernel.
+ # binfmt_misc module is loaded into the kernel
+ # or during normal boot up (systemd-based systems).
# Thus, it is possible that the following line
- # is not needed at all. Look at /etc/modprobe.conf
- # to check whether this is applicable or not.
- mount -t binfmt_misc none /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc
+ # is not needed at all.
+ mount -t binfmt_misc none /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc
# Register support for .NET CLR binaries
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/baycom.txt b/Documentation/networking/baycom.txt
index 4e68849d563..688f18fd446 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/baycom.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/baycom.txt
@@ -93,7 +93,7 @@ Every time a driver is inserted into the kernel, it has to know which
modems it should access at which ports. This can be done with the setbaycom
utility. If you are only using one modem, you can also configure the
driver from the insmod command line (or by means of an option line in
modprobe baycom_ser_fdx mode="ser12*" iobase=0x3f8 irq=4
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/bonding.txt b/Documentation/networking/bonding.txt
index 080ad26690a..bfea8a33890 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/bonding.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/bonding.txt
@@ -173,9 +173,8 @@ bonding module at load time, or are specified via sysfs.
Module options may be given as command line arguments to the
insmod or modprobe command, but are usually specified in either the
-/etc/modules.conf or /etc/modprobe.conf configuration file, or in a
-distro-specific configuration file (some of which are detailed in the next
+/etc/modrobe.d/*.conf configuration files, or in a distro-specific
+configuration file (some of which are detailed in the next section).
Details on bonding support for sysfs is provided in the
"Configuring Bonding Manually via Sysfs" section, below.
@@ -1021,7 +1020,7 @@ ifcfg-bondX files.
Because the sysconfig scripts supply the bonding module
options in the ifcfg-bondX file, it is not necessary to add them to
-the system /etc/modules.conf or /etc/modprobe.conf configuration file.
+the system /etc/modules.d/*.conf configuration files.
3.2 Configuration with Initscripts Support
@@ -1098,15 +1097,13 @@ queried targets, e.g.,
arp_ip_target=+ arp_ip_target=+
is the proper syntax to specify multiple targets. When specifying
-options via BONDING_OPTS, it is not necessary to edit /etc/modules.conf or
+options via BONDING_OPTS, it is not necessary to edit /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf.
For even older versions of initscripts that do not support
-BONDING_OPTS, it is necessary to edit /etc/modules.conf (or
-/etc/modprobe.conf, depending upon your distro) to load the bonding module
-with your desired options when the bond0 interface is brought up. The
-following lines in /etc/modules.conf (or modprobe.conf) will load the
-bonding module, and select its options:
+BONDING_OPTS, it is necessary to edit /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf, depending upon
+your distro) to load the bonding module with your desired options when the
+bond0 interface is brought up. The following lines in /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf
+will load the bonding module, and select its options:
alias bond0 bonding
options bond0 mode=balance-alb miimon=100
@@ -1152,7 +1149,7 @@ knowledge of bonding. One such distro is SuSE Linux Enterprise Server
version 8.
The general method for these systems is to place the bonding
-module parameters into /etc/modules.conf or /etc/modprobe.conf (as
+module parameters into a config file in /etc/modprobe.d/ (as
appropriate for the installed distro), then add modprobe and/or
ifenslave commands to the system's global init script. The name of
the global init script differs; for sysconfig, it is
@@ -1228,7 +1225,7 @@ network initialization scripts.
specify a different name for each instance (the module loading system
requires that every loaded module, even multiple instances of the same
module, have a unique name). This is accomplished by supplying multiple
-sets of bonding options in /etc/modprobe.conf, for example:
+sets of bonding options in /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf, for example:
alias bond0 bonding
options bond0 -o bond0 mode=balance-rr miimon=100
@@ -1793,8 +1790,8 @@ route additions may cause trouble.
On systems with network configuration scripts that do not
associate physical devices directly with network interface names (so
that the same physical device always has the same "ethX" name), it may
-be necessary to add some special logic to either /etc/modules.conf or
-/etc/modprobe.conf (depending upon which is installed on the system).
+be necessary to add some special logic to config files in
For example, given a modules.conf containing the following:
@@ -1821,20 +1818,15 @@ add above bonding e1000 tg3
bonding is loaded. This command is fully documented in the
modules.conf manual page.
- On systems utilizing modprobe.conf (or modprobe.conf.local),
-an equivalent problem can occur. In this case, the following can be
-added to modprobe.conf (or modprobe.conf.local, as appropriate), as
-follows (all on one line; it has been split here for clarity):
+ On systems utilizing modprobe an equivalent problem can occur.
+In this case, the following can be added to config files in
+/etc/modprobe.d/ as:
-install bonding /sbin/modprobe tg3; /sbin/modprobe e1000;
- /sbin/modprobe --ignore-install bonding
+softdep bonding pre: tg3 e1000
- This will, when loading the bonding module, rather than
-performing the normal action, instead execute the provided command.
-This command loads the device drivers in the order needed, then calls
-modprobe with --ignore-install to cause the normal action to then take
-place. Full documentation on this can be found in the modprobe.conf
-and modprobe manual pages.
+ This will load tg3 and e1000 modules before loading the bonding one.
+Full documentation on this can be found in the modprobe.d and modprobe
+manual pages.
8.3. Painfully Slow Or No Failed Link Detection By Miimon
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/dl2k.txt b/Documentation/networking/dl2k.txt
index 10e8490fa40..cba74f7a3ab 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/dl2k.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/dl2k.txt
@@ -45,12 +45,13 @@ Now eth0 should active, you can test it by "ping" or get more information by
"ifconfig". If tested ok, continue the next step.
4. cp dl2k.ko /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net
-5. Add the following line to /etc/modprobe.conf:
+5. Add the following line to /etc/modprobe.d/dl2k.conf:
alias eth0 dl2k
-6. Run "netconfig" or "netconf" to create configuration script ifcfg-eth0
+6. Run depmod to updated module indexes.
+7. Run "netconfig" or "netconf" to create configuration script ifcfg-eth0
located at /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts or create it manually.
[see - Configuration Script Sample]
-7. Driver will automatically load and configure at next boot time.
+8. Driver will automatically load and configure at next boot time.
Compiling the Driver
@@ -154,8 +155,8 @@ Installing the Driver
1. Copy dl2k.o to the network modules directory, typically
/lib/modules/2.x.x-xx/net or /lib/modules/2.x.x/kernel/drivers/net.
- 2. Locate the boot module configuration file, most commonly modprobe.conf
- or modules.conf (for 2.4) in the /etc directory. Add the following lines:
+ 2. Locate the boot module configuration file, most commonly in the
+ /etc/modprobe.d/ directory. Add the following lines:
alias ethx dl2k
options dl2k <optional parameters>
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/driver.txt b/Documentation/networking/driver.txt
index 03283daa64f..da59e288413 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/driver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/driver.txt
@@ -2,16 +2,16 @@ Document about softnet driver issues
Transmit path guidelines:
-1) The hard_start_xmit method must never return '1' under any
- normal circumstances. It is considered a hard error unless
+1) The ndo_start_xmit method must not return NETDEV_TX_BUSY under
+ any normal circumstances. It is considered a hard error unless
there is no way your device can tell ahead of time when it's
transmit function will become busy.
Instead it must maintain the queue properly. For example,
for a driver implementing scatter-gather this means:
- static int drv_hard_start_xmit(struct sk_buff *skb,
- struct net_device *dev)
+ static netdev_tx_t drv_hard_start_xmit(struct sk_buff *skb,
+ struct net_device *dev)
struct drv *dp = netdev_priv(dev);
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ Transmit path guidelines:
printk(KERN_ERR PFX "%s: BUG! Tx Ring full when queue awake!\n",
- return 1;
+ return NETDEV_TX_BUSY;
... queue packet to card ...
@@ -35,6 +35,7 @@ Transmit path guidelines:
+ return NETDEV_TX_OK;
And then at the end of your TX reclamation event handling:
@@ -58,15 +59,12 @@ Transmit path guidelines:
-2) Do not forget to update netdev->trans_start to jiffies after
- each new tx packet is given to the hardware.
-3) A hard_start_xmit method must not modify the shared parts of a
+2) An ndo_start_xmit method must not modify the shared parts of a
cloned SKB.
-4) Do not forget that once you return 0 from your hard_start_xmit
- method, it is your driver's responsibility to free up the SKB
- and in some finite amount of time.
+3) Do not forget that once you return NETDEV_TX_OK from your
+ ndo_start_xmit method, it is your driver's responsibility to free
+ up the SKB and in some finite amount of time.
For example, this means that it is not allowed for your TX
mitigation scheme to let TX packets "hang out" in the TX
@@ -74,8 +72,9 @@ Transmit path guidelines:
This error can deadlock sockets waiting for send buffer room
to be freed up.
- If you return 1 from the hard_start_xmit method, you must not keep
- any reference to that SKB and you must not attempt to free it up.
+ If you return NETDEV_TX_BUSY from the ndo_start_xmit method, you
+ must not keep any reference to that SKB and you must not attempt
+ to free it up.
Probing guidelines:
@@ -85,10 +84,10 @@ Probing guidelines:
Close/stop guidelines:
-1) After the dev->stop routine has been called, the hardware must
+1) After the ndo_stop routine has been called, the hardware must
not receive or transmit any data. All in flight packets must
be aborted. If necessary, poll or wait for completion of
any reset commands.
-2) The dev->stop routine will be called by unregister_netdevice
+2) The ndo_stop routine will be called by unregister_netdevice
if device is still UP.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/e100.txt b/Documentation/networking/e100.txt
index 162f323a7a1..fcb6c71cdb6 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/e100.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/e100.txt
@@ -94,8 +94,8 @@ Additional Configurations
Configuring a network driver to load properly when the system is started is
distribution dependent. Typically, the configuration process involves adding
- an alias line to /etc/modules.conf or /etc/modprobe.conf as well as editing
- other system startup scripts and/or configuration files. Many popular Linux
+ an alias line to /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf as well as editing other system
+ startup scripts and/or configuration files. Many popular Linux
distributions ship with tools to make these changes for you. To learn the
proper way to configure a network device for your system, refer to your
distribution documentation. If during this process you are asked for the
@@ -103,7 +103,7 @@ Additional Configurations
PRO/100 Family of Adapters is e100.
As an example, if you install the e100 driver for two PRO/100 adapters
- (eth0 and eth1), add the following to modules.conf or modprobe.conf:
+ (eth0 and eth1), add the following to a configuraton file in /etc/modprobe.d/
alias eth0 e100
alias eth1 e100
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt b/Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt
index ad3e80e17b4..bd80ba5847d 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt
@@ -604,15 +604,8 @@ IP Variables:
ip_local_port_range - 2 INTEGERS
Defines the local port range that is used by TCP and UDP to
choose the local port. The first number is the first, the
- second the last local port number. Default value depends on
- amount of memory available on the system:
- > 128Mb 32768-61000
- < 128Mb 1024-4999 or even less.
- This number defines number of active connections, which this
- system can issue simultaneously to systems not supporting
- TCP extensions (timestamps). With tcp_tw_recycle enabled
- (i.e. by default) range 1024-4999 is enough to issue up to
- 2000 connections per second to systems supporting timestamps.
+ second the last local port number. The default values are
+ 32768 and 61000 respectively.
ip_local_reserved_ports - list of comma separated ranges
Specify the ports which are reserved for known third-party
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ipv6.txt b/Documentation/networking/ipv6.txt
index 9fd7e21296c..6cd74fa5535 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/ipv6.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ipv6.txt
@@ -2,9 +2,9 @@
Options for the ipv6 module are supplied as parameters at load time.
Module options may be given as command line arguments to the insmod
-or modprobe command, but are usually specified in either the
-/etc/modules.conf or /etc/modprobe.conf configuration file, or in a
-distro-specific configuration file.
+or modprobe command, but are usually specified in either
+/etc/modules.d/*.conf configuration files, or in a distro-specific
+configuration file.
The available ipv6 module parameters are listed below. If a parameter
is not specified the default value is used.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ixgb.txt b/Documentation/networking/ixgb.txt
index e196f16df31..d75a1f9565b 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/ixgb.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ixgb.txt
@@ -274,9 +274,9 @@ Additional Configurations
Configuring a network driver to load properly when the system is started is
distribution dependent. Typically, the configuration process involves adding
- an alias line to /etc/modprobe.conf as well as editing other system startup
- scripts and/or configuration files. Many popular Linux distributions ship
- with tools to make these changes for you. To learn the proper way to
+ an alias line to files in /etc/modprobe.d/ as well as editing other system
+ startup scripts and/or configuration files. Many popular Linux distributions
+ ship with tools to make these changes for you. To learn the proper way to
configure a network device for your system, refer to your distribution
documentation. If during this process you are asked for the driver or module
name, the name for the Linux Base Driver for the Intel 10GbE Family of
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ltpc.txt b/Documentation/networking/ltpc.txt
index fe2a9129d95..0bf3220c715 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/ltpc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ltpc.txt
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ the driver will try to determine them itself.
If you load the driver as a module, you can pass the parameters "io=",
"irq=", and "dma=" on the command line with insmod or modprobe, or add
-them as options in /etc/modprobe.conf:
+them as options in a configuration file in /etc/modprobe.d/ directory:
alias lt0 ltpc # autoload the module when the interface is configured
options ltpc io=0x240 irq=9 dma=1
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/netdevices.txt b/Documentation/networking/netdevices.txt
index 89358341682..c7ecc708049 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/netdevices.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/netdevices.txt
@@ -47,26 +47,25 @@ packets is preferred.
struct net_device synchronization rules
Synchronization: rtnl_lock() semaphore.
Context: process
Synchronization: rtnl_lock() semaphore.
Context: process
- Note1: netif_running() is guaranteed false
- Note2: dev->poll() is guaranteed to be stopped
+ Note: netif_running() is guaranteed false
Synchronization: rtnl_lock() semaphore.
Context: process
Synchronization: dev_base_lock rwlock.
Context: nominally process, but don't sleep inside an rwlock
- Synchronization: netif_tx_lock spinlock.
+ Synchronization: __netif_tx_lock spinlock.
When the driver sets NETIF_F_LLTX in dev->features this will be
called without holding netif_tx_lock. In this case the driver
@@ -87,20 +86,20 @@ dev->hard_start_xmit:
o NETDEV_TX_LOCKED Locking failed, please retry quickly.
Only valid when NETIF_F_LLTX is set.
- Synchronization: netif_tx_lock spinlock.
+ Synchronization: netif_tx_lock spinlock; all TX queues frozen.
Context: BHs disabled
Notes: netif_queue_stopped() is guaranteed true
- Synchronization: netif_tx_lock spinlock.
+ Synchronization: netif_addr_lock spinlock.
Context: BHs disabled
struct napi_struct synchronization rules
Synchronization: NAPI_STATE_SCHED bit in napi->state. Device
- driver's dev->close method will invoke napi_disable() on
+ driver's ndo_stop method will invoke napi_disable() on
all NAPI instances which will do a sleeping poll on the
NAPI_STATE_SCHED napi->state bit, waiting for all pending
NAPI activity to cease.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/vortex.txt b/Documentation/networking/vortex.txt
index bd70976b816..b4038ffb3bc 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/vortex.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/vortex.txt
@@ -67,8 +67,8 @@ Module parameters
There are several parameters which may be provided to the driver when
-its module is loaded. These are usually placed in /etc/modprobe.conf
-(/etc/modules.conf in 2.4). Example:
+its module is loaded. These are usually placed in /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf
+configuretion files. Example:
options 3c59x debug=3 rx_copybreak=300
@@ -425,7 +425,7 @@ steps you should take:
1) Increase the debug level. Usually this is done via:
a) modprobe driver debug=7
- b) In /etc/modprobe.conf (or /etc/modules.conf for 2.4):
+ b) In /etc/modprobe.d/driver.conf:
options driver debug=7
2) Recreate the problem with the higher debug level,
diff --git a/Documentation/parport.txt b/Documentation/parport.txt
index 93a7ceef398..c208e4366c0 100644
--- a/Documentation/parport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/parport.txt
@@ -36,18 +36,17 @@ addresses should not be specified for supported PCI cards since they
are automatically detected.
-If you use kmod, you will find it useful to edit /etc/modprobe.conf.
-Here is an example of the lines that need to be added:
+If you use modprobe , you will find it useful to add lines as below to a
+configuration file in /etc/modprobe.d/ directory:.
alias parport_lowlevel parport_pc
options parport_pc io=0x378,0x278 irq=7,auto
-KMod will then automatically load parport_pc (with the options
-"io=0x378,0x278 irq=7,auto") whenever a parallel port device driver
-(such as lp) is loaded.
+modprobe will load parport_pc (with the options "io=0x378,0x278 irq=7,auto")
+whenever a parallel port device driver (such as lp) is loaded.
Note that these are example lines only! You shouldn't in general need
to specify any options to parport_pc in order to be able to use a
diff --git a/Documentation/s390/3270.txt b/Documentation/s390/3270.txt
index 7a5c73a7ed7..7c715de9977 100644
--- a/Documentation/s390/3270.txt
+++ b/Documentation/s390/3270.txt
@@ -47,9 +47,9 @@ including the console 3270, changes subchannel identifier relative to
one another. ReIPL as soon as possible after running the configuration
script and the resulting /tmp/mkdev3270.
-If you have chosen to make tub3270 a module, you add a line to
-/etc/modprobe.conf. If you are working on a VM virtual machine, you
-can use DEF GRAF to define virtual 3270 devices.
+If you have chosen to make tub3270 a module, you add a line to a
+configuration file under /etc/modprobe.d/. If you are working on a VM
+virtual machine, you can use DEF GRAF to define virtual 3270 devices.
You may generate both 3270 and 3215 console support, or one or the
other, or neither. If you generate both, the console type under VM is
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ at boot time to a 3270 if it is a 3215.
In brief, these are the steps:
1. Install the tub3270 patch
- 2. (If a module) add a line to /etc/modprobe.conf
+ 2. (If a module) add a line to a file in /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf
3. (If VM) define devices with DEF GRAF
4. Reboot
5. Configure
@@ -84,13 +84,12 @@ Here are the installation steps in detail:
make modules_install
2. (Perform this step only if you have configured tub3270 as a
- module.) Add a line to /etc/modprobe.conf to automatically
- load the driver when it's needed. With this line added,
- you will see login prompts appear on your 3270s as soon as
- boot is complete (or with emulated 3270s, as soon as you dial
- into your vm guest using the command "DIAL <vmguestname>").
- Since the line-mode major number is 227, the line to add to
- /etc/modprobe.conf should be:
+ module.) Add a line to a file /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf to automatically
+ load the driver when it's needed. With this line added, you will see
+ login prompts appear on your 3270s as soon as boot is complete (or
+ with emulated 3270s, as soon as you dial into your vm guest using the
+ command "DIAL <vmguestname>"). Since the line-mode major number is
+ 227, the line to add should be:
alias char-major-227 tub3270
3. Define graphic devices to your vm guest machine, if you
diff --git a/Documentation/scsi/00-INDEX b/Documentation/scsi/00-INDEX
index b48ded55b55..b7dd6502bec 100644
--- a/Documentation/scsi/00-INDEX
+++ b/Documentation/scsi/00-INDEX
@@ -94,3 +94,5 @@ sym53c8xx_2.txt
- info on second generation driver for sym53c8xx based adapters
- info on driver for AM53c974 based adapters
+ - info on Universal Flash Storage(UFS) and UFS host controller driver.
diff --git a/Documentation/scsi/aic79xx.txt b/Documentation/scsi/aic79xx.txt
index 64ac7093c87..e2d3273000d 100644
--- a/Documentation/scsi/aic79xx.txt
+++ b/Documentation/scsi/aic79xx.txt
@@ -215,7 +215,7 @@ The following information is available in this file:
- Edit the file "modprobe.conf" in the directory /etc and add/edit a
+ Put a .conf file in the /etc/modprobe.d/ directory and add/edit a
line containing 'options aic79xx aic79xx=[command[,command...]]' where
'command' is one or more of the following:
diff --git a/Documentation/scsi/aic7xxx.txt b/Documentation/scsi/aic7xxx.txt
index 18f8d1905e6..7c5d0223d44 100644
--- a/Documentation/scsi/aic7xxx.txt
+++ b/Documentation/scsi/aic7xxx.txt
@@ -190,7 +190,7 @@ The following information is available in this file:
- Edit the file "modprobe.conf" in the directory /etc and add/edit a
+ Put a .conf file in the /etc/modprobe.d directory and add/edit a
line containing 'options aic7xxx aic7xxx=[command[,command...]]' where
'command' is one or more of the following:
diff --git a/Documentation/scsi/osst.txt b/Documentation/scsi/osst.txt
index ad86c6d1e89..00c8ebb2fd1 100644
--- a/Documentation/scsi/osst.txt
+++ b/Documentation/scsi/osst.txt
@@ -66,7 +66,7 @@ recognized.
If you want to have the module autoloaded on access to /dev/osst, you may
add something like
alias char-major-206 osst
-to your /etc/modprobe.conf (before 2.6: modules.conf).
+to a file under /etc/modprobe.d/ directory.
You may find it convenient to create a symbolic link
ln -s nosst0 /dev/tape
diff --git a/Documentation/scsi/st.txt b/Documentation/scsi/st.txt
index 691ca292c24..685bf3582ab 100644
--- a/Documentation/scsi/st.txt
+++ b/Documentation/scsi/st.txt
@@ -390,6 +390,10 @@ MTSETDRVBUFFER
MT_ST_SYSV sets the SYSV semantics (mode)
MT_ST_NOWAIT enables immediate mode (i.e., don't wait for
the command to finish) for some commands (e.g., rewind)
+ MT_ST_NOWAIT_EOF enables immediate filemark mode (i.e. when
+ writing a filemark, don't wait for it to complete). Please
+ see the BASICS note about MTWEOFI with respect to the
+ possible dangers of writing immediate filemarks.
MT_ST_SILI enables setting the SILI bit in SCSI commands when
reading in variable block mode to enhance performance when
reading blocks shorter than the byte count; set this only
diff --git a/Documentation/scsi/ufs.txt b/Documentation/scsi/ufs.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..41a6164592a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/scsi/ufs.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,133 @@
+ Universal Flash Storage
+ =======================
+1. Overview
+2. UFS Architecture Overview
+ 2.1 Application Layer
+ 2.2 UFS Transport Protocol(UTP) layer
+ 2.3 UFS Interconnect(UIC) Layer
+3. UFSHCD Overview
+ 3.1 UFS controller initialization
+ 3.2 UTP Transfer requests
+ 3.3 UFS error handling
+ 3.4 SCSI Error handling
+1. Overview
+Universal Flash Storage(UFS) is a storage specification for flash devices.
+It is aimed to provide a universal storage interface for both
+embedded and removable flash memory based storage in mobile
+devices such as smart phones and tablet computers. The specification
+is defined by JEDEC Solid State Technology Association. UFS is based
+on MIPI M-PHY physical layer standard. UFS uses MIPI M-PHY as the
+physical layer and MIPI Unipro as the link layer.
+The main goals of UFS is to provide,
+ * Optimized performance:
+ For UFS version 1.0 and 1.1 the target performance is as follows,
+ Support for Gear1 is mandatory (rate A: 1248Mbps, rate B: 1457.6Mbps)
+ Support for Gear2 is optional (rate A: 2496Mbps, rate B: 2915.2Mbps)
+ Future version of the standard,
+ Gear3 (rate A: 4992Mbps, rate B: 5830.4Mbps)
+ * Low power consumption
+ * High random IOPs and low latency
+2. UFS Architecture Overview
+UFS has a layered communication architecture which is based on SCSI
+SAM-5 architectural model.
+UFS communication architecture consists of following layers,
+2.1 Application Layer
+ The Application layer is composed of UFS command set layer(UCS),
+ Task Manager and Device manager. The UFS interface is designed to be
+ protocol agnostic, however SCSI has been selected as a baseline
+ protocol for versions 1.0 and 1.1 of UFS protocol layer.
+ UFS supports subset of SCSI commands defined by SPC-4 and SBC-3.
+ * UCS: It handles SCSI commands supported by UFS specification.
+ * Task manager: It handles task management functions defined by the
+ UFS which are meant for command queue control.
+ * Device manager: It handles device level operations and device
+ configuration operations. Device level operations mainly involve
+ device power management operations and commands to Interconnect
+ layers. Device level configurations involve handling of query
+ requests which are used to modify and retrieve configuration
+ information of the device.
+2.2 UFS Transport Protocol(UTP) layer
+ UTP layer provides services for
+ the higher layers through Service Access Points. UTP defines 3
+ service access points for higher layers.
+ * UDM_SAP: Device manager service access point is exposed to device
+ manager for device level operations. These device level operations
+ are done through query requests.
+ * UTP_CMD_SAP: Command service access point is exposed to UFS command
+ set layer(UCS) to transport commands.
+ * UTP_TM_SAP: Task management service access point is exposed to task
+ manager to transport task management functions.
+ UTP transports messages through UFS protocol information unit(UPIU).
+2.3 UFS Interconnect(UIC) Layer
+ UIC is the lowest layer of UFS layered architecture. It handles
+ connection between UFS host and UFS device. UIC consists of
+ MIPI UniPro and MIPI M-PHY. UIC provides 2 service access points
+ to upper layer,
+ * UIC_SAP: To transport UPIU between UFS host and UFS device.
+ * UIO_SAP: To issue commands to Unipro layers.
+3. UFSHCD Overview
+The UFS host controller driver is based on Linux SCSI Framework.
+UFSHCD is a low level device driver which acts as an interface between
+SCSI Midlayer and PCIe based UFS host controllers.
+The current UFSHCD implementation supports following functionality,
+3.1 UFS controller initialization
+ The initialization module brings UFS host controller to active state
+ and prepares the controller to transfer commands/response between
+ UFSHCD and UFS device.
+3.2 UTP Transfer requests
+ Transfer request handling module of UFSHCD receives SCSI commands
+ from SCSI Midlayer, forms UPIUs and issues the UPIUs to UFS Host
+ controller. Also, the module decodes, responses received from UFS
+ host controller in the form of UPIUs and intimates the SCSI Midlayer
+ of the status of the command.
+3.3 UFS error handling
+ Error handling module handles Host controller fatal errors,
+ Device fatal errors and UIC interconnect layer related errors.
+3.4 SCSI Error handling
+ This is done through UFSHCD SCSI error handling routines registered
+ with SCSI Midlayer. Examples of some of the error handling commands
+ issues by SCSI Midlayer are Abort task, Lun reset and host reset.
+ UFSHCD Routines to perform these tasks are registered with
+ SCSI Midlayer through .eh_abort_handler, .eh_device_reset_handler and
+ .eh_host_reset_handler.
+In this version of UFSHCD Query requests and power management
+functionality are not implemented.
+UFS Specifications can be found at,
+UFS - http://www.jedec.org/sites/default/files/docs/JESD220.pdf
+UFSHCI - http://www.jedec.org/sites/default/files/docs/JESD223.pdf
diff --git a/Documentation/serial/computone.txt b/Documentation/serial/computone.txt
index 39ddcdbeeb8..a6a1158ea2b 100644
--- a/Documentation/serial/computone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/serial/computone.txt
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@ Hardware - If you have an ISA card, find a free interrupt and io port.
Note the hardware address from the Computone ISA cards installed into
the system. These are required for editing ip2.c or editing
- /etc/modprobe.conf, or for specification on the modprobe
+ /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf, or for specification on the modprobe
command line.
Note that the /etc/modules.conf should be used for older (pre-2.6)
@@ -66,7 +66,7 @@ b) Run "make config" or "make menuconfig" or "make xconfig"
c) Set address on ISA cards then:
edit /usr/src/linux/drivers/char/ip2.c if needed
- edit /etc/modprobe.conf if needed (module).
+ edit config file in /etc/modprobe.d/ if needed (module).
or both to match this setting.
d) Run "make modules"
e) Run "make modules_install"
@@ -153,11 +153,11 @@ the irqs are not specified the driver uses the default in ip2.c (which
selects polled mode). If no base addresses are specified the defaults in
ip2.c are used. If you are autoloading the driver module with kerneld or
kmod the base addresses and interrupt number must also be set in ip2.c
-and recompile or just insert and options line in /etc/modprobe.conf or both.
+and recompile or just insert and options line in /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf or both.
The options line is equivalent to the command line and takes precedence over
what is in ip2.c.
-/etc/modprobe.conf sample:
+config sample to put /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf:
options ip2 io=1,0x328 irq=1,10
alias char-major-71 ip2
alias char-major-72 ip2
diff --git a/Documentation/serial/rocket.txt b/Documentation/serial/rocket.txt
index 1d858299043..60b03989105 100644
--- a/Documentation/serial/rocket.txt
+++ b/Documentation/serial/rocket.txt
@@ -62,7 +62,7 @@ in the system log at /var/log/messages.
If installed as a module, the module must be loaded. This can be done
manually by entering "modprobe rocket". To have the module loaded automatically
-upon system boot, edit the /etc/modprobe.conf file and add the line
+upon system boot, edit a /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf file and add the line
"alias char-major-46 rocket".
In order to use the ports, their device names (nodes) must be created with mknod.
diff --git a/Documentation/serial/stallion.txt b/Documentation/serial/stallion.txt
index 5c4902d9a5b..55090914a9c 100644
--- a/Documentation/serial/stallion.txt
+++ b/Documentation/serial/stallion.txt
@@ -139,8 +139,8 @@ secondary address 0x280 and IRQ 10.
You will probably want to enter this module load and configuration information
into your system startup scripts so that the drivers are loaded and configured
-on each system boot. Typically the start up script would be something like
+on each system boot. Typically configuration files are put in the
+/etc/modprobe.d/ directory.
diff --git a/Documentation/sound/alsa/ALSA-Configuration.txt b/Documentation/sound/alsa/ALSA-Configuration.txt
index 6f75ba3b8a3..8c16d50f6cb 100644
--- a/Documentation/sound/alsa/ALSA-Configuration.txt
+++ b/Documentation/sound/alsa/ALSA-Configuration.txt
@@ -2044,7 +2044,7 @@ Prior to version 0.9.0rc4 options had a 'snd_' prefix. This was removed.
Install the necessary firmware files in alsa-firmware package.
When no hotplug fw loader is available, you need to load the
firmware via vxloader utility in alsa-tools package. To invoke
- vxloader automatically, add the following to /etc/modprobe.conf
+ vxloader automatically, add the following to /etc/modprobe.d/alsa.conf
install snd-vx222 /sbin/modprobe --first-time -i snd-vx222 && /usr/bin/vxloader
@@ -2168,10 +2168,10 @@ corresponds to the card index of ALSA. Usually, define this
as the same card module.
An example configuration for a single emu10k1 card is like below:
------ /etc/modprobe.conf
+----- /etc/modprobe.d/alsa.conf
alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1
alias sound-slot-0 snd-emu10k1
------ /etc/modprobe.conf
+----- /etc/modprobe.d/alsa.conf
The available number of auto-loaded sound cards depends on the module
option "cards_limit" of snd module. As default it's set to 1.
@@ -2184,7 +2184,7 @@ cards is kept consistent.
An example configuration for two sound cards is like below:
------ /etc/modprobe.conf
+----- /etc/modprobe.d/alsa.conf
# ALSA portion
options snd cards_limit=2
alias snd-card-0 snd-interwave
@@ -2194,7 +2194,7 @@ options snd-ens1371 index=1
# OSS/Free portion
alias sound-slot-0 snd-interwave
alias sound-slot-1 snd-ens1371
------ /etc/modprobe.conf
+----- /etc/modprobe.d/alsa.conf
In this example, the interwave card is always loaded as the first card
(index 0) and ens1371 as the second (index 1).
diff --git a/Documentation/sound/alsa/Audiophile-Usb.txt b/Documentation/sound/alsa/Audiophile-Usb.txt
index a4c53d8961e..654dd3b694a 100644
--- a/Documentation/sound/alsa/Audiophile-Usb.txt
+++ b/Documentation/sound/alsa/Audiophile-Usb.txt
@@ -232,7 +232,7 @@ The parameter can be given:
# modprobe snd-usb-audio index=1 device_setup=0x09
* Or while configuring the modules options in your modules configuration file
- - For Fedora distributions, edit the /etc/modprobe.conf file:
+ (tipically a .conf file in /etc/modprobe.d/ directory:
alias snd-card-1 snd-usb-audio
options snd-usb-audio index=1 device_setup=0x09
@@ -253,7 +253,7 @@ CAUTION when initializing the device
- first turn off the device
- de-register the snd-usb-audio module (modprobe -r)
- change the device_setup parameter by changing the device_setup
- option in /etc/modprobe.conf
+ option in /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf
- turn on the device
* A workaround for this last issue has been applied to kernel 2.6.23, but it may not
be enough to ensure the 'stability' of the device initialization.
diff --git a/Documentation/sound/alsa/MIXART.txt b/Documentation/sound/alsa/MIXART.txt
index ef42c44fa1f..4ee35b4fbe4 100644
--- a/Documentation/sound/alsa/MIXART.txt
+++ b/Documentation/sound/alsa/MIXART.txt
@@ -76,9 +76,9 @@ FIRMWARE
when CONFIG_FW_LOADER is set. The mixartloader is necessary only
for older versions or when you build the driver into kernel.]
-For loading the firmware automatically after the module is loaded, use
-the post-install command. For example, add the following entry to
-/etc/modprobe.conf for miXart driver:
+For loading the firmware automatically after the module is loaded, use a
+install command. For example, add the following entry to
+/etc/modprobe.d/mixart.conf for miXart driver:
install snd-mixart /sbin/modprobe --first-time -i snd-mixart && \
diff --git a/Documentation/sound/alsa/OSS-Emulation.txt b/Documentation/sound/alsa/OSS-Emulation.txt
index 022aaeb0e9d..152ca2a3f1b 100644
--- a/Documentation/sound/alsa/OSS-Emulation.txt
+++ b/Documentation/sound/alsa/OSS-Emulation.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ the card number and the minor unit number. Usually you don't have to
define these aliases by yourself.
Only necessary step for auto-loading of OSS modules is to define the
-card alias in /etc/modprobe.conf, such as
+card alias in /etc/modprobe.d/alsa.conf, such as
alias sound-slot-0 snd-emu10k1
diff --git a/Documentation/sound/oss/AudioExcelDSP16 b/Documentation/sound/oss/AudioExcelDSP16
index e0dc0641b48..ea8549faede 100644
--- a/Documentation/sound/oss/AudioExcelDSP16
+++ b/Documentation/sound/oss/AudioExcelDSP16
@@ -41,7 +41,7 @@ mpu_base I/O base address for activate MPU-401 mode
(0x300, 0x310, 0x320 or 0x330)
mpu_irq MPU-401 irq line (5, 7, 9, 10 or 0)
-The /etc/modprobe.conf will have lines like this:
+A configuration file in /etc/modprobe.d/ directory will have lines like this:
options opl3 io=0x388
options ad1848 io=0x530 irq=11 dma=3
@@ -51,11 +51,11 @@ Where the aedsp16 options are the options for this driver while opl3 and
ad1848 are the corresponding options for the MSS and OPL3 modules.
Loading MSS and OPL3 needs to pre load the aedsp16 module to set up correctly
-the sound card. Installation dependencies must be written in the modprobe.conf
+the sound card. Installation dependencies must be written in configuration
+files under /etc/modprobe.d/ directory:
-install ad1848 /sbin/modprobe aedsp16 && /sbin/modprobe -i ad1848
-install opl3 /sbin/modprobe aedsp16 && /sbin/modprobe -i opl3
+softdep ad1848 pre: aedsp16
+softdep opl3 pre: aedsp16
Then you must load the sound modules stack in this order:
sound -> aedsp16 -> [ ad1848, opl3 ]
diff --git a/Documentation/sound/oss/CMI8330 b/Documentation/sound/oss/CMI8330
index 9c439f1a6db..8a5fd1611c6 100644
--- a/Documentation/sound/oss/CMI8330
+++ b/Documentation/sound/oss/CMI8330
@@ -143,11 +143,10 @@ CONFIG_SOUND_MSS=m
-Alma Chao <elysian@ethereal.torsion.org> suggests the following /etc/modprobe.conf:
+Alma Chao <elysian@ethereal.torsion.org> suggests the following in
+a /etc/modprobe.d/*conf file:
alias sound ad1848
alias synth0 opl3
options ad1848 io=0x530 irq=7 dma=0 soundpro=1
options opl3 io=0x388
diff --git a/Documentation/sound/oss/Introduction b/Documentation/sound/oss/Introduction
index 75d967ff926..42da2d8fa37 100644
--- a/Documentation/sound/oss/Introduction
+++ b/Documentation/sound/oss/Introduction
@@ -167,8 +167,8 @@ in a file such as /root/soundon.sh.
-If loading via modprobe, these common files are automatically loaded
-when requested by modprobe. For example, my /etc/modprobe.conf contains:
+If loading via modprobe, these common files are automatically loaded when
+requested by modprobe. For example, my /etc/modprobe.d/oss.conf contains:
alias sound sb
options sb io=0x240 irq=9 dma=3 dma16=5 mpu_io=0x300
@@ -228,7 +228,7 @@ http://www.opensound.com. Before loading the commercial sound
driver, you should do the following:
1. remove sound modules (detailed above)
-2. remove the sound modules from /etc/modprobe.conf
+2. remove the sound modules from /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf
3. move the sound modules from /lib/modules/<kernel>/misc
(for example, I make a /lib/modules/<kernel>/misc/tmp
directory and copy the sound module files to that
@@ -265,7 +265,7 @@ twice, you need to do the following:
sb.o could be copied (or symlinked) to sb1.o for the
second SoundBlaster.
-2. Make a second entry in /etc/modprobe.conf, for example,
+2. Make a second entry in /etc/modprobe.d/*conf, for example,
sound1 or sb1. This second entry should refer to the
new module names for example sb1, and should include
the I/O, etc. for the second sound card.
@@ -369,7 +369,7 @@ There are several ways of configuring your sound:
2) On the command line when using insmod or in a bash script
using command line calls to load sound.
-3) In /etc/modprobe.conf when using modprobe.
+3) In /etc/modprobe.d/*conf when using modprobe.
4) Via Red Hat's GPL'd /usr/sbin/sndconfig program (text based).
diff --git a/Documentation/sound/oss/Opti b/Documentation/sound/oss/Opti
index c15af3c07d4..4cd5d9ab358 100644
--- a/Documentation/sound/oss/Opti
+++ b/Documentation/sound/oss/Opti
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ force the card into a mode in which it can be programmed.
If you have another OS installed on your computer it is recommended
that Linux and the other OS use the same resources.
-Also, it is recommended that resources specified in /etc/modprobe.conf
+Also, it is recommended that resources specified in /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf
and resources specified in /etc/isapnp.conf agree.
Compiling the sound driver
@@ -67,11 +67,7 @@ address is hard-coded into the driver.
Using kmod and autoloading the sound driver
-Comment: as of linux-2.1.90 kmod is replacing kerneld.
-The config file '/etc/modprobe.conf' is used as before.
-This is the sound part of my /etc/modprobe.conf file.
-Following that I will explain each line.
+Config files in '/etc/modprobe.d/' are used as below:
alias mixer0 mad16
alias audio0 mad16
diff --git a/Documentation/sound/oss/PAS16 b/Documentation/sound/oss/PAS16
index 3dca4b75988..5c27229eec8 100644
--- a/Documentation/sound/oss/PAS16
+++ b/Documentation/sound/oss/PAS16
@@ -128,7 +128,7 @@ CONFIG_SOUND_YM3812
You can then get OPL3 functionality by issuing the command:
insmod opl3
In addition, you must either add the following line to
- /etc/modprobe.conf:
+ /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf:
options opl3 io=0x388
or else add the following line to /etc/lilo.conf:
@@ -158,5 +158,5 @@ following line would be appropriate:
append="pas2=0x388,10,3,-1,0,-1,-1,-1 opl3=0x388"
If sound is built totally modular, the above options may be
-specified in /etc/modprobe.conf for pas2, sb and opl3
+specified in /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf for pas2, sb and opl3
diff --git a/Documentation/sound/oss/README.modules b/Documentation/sound/oss/README.modules
index e691d74e1e5..cdc039421a4 100644
--- a/Documentation/sound/oss/README.modules
+++ b/Documentation/sound/oss/README.modules
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@ Note that it is no longer necessary or possible to configure sound in the
drivers/sound dir. Now one simply configures and makes one's kernel and
modules in the usual way.
- Then, add to your /etc/modprobe.conf something like:
+ Then, add to your /etc/modprobe.d/oss.conf something like:
alias char-major-14-* sb
install sb /sbin/modprobe -i sb && /sbin/modprobe adlib_card
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ options adlib_card io=0x388 # FM synthesizer
Alternatively, if you have compiled in kernel level ISAPnP support:
alias char-major-14 sb
-post-install sb /sbin/modprobe "-k" "adlib_card"
+softdep sb post: adlib_card
options adlib_card io=0x388
The effect of this is that the sound driver and all necessary bits and
@@ -66,12 +66,12 @@ args are expected.
Note that at present there is no way to configure the io, irq and other
parameters for the modular drivers as one does for the wired drivers.. One
needs to pass the modules the necessary parameters as arguments, either
-with /etc/modprobe.conf or with command-line args to modprobe, e.g.
+with /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf or with command-line args to modprobe, e.g.
modprobe sb io=0x220 irq=7 dma=1 dma16=5 mpu_io=0x330
modprobe adlib_card io=0x388
- recommend using /etc/modprobe.conf.
+ recommend using /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf.
Persistent DMA Buffers:
@@ -89,7 +89,7 @@ wasteful of RAM, but it guarantees that sound always works.
To make the sound driver use persistent DMA buffers we need to pass the
sound.o module a "dmabuf=1" command-line argument. This is normally done
-in /etc/modprobe.conf like so:
+in /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf files like so:
options sound dmabuf=1
diff --git a/Documentation/sysrq.txt b/Documentation/sysrq.txt
index 312e3754e8c..642f84495b2 100644
--- a/Documentation/sysrq.txt
+++ b/Documentation/sysrq.txt
@@ -241,9 +241,8 @@ command you are interested in.
* I have more questions, who can I ask?
-And I'll answer any questions about the registration system you got, also
-responding as soon as possible.
- -Crutcher
+Just ask them on the linux-kernel mailing list:
+ linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org
* Credits
diff --git a/Documentation/usb/power-management.txt b/Documentation/usb/power-management.txt
index 817df299ea0..4204eb01fd3 100644
--- a/Documentation/usb/power-management.txt
+++ b/Documentation/usb/power-management.txt
@@ -179,7 +179,8 @@ do:
modprobe usbcore autosuspend=5
-Equivalently, you could add to /etc/modprobe.conf a line saying:
+Equivalently, you could add to a configuration file in /etc/modprobe.d
+a line saying:
options usbcore autosuspend=5
diff --git a/Documentation/video4linux/CQcam.txt b/Documentation/video4linux/CQcam.txt
index 8977e7ce4da..6e680fec1e9 100644
--- a/Documentation/video4linux/CQcam.txt
+++ b/Documentation/video4linux/CQcam.txt
@@ -61,29 +61,19 @@ But that is my personal preference.
2.2 Configuration
The configuration requires module configuration and device
-configuration. I like kmod or kerneld process with the
-/etc/modprobe.conf file so the modules can automatically load/unload as
-they are used. The video devices could already exist, be generated
-using MAKEDEV, or need to be created. The following sections detail
-these procedures.
+configuration. The following sections detail these procedures.
2.1 Module Configuration
Using modules requires a bit of work to install and pass the
-parameters. Understand that entries in /etc/modprobe.conf of:
+parameters. Understand that entries in /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf of:
alias parport_lowlevel parport_pc
options parport_pc io=0x378 irq=none
alias char-major-81 videodev
alias char-major-81-0 c-qcam
-will cause the kmod/modprobe to do certain things. If you are
-using kmod, then a request for a 'char-major-81-0' will cause
-the 'c-qcam' module to load. If you have other video sources with
-modules, you might want to assign the different minor numbers to
-different modules.
2.2 Device Configuration
At this point, we need to ensure that the device files exist.
diff --git a/Documentation/video4linux/Zoran b/Documentation/video4linux/Zoran
index 9ed629d4874..b5a911fd060 100644
--- a/Documentation/video4linux/Zoran
+++ b/Documentation/video4linux/Zoran
@@ -255,7 +255,7 @@ Load zr36067.o. If it can't autodetect your card, use the card=X insmod
option with X being the card number as given in the previous section.
To have more than one card, use card=X1[,X2[,X3,[X4[..]]]]
-To automate this, add the following to your /etc/modprobe.conf:
+To automate this, add the following to your /etc/modprobe.d/zoran.conf:
options zr36067 card=X1[,X2[,X3[,X4[..]]]]
alias char-major-81-0 zr36067
diff --git a/Documentation/video4linux/bttv/Modules.conf b/Documentation/video4linux/bttv/Modules.conf
index 753f15956eb..8f258faf18f 100644
--- a/Documentation/video4linux/bttv/Modules.conf
+++ b/Documentation/video4linux/bttv/Modules.conf
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-# For modern kernels (2.6 or above), this belongs in /etc/modprobe.conf
+# For modern kernels (2.6 or above), this belongs in /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf
# For for 2.4 kernels or earlier, this belongs in /etc/modules.conf.
# i2c
diff --git a/Documentation/video4linux/meye.txt b/Documentation/video4linux/meye.txt
index 34e2842c70a..a051152ea99 100644
--- a/Documentation/video4linux/meye.txt
+++ b/Documentation/video4linux/meye.txt
@@ -55,7 +55,7 @@ Module use:
In order to automatically load the meye module on use, you can put those lines
-in your /etc/modprobe.conf file:
+in your /etc/modprobe.d/meye.conf file:
alias char-major-81 videodev
alias char-major-81-0 meye
diff --git a/Documentation/virtual/kvm/api.txt b/Documentation/virtual/kvm/api.txt
index e1d94bf4056..6386f8c0482 100644
--- a/Documentation/virtual/kvm/api.txt
+++ b/Documentation/virtual/kvm/api.txt
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@ described as 'basic' will be available.
Capability: basic
Architectures: all
Type: system ioctl
-Parameters: none
+Parameters: machine type identifier (KVM_VM_*)
Returns: a VM fd that can be used to control the new virtual machine.
The new VM has no virtual cpus and no memory. An mmap() of a VM fd
@@ -103,6 +103,11 @@ will access the virtual machine's physical address space; offset zero
corresponds to guest physical address zero. Use of mmap() on a VM fd
is discouraged if userspace memory allocation (KVM_CAP_USER_MEMORY) is
+You most certainly want to use 0 as machine type.
+In order to create user controlled virtual machines on S390, check
+KVM_CAP_S390_UCONTROL and use the flag KVM_VM_S390_UCONTROL as
+privileged user (CAP_SYS_ADMIN).
@@ -213,6 +218,11 @@ allocation of vcpu ids. For example, if userspace wants
single-threaded guest vcpus, it should make all vcpu ids be a multiple
of the number of vcpus per vcore.
+For virtual cpus that have been created with S390 user controlled virtual
+machines, the resulting vcpu fd can be memory mapped at page offset
+KVM_S390_SIE_PAGE_OFFSET in order to obtain a memory map of the virtual
+cpu's hardware control block.
4.8 KVM_GET_DIRTY_LOG (vm ioctl)
Capability: basic
@@ -1159,6 +1169,14 @@ following flags are specified:
/* Depends on KVM_CAP_IOMMU */
+/* The following two depend on KVM_CAP_PCI_2_3 */
+#define KVM_DEV_ASSIGN_PCI_2_3 (1 << 1)
+#define KVM_DEV_ASSIGN_MASK_INTX (1 << 2)
+If KVM_DEV_ASSIGN_PCI_2_3 is set, the kernel will manage legacy INTx interrupts
+via the PCI-2.3-compliant device-level mask, thus enable IRQ sharing with other
+assigned devices or host devices. KVM_DEV_ASSIGN_MASK_INTX specifies the
+guest's view on the INTx mask, see KVM_ASSIGN_SET_INTX_MASK for details.
The KVM_DEV_ASSIGN_ENABLE_IOMMU flag is a mandatory option to ensure
isolation of the device. Usages not specifying this flag are deprecated.
@@ -1399,6 +1417,71 @@ The following flags are defined:
If datamatch flag is set, the event will be signaled only if the written value
to the registered address is equal to datamatch in struct kvm_ioeventfd.
+Capability: KVM_CAP_SW_TLB
+Architectures: ppc
+Type: vcpu ioctl
+Parameters: struct kvm_dirty_tlb (in)
+Returns: 0 on success, -1 on error
+struct kvm_dirty_tlb {
+ __u64 bitmap;
+ __u32 num_dirty;
+This must be called whenever userspace has changed an entry in the shared
+TLB, prior to calling KVM_RUN on the associated vcpu.
+The "bitmap" field is the userspace address of an array. This array
+consists of a number of bits, equal to the total number of TLB entries as
+determined by the last successful call to KVM_CONFIG_TLB, rounded up to the
+nearest multiple of 64.
+Each bit corresponds to one TLB entry, ordered the same as in the shared TLB
+The array is little-endian: the bit 0 is the least significant bit of the
+first byte, bit 8 is the least significant bit of the second byte, etc.
+This avoids any complications with differing word sizes.
+The "num_dirty" field is a performance hint for KVM to determine whether it
+should skip processing the bitmap and just invalidate everything. It must
+be set to the number of set bits in the bitmap.
+Capability: KVM_CAP_PCI_2_3
+Architectures: x86
+Type: vm ioctl
+Parameters: struct kvm_assigned_pci_dev (in)
+Returns: 0 on success, -1 on error
+Allows userspace to mask PCI INTx interrupts from the assigned device. The
+kernel will not deliver INTx interrupts to the guest between setting and
+clearing of KVM_ASSIGN_SET_INTX_MASK via this interface. This enables use of
+and emulation of PCI 2.3 INTx disable command register behavior.
+This may be used for both PCI 2.3 devices supporting INTx disable natively and
+older devices lacking this support. Userspace is responsible for emulating the
+read value of the INTx disable bit in the guest visible PCI command register.
+When modifying the INTx disable state, userspace should precede updating the
+physical device command register by calling this ioctl to inform the kernel of
+the new intended INTx mask state.
+Note that the kernel uses the device INTx disable bit to internally manage the
+device interrupt state for PCI 2.3 devices. Reads of this register may
+therefore not match the expected value. Writes should always use the guest
+intended INTx disable value rather than attempting to read-copy-update the
+current physical device state. Races between user and kernel updates to the
+INTx disable bit are handled lazily in the kernel. It's possible the device
+may generate unintended interrupts, but they will not be injected into the
+See KVM_ASSIGN_DEV_IRQ for the data structure. The target device is specified
+by assigned_dev_id. In the flags field, only KVM_DEV_ASSIGN_MASK_INTX is
@@ -1491,6 +1574,101 @@ following algorithm:
Some guests configure the LINT1 NMI input to cause a panic, aiding in
+4.65 KVM_S390_UCAS_MAP
+Capability: KVM_CAP_S390_UCONTROL
+Architectures: s390
+Type: vcpu ioctl
+Parameters: struct kvm_s390_ucas_mapping (in)
+Returns: 0 in case of success
+The parameter is defined like this:
+ struct kvm_s390_ucas_mapping {
+ __u64 user_addr;
+ __u64 vcpu_addr;
+ __u64 length;
+ };
+This ioctl maps the memory at "user_addr" with the length "length" to
+the vcpu's address space starting at "vcpu_addr". All parameters need to
+be alligned by 1 megabyte.
+Capability: KVM_CAP_S390_UCONTROL
+Architectures: s390
+Type: vcpu ioctl
+Parameters: struct kvm_s390_ucas_mapping (in)
+Returns: 0 in case of success
+The parameter is defined like this:
+ struct kvm_s390_ucas_mapping {
+ __u64 user_addr;
+ __u64 vcpu_addr;
+ __u64 length;
+ };
+This ioctl unmaps the memory in the vcpu's address space starting at
+"vcpu_addr" with the length "length". The field "user_addr" is ignored.
+All parameters need to be alligned by 1 megabyte.
+Capability: KVM_CAP_S390_UCONTROL
+Architectures: s390
+Type: vcpu ioctl
+Parameters: vcpu absolute address (in)
+Returns: 0 in case of success
+This call creates a page table entry on the virtual cpu's address space
+(for user controlled virtual machines) or the virtual machine's address
+space (for regular virtual machines). This only works for minor faults,
+thus it's recommended to access subject memory page via the user page
+table upfront. This is useful to handle validity intercepts for user
+controlled virtual machines to fault in the virtual cpu's lowcore pages
+prior to calling the KVM_RUN ioctl.
+Capability: KVM_CAP_ONE_REG
+Architectures: all
+Type: vcpu ioctl
+Parameters: struct kvm_one_reg (in)
+Returns: 0 on success, negative value on failure
+struct kvm_one_reg {
+ __u64 id;
+ __u64 addr;
+Using this ioctl, a single vcpu register can be set to a specific value
+defined by user space with the passed in struct kvm_one_reg, where id
+refers to the register identifier as described below and addr is a pointer
+to a variable with the respective size. There can be architecture agnostic
+and architecture specific registers. Each have their own range of operation
+and their own constants and width. To keep track of the implemented
+registers, find a list below:
+ Arch | Register | Width (bits)
+ | |
+Capability: KVM_CAP_ONE_REG
+Architectures: all
+Type: vcpu ioctl
+Parameters: struct kvm_one_reg (in and out)
+Returns: 0 on success, negative value on failure
+This ioctl allows to receive the value of a single register implemented
+in a vcpu. The register to read is indicated by the "id" field of the
+kvm_one_reg struct passed in. On success, the register value can be found
+at the memory location pointed to by "addr".
+The list of registers accessible using this interface is identical to the
+list in 4.64.
5. The kvm_run structure
Application code obtains a pointer to the kvm_run structure by
@@ -1651,6 +1829,20 @@ s390 specific.
s390 specific.
+ struct {
+ __u64 trans_exc_code;
+ __u32 pgm_code;
+ } s390_ucontrol;
+s390 specific. A page fault has occurred for a user controlled virtual
+machine (KVM_VM_S390_UNCONTROL) on it's host page table that cannot be
+resolved by the kernel.
+The program code and the translation exception code that were placed
+in the cpu's lowcore are presented here as defined by the z Architecture
+Principles of Operation Book in the Chapter for Dynamic Address Translation
struct {
__u32 dcrn;
@@ -1693,6 +1885,29 @@ developer registration required to access it).
/* Fix the size of the union. */
char padding[256];
+ /*
+ * shared registers between kvm and userspace.
+ * kvm_valid_regs specifies the register classes set by the host
+ * kvm_dirty_regs specified the register classes dirtied by userspace
+ * struct kvm_sync_regs is architecture specific, as well as the
+ * bits for kvm_valid_regs and kvm_dirty_regs
+ */
+ __u64 kvm_valid_regs;
+ __u64 kvm_dirty_regs;
+ union {
+ struct kvm_sync_regs regs;
+ char padding[1024];
+ } s;
+If KVM_CAP_SYNC_REGS is defined, these fields allow userspace to access
+certain guest registers without having to call SET/GET_*REGS. Thus we can
+avoid some system call overhead if userspace has to handle the exit.
+Userspace can query the validity of the structure by checking
+kvm_valid_regs for specific bits. These bits are architecture specific
+and usually define the validity of a groups of registers. (e.g. one bit
+ for general purpose registers)
6. Capabilities that can be enabled
@@ -1741,3 +1956,45 @@ HTAB address part of SDR1 contains an HVA instead of a GPA, as PAPR keeps the
HTAB invisible to the guest.
When this capability is enabled, KVM_EXIT_PAPR_HCALL can occur.
+Architectures: ppc
+Parameters: args[0] is the address of a struct kvm_config_tlb
+Returns: 0 on success; -1 on error
+struct kvm_config_tlb {
+ __u64 params;
+ __u64 array;
+ __u32 mmu_type;
+ __u32 array_len;
+Configures the virtual CPU's TLB array, establishing a shared memory area
+between userspace and KVM. The "params" and "array" fields are userspace
+addresses of mmu-type-specific data structures. The "array_len" field is an
+safety mechanism, and should be set to the size in bytes of the memory that
+userspace has reserved for the array. It must be at least the size dictated
+by "mmu_type" and "params".
+While KVM_RUN is active, the shared region is under control of KVM. Its
+contents are undefined, and any modification by userspace results in
+boundedly undefined behavior.
+On return from KVM_RUN, the shared region will reflect the current state of
+the guest's TLB. If userspace makes any changes, it must call KVM_DIRTY_TLB
+to tell KVM which entries have been changed, prior to calling KVM_RUN again
+on this vcpu.
+ - The "params" field is of type "struct kvm_book3e_206_tlb_params".
+ - The "array" field points to an array of type "struct
+ kvm_book3e_206_tlb_entry".
+ - The array consists of all entries in the first TLB, followed by all
+ entries in the second TLB.
+ - Within a TLB, entries are ordered first by increasing set number. Within a
+ set, entries are ordered by way (increasing ESEL).
+ - The hash for determining set number in TLB0 is: (MAS2 >> 12) & (num_sets - 1)
+ where "num_sets" is the tlb_sizes[] value divided by the tlb_ways[] value.
+ - The tsize field of mas1 shall be set to 4K on TLB0, even though the
+ hardware ignores this value for TLB0.
diff --git a/Documentation/virtual/kvm/ppc-pv.txt b/Documentation/virtual/kvm/ppc-pv.txt
index 2b7ce190cde..6e7c3705093 100644
--- a/Documentation/virtual/kvm/ppc-pv.txt
+++ b/Documentation/virtual/kvm/ppc-pv.txt
@@ -81,28 +81,8 @@ additional registers to the magic page. If you add fields to the magic page,
also define a new hypercall feature to indicate that the host can give you more
registers. Only if the host supports the additional features, make use of them.
-The magic page has the following layout as described in
-struct kvm_vcpu_arch_shared {
- __u64 scratch1;
- __u64 scratch2;
- __u64 scratch3;
- __u64 critical; /* Guest may not get interrupts if == r1 */
- __u64 sprg0;
- __u64 sprg1;
- __u64 sprg2;
- __u64 sprg3;
- __u64 srr0;
- __u64 srr1;
- __u64 dar;
- __u64 msr;
- __u32 dsisr;
- __u32 int_pending; /* Tells the guest if we have an interrupt */
-Additions to the page must only occur at the end. Struct fields are always 32
-or 64 bit aligned, depending on them being 32 or 64 bit wide respectively.
+The magic page layout is described by struct kvm_vcpu_arch_shared
+in arch/powerpc/include/asm/kvm_para.h.
Magic page features
diff --git a/Documentation/vm/Makefile b/Documentation/vm/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 3fa4d066886..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/vm/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,8 +0,0 @@
-# kbuild trick to avoid linker error. Can be omitted if a module is built.
-obj- := dummy.o
-# List of programs to build
-hostprogs-y := page-types hugepage-mmap hugepage-shm map_hugetlb
-# Tell kbuild to always build the programs
-always := $(hostprogs-y)
diff --git a/Documentation/vm/hugepage-mmap.c b/Documentation/vm/hugepage-mmap.c
deleted file mode 100644
index db0dd9a33d5..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/vm/hugepage-mmap.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,91 +0,0 @@
- * hugepage-mmap:
- *
- * Example of using huge page memory in a user application using the mmap
- * system call. Before running this application, make sure that the
- * administrator has mounted the hugetlbfs filesystem (on some directory
- * like /mnt) using the command mount -t hugetlbfs nodev /mnt. In this
- * example, the app is requesting memory of size 256MB that is backed by
- * huge pages.
- *
- * For the ia64 architecture, the Linux kernel reserves Region number 4 for
- * huge pages. That means that if one requires a fixed address, a huge page
- * aligned address starting with 0x800000... will be required. If a fixed
- * address is not required, the kernel will select an address in the proper
- * range.
- * Other architectures, such as ppc64, i386 or x86_64 are not so constrained.
- */
-#include <stdlib.h>
-#include <stdio.h>
-#include <unistd.h>
-#include <sys/mman.h>
-#include <fcntl.h>
-#define FILE_NAME "/mnt/hugepagefile"
-#define LENGTH (256UL*1024*1024)
-/* Only ia64 requires this */
-#ifdef __ia64__
-#define ADDR (void *)(0x8000000000000000UL)
-#define ADDR (void *)(0x0UL)
-static void check_bytes(char *addr)
- printf("First hex is %x\n", *((unsigned int *)addr));
-static void write_bytes(char *addr)
- unsigned long i;
- for (i = 0; i < LENGTH; i++)
- *(addr + i) = (char)i;
-static void read_bytes(char *addr)
- unsigned long i;
- check_bytes(addr);
- for (i = 0; i < LENGTH; i++)
- if (*(addr + i) != (char)i) {
- printf("Mismatch at %lu\n", i);
- break;
- }
-int main(void)
- void *addr;
- int fd;
- fd = open(FILE_NAME, O_CREAT | O_RDWR, 0755);
- if (fd < 0) {
- perror("Open failed");
- exit(1);
- }
- addr = mmap(ADDR, LENGTH, PROTECTION, FLAGS, fd, 0);
- if (addr == MAP_FAILED) {
- perror("mmap");
- unlink(FILE_NAME);
- exit(1);
- }
- printf("Returned address is %p\n", addr);
- check_bytes(addr);
- write_bytes(addr);
- read_bytes(addr);
- munmap(addr, LENGTH);
- close(fd);
- unlink(FILE_NAME);
- return 0;
diff --git a/Documentation/vm/hugepage-shm.c b/Documentation/vm/hugepage-shm.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 07956d8592c..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/vm/hugepage-shm.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,98 +0,0 @@
- * hugepage-shm:
- *
- * Example of using huge page memory in a user application using Sys V shared
- * memory system calls. In this example the app is requesting 256MB of
- * memory that is backed by huge pages. The application uses the flag
- * SHM_HUGETLB in the shmget system call to inform the kernel that it is
- * requesting huge pages.
- *
- * For the ia64 architecture, the Linux kernel reserves Region number 4 for
- * huge pages. That means that if one requires a fixed address, a huge page
- * aligned address starting with 0x800000... will be required. If a fixed
- * address is not required, the kernel will select an address in the proper
- * range.
- * Other architectures, such as ppc64, i386 or x86_64 are not so constrained.
- *
- * Note: The default shared memory limit is quite low on many kernels,
- * you may need to increase it via:
- *
- * echo 268435456 > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
- *
- * This will increase the maximum size per shared memory segment to 256MB.
- * The other limit that you will hit eventually is shmall which is the
- * total amount of shared memory in pages. To set it to 16GB on a system
- * with a 4kB pagesize do:
- *
- * echo 4194304 > /proc/sys/kernel/shmall
- */
-#include <stdlib.h>
-#include <stdio.h>
-#include <sys/types.h>
-#include <sys/ipc.h>
-#include <sys/shm.h>
-#include <sys/mman.h>
-#ifndef SHM_HUGETLB
-#define SHM_HUGETLB 04000
-#define LENGTH (256UL*1024*1024)
-#define dprintf(x) printf(x)
-/* Only ia64 requires this */
-#ifdef __ia64__
-#define ADDR (void *)(0x8000000000000000UL)
-#define ADDR (void *)(0x0UL)
-#define SHMAT_FLAGS (0)
-int main(void)
- int shmid;
- unsigned long i;
- char *shmaddr;
- if ((shmid = shmget(2, LENGTH,
- perror("shmget");
- exit(1);
- }
- printf("shmid: 0x%x\n", shmid);
- shmaddr = shmat(shmid, ADDR, SHMAT_FLAGS);
- if (shmaddr == (char *)-1) {
- perror("Shared memory attach failure");
- shmctl(shmid, IPC_RMID, NULL);
- exit(2);
- }
- printf("shmaddr: %p\n", shmaddr);
- dprintf("Starting the writes:\n");
- for (i = 0; i < LENGTH; i++) {
- shmaddr[i] = (char)(i);
- if (!(i % (1024 * 1024)))
- dprintf(".");
- }
- dprintf("\n");
- dprintf("Starting the Check...");
- for (i = 0; i < LENGTH; i++)
- if (shmaddr[i] != (char)i)
- printf("\nIndex %lu mismatched\n", i);
- dprintf("Done.\n");
- if (shmdt((const void *)shmaddr) != 0) {
- perror("Detach failure");
- shmctl(shmid, IPC_RMID, NULL);
- exit(3);
- }
- shmctl(shmid, IPC_RMID, NULL);
- return 0;
diff --git a/Documentation/vm/map_hugetlb.c b/Documentation/vm/map_hugetlb.c
deleted file mode 100644
index eda1a6d3578..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/vm/map_hugetlb.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,77 +0,0 @@
- * Example of using hugepage memory in a user application using the mmap
- * system call with MAP_HUGETLB flag. Before running this program make
- * sure the administrator has allocated enough default sized huge pages
- * to cover the 256 MB allocation.
- *
- * For ia64 architecture, Linux kernel reserves Region number 4 for hugepages.
- * That means the addresses starting with 0x800000... will need to be
- * specified. Specifying a fixed address is not required on ppc64, i386
- * or x86_64.
- */
-#include <stdlib.h>
-#include <stdio.h>
-#include <unistd.h>
-#include <sys/mman.h>
-#include <fcntl.h>
-#define LENGTH (256UL*1024*1024)
-#ifndef MAP_HUGETLB
-#define MAP_HUGETLB 0x40000 /* arch specific */
-/* Only ia64 requires this */
-#ifdef __ia64__
-#define ADDR (void *)(0x8000000000000000UL)
-#define ADDR (void *)(0x0UL)
-static void check_bytes(char *addr)
- printf("First hex is %x\n", *((unsigned int *)addr));
-static void write_bytes(char *addr)
- unsigned long i;
- for (i = 0; i < LENGTH; i++)
- *(addr + i) = (char)i;
-static void read_bytes(char *addr)
- unsigned long i;
- check_bytes(addr);
- for (i = 0; i < LENGTH; i++)
- if (*(addr + i) != (char)i) {
- printf("Mismatch at %lu\n", i);
- break;
- }
-int main(void)
- void *addr;
- addr = mmap(ADDR, LENGTH, PROTECTION, FLAGS, 0, 0);
- if (addr == MAP_FAILED) {
- perror("mmap");
- exit(1);
- }
- printf("Returned address is %p\n", addr);
- check_bytes(addr);
- write_bytes(addr);
- read_bytes(addr);
- munmap(addr, LENGTH);
- return 0;
diff --git a/Documentation/vm/page-types.c b/Documentation/vm/page-types.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 0b13f02d405..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/vm/page-types.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,1102 +0,0 @@
- * page-types: Tool for querying page flags
- *
- * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
- * under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
- * Software Foundation; version 2.
- *
- * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
- * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
- * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for
- * more details.
- *
- * You should find a copy of v2 of the GNU General Public License somewhere on
- * your Linux system; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59
- * Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA.
- *
- * Copyright (C) 2009 Intel corporation
- *
- * Authors: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
- */
-#include <stdio.h>
-#include <stdlib.h>
-#include <unistd.h>
-#include <stdint.h>
-#include <stdarg.h>
-#include <string.h>
-#include <getopt.h>
-#include <limits.h>
-#include <assert.h>
-#include <sys/types.h>
-#include <sys/errno.h>
-#include <sys/fcntl.h>
-#include <sys/mount.h>
-#include <sys/statfs.h>
-#include "../../include/linux/magic.h"
-#ifndef MAX_PATH
-# define MAX_PATH 256
-#ifndef STR
-# define _STR(x) #x
-# define STR(x) _STR(x)
- * pagemap kernel ABI bits
- */
-#define PM_ENTRY_BYTES sizeof(uint64_t)
-#define PM_STATUS_BITS 3
-#define PM_STATUS(nr) (((nr) << PM_STATUS_OFFSET) & PM_STATUS_MASK)
-#define PM_PSHIFT_BITS 6
-#define PM_PSHIFT(x) (((u64) (x) << PM_PSHIFT_OFFSET) & PM_PSHIFT_MASK)
-#define PM_PFRAME(x) ((x) & PM_PFRAME_MASK)
- * kernel page flags
- */
-#define KPF_BYTES 8
-#define PROC_KPAGEFLAGS "/proc/kpageflags"
-/* copied from kpageflags_read() */
-#define KPF_LOCKED 0
-#define KPF_ERROR 1
-#define KPF_UPTODATE 3
-#define KPF_DIRTY 4
-#define KPF_LRU 5
-#define KPF_ACTIVE 6
-#define KPF_SLAB 7
-#define KPF_WRITEBACK 8
-#define KPF_RECLAIM 9
-#define KPF_BUDDY 10
-/* [11-20] new additions in 2.6.31 */
-#define KPF_MMAP 11
-#define KPF_ANON 12
-#define KPF_SWAPCACHE 13
-#define KPF_SWAPBACKED 14
-#define KPF_HUGE 17
-#define KPF_HWPOISON 19
-#define KPF_NOPAGE 20
-#define KPF_KSM 21
-#define KPF_THP 22
-/* [32-] kernel hacking assistances */
-#define KPF_RESERVED 32
-#define KPF_MLOCKED 33
-#define KPF_PRIVATE 35
-#define KPF_PRIVATE_2 36
-#define KPF_ARCH 38
-#define KPF_UNCACHED 39
-/* [48-] take some arbitrary free slots for expanding overloaded flags
- * not part of kernel API
- */
-#define KPF_READAHEAD 48
-#define KPF_SLOB_FREE 49
-#define KPF_SLUB_FROZEN 50
-#define KPF_SLUB_DEBUG 51
-#define KPF_ALL_BITS ((uint64_t)~0ULL)
-#define KPF_HACKERS_BITS (0xffffULL << 32)
-#define KPF_OVERLOADED_BITS (0xffffULL << 48)
-#define BIT(name) (1ULL << KPF_##name)
-static const char *page_flag_names[] = {
- [KPF_LOCKED] = "L:locked",
- [KPF_ERROR] = "E:error",
- [KPF_REFERENCED] = "R:referenced",
- [KPF_UPTODATE] = "U:uptodate",
- [KPF_DIRTY] = "D:dirty",
- [KPF_LRU] = "l:lru",
- [KPF_ACTIVE] = "A:active",
- [KPF_SLAB] = "S:slab",
- [KPF_WRITEBACK] = "W:writeback",
- [KPF_RECLAIM] = "I:reclaim",
- [KPF_BUDDY] = "B:buddy",
- [KPF_MMAP] = "M:mmap",
- [KPF_ANON] = "a:anonymous",
- [KPF_SWAPCACHE] = "s:swapcache",
- [KPF_SWAPBACKED] = "b:swapbacked",
- [KPF_COMPOUND_HEAD] = "H:compound_head",
- [KPF_COMPOUND_TAIL] = "T:compound_tail",
- [KPF_HUGE] = "G:huge",
- [KPF_UNEVICTABLE] = "u:unevictable",
- [KPF_HWPOISON] = "X:hwpoison",
- [KPF_NOPAGE] = "n:nopage",
- [KPF_KSM] = "x:ksm",
- [KPF_THP] = "t:thp",
- [KPF_RESERVED] = "r:reserved",
- [KPF_MLOCKED] = "m:mlocked",
- [KPF_MAPPEDTODISK] = "d:mappedtodisk",
- [KPF_PRIVATE] = "P:private",
- [KPF_PRIVATE_2] = "p:private_2",
- [KPF_OWNER_PRIVATE] = "O:owner_private",
- [KPF_ARCH] = "h:arch",
- [KPF_UNCACHED] = "c:uncached",
- [KPF_READAHEAD] = "I:readahead",
- [KPF_SLOB_FREE] = "P:slob_free",
- [KPF_SLUB_FROZEN] = "A:slub_frozen",
- [KPF_SLUB_DEBUG] = "E:slub_debug",
-static const char *debugfs_known_mountpoints[] = {
- "/sys/kernel/debug",
- "/debug",
- 0,
- * data structures
- */
-static int opt_raw; /* for kernel developers */
-static int opt_list; /* list pages (in ranges) */
-static int opt_no_summary; /* don't show summary */
-static pid_t opt_pid; /* process to walk */
-#define MAX_ADDR_RANGES 1024
-static int nr_addr_ranges;
-static unsigned long opt_offset[MAX_ADDR_RANGES];
-static unsigned long opt_size[MAX_ADDR_RANGES];
-#define MAX_VMAS 10240
-static int nr_vmas;
-static unsigned long pg_start[MAX_VMAS];
-static unsigned long pg_end[MAX_VMAS];
-#define MAX_BIT_FILTERS 64
-static int nr_bit_filters;
-static uint64_t opt_mask[MAX_BIT_FILTERS];
-static uint64_t opt_bits[MAX_BIT_FILTERS];
-static int page_size;
-static int pagemap_fd;
-static int kpageflags_fd;
-static int opt_hwpoison;
-static int opt_unpoison;
-static char hwpoison_debug_fs[MAX_PATH+1];
-static int hwpoison_inject_fd;
-static int hwpoison_forget_fd;
-#define HASH_SHIFT 13
-#define HASH_SIZE (1 << HASH_SHIFT)
-#define HASH_MASK (HASH_SIZE - 1)
-#define HASH_KEY(flags) (flags & HASH_MASK)
-static unsigned long total_pages;
-static unsigned long nr_pages[HASH_SIZE];
-static uint64_t page_flags[HASH_SIZE];
- * helper functions
- */
-#define ARRAY_SIZE(x) (sizeof(x) / sizeof((x)[0]))
-#define min_t(type, x, y) ({ \
- type __min1 = (x); \
- type __min2 = (y); \
- __min1 < __min2 ? __min1 : __min2; })
-#define max_t(type, x, y) ({ \
- type __max1 = (x); \
- type __max2 = (y); \
- __max1 > __max2 ? __max1 : __max2; })
-static unsigned long pages2mb(unsigned long pages)
- return (pages * page_size) >> 20;
-static void fatal(const char *x, ...)
- va_list ap;
- va_start(ap, x);
- vfprintf(stderr, x, ap);
- va_end(ap);
-static int checked_open(const char *pathname, int flags)
- int fd = open(pathname, flags);
- if (fd < 0) {
- perror(pathname);
- }
- return fd;
- * pagemap/kpageflags routines
- */
-static unsigned long do_u64_read(int fd, char *name,
- uint64_t *buf,
- unsigned long index,
- unsigned long count)
- long bytes;
- if (index > ULONG_MAX / 8)
- fatal("index overflow: %lu\n", index);
- if (lseek(fd, index * 8, SEEK_SET) < 0) {
- perror(name);
- }
- bytes = read(fd, buf, count * 8);
- if (bytes < 0) {
- perror(name);
- }
- if (bytes % 8)
- fatal("partial read: %lu bytes\n", bytes);
- return bytes / 8;
-static unsigned long kpageflags_read(uint64_t *buf,
- unsigned long index,
- unsigned long pages)
- return do_u64_read(kpageflags_fd, PROC_KPAGEFLAGS, buf, index, pages);
-static unsigned long pagemap_read(uint64_t *buf,
- unsigned long index,
- unsigned long pages)
- return do_u64_read(pagemap_fd, "/proc/pid/pagemap", buf, index, pages);
-static unsigned long pagemap_pfn(uint64_t val)
- unsigned long pfn;
- if (val & PM_PRESENT)
- pfn = PM_PFRAME(val);
- else
- pfn = 0;
- return pfn;
- * page flag names
- */
-static char *page_flag_name(uint64_t flags)
- static char buf[65];
- int present;
- int i, j;
- for (i = 0, j = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flag_names); i++) {
- present = (flags >> i) & 1;
- if (!page_flag_names[i]) {
- if (present)
- fatal("unknown flag bit %d\n", i);
- continue;
- }
- buf[j++] = present ? page_flag_names[i][0] : '_';
- }
- return buf;
-static char *page_flag_longname(uint64_t flags)
- static char buf[1024];
- int i, n;
- for (i = 0, n = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flag_names); i++) {
- if (!page_flag_names[i])
- continue;
- if ((flags >> i) & 1)
- n += snprintf(buf + n, sizeof(buf) - n, "%s,",
- page_flag_names[i] + 2);
- }
- if (n)
- n--;
- buf[n] = '\0';
- return buf;
- * page list and summary
- */
-static void show_page_range(unsigned long voffset,
- unsigned long offset, uint64_t flags)
- static uint64_t flags0;
- static unsigned long voff;
- static unsigned long index;
- static unsigned long count;
- if (flags == flags0 && offset == index + count &&
- (!opt_pid || voffset == voff + count)) {
- count++;
- return;
- }
- if (count) {
- if (opt_pid)
- printf("%lx\t", voff);
- printf("%lx\t%lx\t%s\n",
- index, count, page_flag_name(flags0));
- }
- flags0 = flags;
- index = offset;
- voff = voffset;
- count = 1;
-static void show_page(unsigned long voffset,
- unsigned long offset, uint64_t flags)
- if (opt_pid)
- printf("%lx\t", voffset);
- printf("%lx\t%s\n", offset, page_flag_name(flags));
-static void show_summary(void)
- int i;
- printf(" flags\tpage-count MB"
- " symbolic-flags\t\t\tlong-symbolic-flags\n");
- for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(nr_pages); i++) {
- if (nr_pages[i])
- printf("0x%016llx\t%10lu %8lu %s\t%s\n",
- (unsigned long long)page_flags[i],
- nr_pages[i],
- pages2mb(nr_pages[i]),
- page_flag_name(page_flags[i]),
- page_flag_longname(page_flags[i]));
- }
- printf(" total\t%10lu %8lu\n",
- total_pages, pages2mb(total_pages));
- * page flag filters
- */
-static int bit_mask_ok(uint64_t flags)
- int i;
- for (i = 0; i < nr_bit_filters; i++) {
- if (opt_bits[i] == KPF_ALL_BITS) {
- if ((flags & opt_mask[i]) == 0)
- return 0;
- } else {
- if ((flags & opt_mask[i]) != opt_bits[i])
- return 0;
- }
- }
- return 1;
-static uint64_t expand_overloaded_flags(uint64_t flags)
- /* SLOB/SLUB overload several page flags */
- if (flags & BIT(SLAB)) {
- if (flags & BIT(PRIVATE))
- if (flags & BIT(ACTIVE))
- if (flags & BIT(ERROR))
- flags ^= BIT(ERROR) | BIT(SLUB_DEBUG);
- }
- /* PG_reclaim is overloaded as PG_readahead in the read path */
- if ((flags & (BIT(RECLAIM) | BIT(WRITEBACK))) == BIT(RECLAIM))
- return flags;
-static uint64_t well_known_flags(uint64_t flags)
- /* hide flags intended only for kernel hacker */
- flags &= ~KPF_HACKERS_BITS;
- /* hide non-hugeTLB compound pages */
- if ((flags & BITS_COMPOUND) && !(flags & BIT(HUGE)))
- flags &= ~BITS_COMPOUND;
- return flags;
-static uint64_t kpageflags_flags(uint64_t flags)
- flags = expand_overloaded_flags(flags);
- if (!opt_raw)
- flags = well_known_flags(flags);
- return flags;
-/* verify that a mountpoint is actually a debugfs instance */
-static int debugfs_valid_mountpoint(const char *debugfs)
- struct statfs st_fs;
- if (statfs(debugfs, &st_fs) < 0)
- return -ENOENT;
- else if (st_fs.f_type != (long) DEBUGFS_MAGIC)
- return -ENOENT;
- return 0;
-/* find the path to the mounted debugfs */
-static const char *debugfs_find_mountpoint(void)
- const char **ptr;
- char type[100];
- FILE *fp;
- ptr = debugfs_known_mountpoints;
- while (*ptr) {
- if (debugfs_valid_mountpoint(*ptr) == 0) {
- strcpy(hwpoison_debug_fs, *ptr);
- return hwpoison_debug_fs;
- }
- ptr++;
- }
- /* give up and parse /proc/mounts */
- fp = fopen("/proc/mounts", "r");
- if (fp == NULL)
- perror("Can't open /proc/mounts for read");
- while (fscanf(fp, "%*s %"
- "s %99s %*s %*d %*d\n",
- hwpoison_debug_fs, type) == 2) {
- if (strcmp(type, "debugfs") == 0)
- break;
- }
- fclose(fp);
- if (strcmp(type, "debugfs") != 0)
- return NULL;
- return hwpoison_debug_fs;
-/* mount the debugfs somewhere if it's not mounted */
-static void debugfs_mount(void)
- const char **ptr;
- /* see if it's already mounted */
- if (debugfs_find_mountpoint())
- return;
- ptr = debugfs_known_mountpoints;
- while (*ptr) {
- if (mount(NULL, *ptr, "debugfs", 0, NULL) == 0) {
- /* save the mountpoint */
- strcpy(hwpoison_debug_fs, *ptr);
- break;
- }
- ptr++;
- }
- if (*ptr == NULL) {
- perror("mount debugfs");
- }
- * page actions
- */
-static void prepare_hwpoison_fd(void)
- char buf[MAX_PATH + 1];
- debugfs_mount();
- if (opt_hwpoison && !hwpoison_inject_fd) {
- snprintf(buf, MAX_PATH, "%s/hwpoison/corrupt-pfn",
- hwpoison_debug_fs);
- hwpoison_inject_fd = checked_open(buf, O_WRONLY);
- }
- if (opt_unpoison && !hwpoison_forget_fd) {
- snprintf(buf, MAX_PATH, "%s/hwpoison/unpoison-pfn",
- hwpoison_debug_fs);
- hwpoison_forget_fd = checked_open(buf, O_WRONLY);
- }
-static int hwpoison_page(unsigned long offset)
- char buf[100];
- int len;
- len = sprintf(buf, "0x%lx\n", offset);
- len = write(hwpoison_inject_fd, buf, len);
- if (len < 0) {
- perror("hwpoison inject");
- return len;
- }
- return 0;
-static int unpoison_page(unsigned long offset)
- char buf[100];
- int len;
- len = sprintf(buf, "0x%lx\n", offset);
- len = write(hwpoison_forget_fd, buf, len);
- if (len < 0) {
- perror("hwpoison forget");
- return len;
- }
- return 0;
- * page frame walker
- */
-static int hash_slot(uint64_t flags)
- int k = HASH_KEY(flags);
- int i;
- /* Explicitly reserve slot 0 for flags 0: the following logic
- * cannot distinguish an unoccupied slot from slot (flags==0).
- */
- if (flags == 0)
- return 0;
- /* search through the remaining (HASH_SIZE-1) slots */
- for (i = 1; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flags); i++, k++) {
- if (!k || k >= ARRAY_SIZE(page_flags))
- k = 1;
- if (page_flags[k] == 0) {
- page_flags[k] = flags;
- return k;
- }
- if (page_flags[k] == flags)
- return k;
- }
- fatal("hash table full: bump up HASH_SHIFT?\n");
-static void add_page(unsigned long voffset,
- unsigned long offset, uint64_t flags)
- flags = kpageflags_flags(flags);
- if (!bit_mask_ok(flags))
- return;
- if (opt_hwpoison)
- hwpoison_page(offset);
- if (opt_unpoison)
- unpoison_page(offset);
- if (opt_list == 1)
- show_page_range(voffset, offset, flags);
- else if (opt_list == 2)
- show_page(voffset, offset, flags);
- nr_pages[hash_slot(flags)]++;
- total_pages++;
-#define KPAGEFLAGS_BATCH (64 << 10) /* 64k pages */
-static void walk_pfn(unsigned long voffset,
- unsigned long index,
- unsigned long count)
- uint64_t buf[KPAGEFLAGS_BATCH];
- unsigned long batch;
- long pages;
- unsigned long i;
- while (count) {
- batch = min_t(unsigned long, count, KPAGEFLAGS_BATCH);
- pages = kpageflags_read(buf, index, batch);
- if (pages == 0)
- break;
- for (i = 0; i < pages; i++)
- add_page(voffset + i, index + i, buf[i]);
- index += pages;
- count -= pages;
- }
-#define PAGEMAP_BATCH (64 << 10)
-static void walk_vma(unsigned long index, unsigned long count)
- uint64_t buf[PAGEMAP_BATCH];
- unsigned long batch;
- unsigned long pages;
- unsigned long pfn;
- unsigned long i;
- while (count) {
- batch = min_t(unsigned long, count, PAGEMAP_BATCH);
- pages = pagemap_read(buf, index, batch);
- if (pages == 0)
- break;
- for (i = 0; i < pages; i++) {
- pfn = pagemap_pfn(buf[i]);
- if (pfn)
- walk_pfn(index + i, pfn, 1);
- }
- index += pages;
- count -= pages;
- }
-static void walk_task(unsigned long index, unsigned long count)
- const unsigned long end = index + count;
- unsigned long start;
- int i = 0;
- while (index < end) {
- while (pg_end[i] <= index)
- if (++i >= nr_vmas)
- return;
- if (pg_start[i] >= end)
- return;
- start = max_t(unsigned long, pg_start[i], index);
- index = min_t(unsigned long, pg_end[i], end);
- assert(start < index);
- walk_vma(start, index - start);
- }
-static void add_addr_range(unsigned long offset, unsigned long size)
- if (nr_addr_ranges >= MAX_ADDR_RANGES)
- fatal("too many addr ranges\n");
- opt_offset[nr_addr_ranges] = offset;
- opt_size[nr_addr_ranges] = min_t(unsigned long, size, ULONG_MAX-offset);
- nr_addr_ranges++;
-static void walk_addr_ranges(void)
- int i;
- kpageflags_fd = checked_open(PROC_KPAGEFLAGS, O_RDONLY);
- if (!nr_addr_ranges)
- add_addr_range(0, ULONG_MAX);
- for (i = 0; i < nr_addr_ranges; i++)
- if (!opt_pid)
- walk_pfn(0, opt_offset[i], opt_size[i]);
- else
- walk_task(opt_offset[i], opt_size[i]);
- close(kpageflags_fd);
- * user interface
- */
-static const char *page_flag_type(uint64_t flag)
- if (flag & KPF_HACKERS_BITS)
- return "(r)";
- return "(o)";
- return " ";
-static void usage(void)
- int i, j;
- printf(
-"page-types [options]\n"
-" -r|--raw Raw mode, for kernel developers\n"
-" -d|--describe flags Describe flags\n"
-" -a|--addr addr-spec Walk a range of pages\n"
-" -b|--bits bits-spec Walk pages with specified bits\n"
-" -p|--pid pid Walk process address space\n"
-#if 0 /* planned features */
-" -f|--file filename Walk file address space\n"
-" -l|--list Show page details in ranges\n"
-" -L|--list-each Show page details one by one\n"
-" -N|--no-summary Don't show summary info\n"
-" -X|--hwpoison hwpoison pages\n"
-" -x|--unpoison unpoison pages\n"
-" -h|--help Show this usage message\n"
-" 0x10 bitfield format, e.g.\n"
-" anon bit-name, e.g.\n"
-" 0x10,anon comma-separated list, e.g.\n"
-" N one page at offset N (unit: pages)\n"
-" N+M pages range from N to N+M-1\n"
-" N,M pages range from N to M-1\n"
-" N, pages range from N to end\n"
-" ,M pages range from 0 to M-1\n"
-" bit1,bit2 (flags & (bit1|bit2)) != 0\n"
-" bit1,bit2=bit1 (flags & (bit1|bit2)) == bit1\n"
-" bit1,~bit2 (flags & (bit1|bit2)) == bit1\n"
-" =bit1,bit2 flags == (bit1|bit2)\n"
- );
- for (i = 0, j = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flag_names); i++) {
- if (!page_flag_names[i])
- continue;
- printf("%16s%s", page_flag_names[i] + 2,
- page_flag_type(1ULL << i));
- if (++j > 3) {
- j = 0;
- putchar('\n');
- }
- }
- printf("\n "
- "(r) raw mode bits (o) overloaded bits\n");
-static unsigned long long parse_number(const char *str)
- unsigned long long n;
- n = strtoll(str, NULL, 0);
- if (n == 0 && str[0] != '0')
- fatal("invalid name or number: %s\n", str);
- return n;
-static void parse_pid(const char *str)
- FILE *file;
- char buf[5000];
- opt_pid = parse_number(str);
- sprintf(buf, "/proc/%d/pagemap", opt_pid);
- pagemap_fd = checked_open(buf, O_RDONLY);
- sprintf(buf, "/proc/%d/maps", opt_pid);
- file = fopen(buf, "r");
- if (!file) {
- perror(buf);
- }
- while (fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file) != NULL) {
- unsigned long vm_start;
- unsigned long vm_end;
- unsigned long long pgoff;
- int major, minor;
- char r, w, x, s;
- unsigned long ino;
- int n;
- n = sscanf(buf, "%lx-%lx %c%c%c%c %llx %x:%x %lu",
- &vm_start,
- &vm_end,
- &r, &w, &x, &s,
- &pgoff,
- &major, &minor,
- &ino);
- if (n < 10) {
- fprintf(stderr, "unexpected line: %s\n", buf);
- continue;
- }
- pg_start[nr_vmas] = vm_start / page_size;
- pg_end[nr_vmas] = vm_end / page_size;
- if (++nr_vmas >= MAX_VMAS) {
- fprintf(stderr, "too many VMAs\n");
- break;
- }
- }
- fclose(file);
-static void parse_file(const char *name)
-static void parse_addr_range(const char *optarg)
- unsigned long offset;
- unsigned long size;
- char *p;
- p = strchr(optarg, ',');
- if (!p)
- p = strchr(optarg, '+');
- if (p == optarg) {
- offset = 0;
- size = parse_number(p + 1);
- } else if (p) {
- offset = parse_number(optarg);
- if (p[1] == '\0')
- size = ULONG_MAX;
- else {
- size = parse_number(p + 1);
- if (*p == ',') {
- if (size < offset)
- fatal("invalid range: %lu,%lu\n",
- offset, size);
- size -= offset;
- }
- }
- } else {
- offset = parse_number(optarg);
- size = 1;
- }
- add_addr_range(offset, size);
-static void add_bits_filter(uint64_t mask, uint64_t bits)
- if (nr_bit_filters >= MAX_BIT_FILTERS)
- fatal("too much bit filters\n");
- opt_mask[nr_bit_filters] = mask;
- opt_bits[nr_bit_filters] = bits;
- nr_bit_filters++;
-static uint64_t parse_flag_name(const char *str, int len)
- int i;
- if (!*str || !len)
- return 0;
- if (len <= 8 && !strncmp(str, "compound", len))
- for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flag_names); i++) {
- if (!page_flag_names[i])
- continue;
- if (!strncmp(str, page_flag_names[i] + 2, len))
- return 1ULL << i;
- }
- return parse_number(str);
-static uint64_t parse_flag_names(const char *str, int all)
- const char *p = str;
- uint64_t flags = 0;
- while (1) {
- if (*p == ',' || *p == '=' || *p == '\0') {
- if ((*str != '~') || (*str == '~' && all && *++str))
- flags |= parse_flag_name(str, p - str);
- if (*p != ',')
- break;
- str = p + 1;
- }
- p++;
- }
- return flags;
-static void parse_bits_mask(const char *optarg)
- uint64_t mask;
- uint64_t bits;
- const char *p;
- p = strchr(optarg, '=');
- if (p == optarg) {
- mask = KPF_ALL_BITS;
- bits = parse_flag_names(p + 1, 0);
- } else if (p) {
- mask = parse_flag_names(optarg, 0);
- bits = parse_flag_names(p + 1, 0);
- } else if (strchr(optarg, '~')) {
- mask = parse_flag_names(optarg, 1);
- bits = parse_flag_names(optarg, 0);
- } else {
- mask = parse_flag_names(optarg, 0);
- bits = KPF_ALL_BITS;
- }
- add_bits_filter(mask, bits);
-static void describe_flags(const char *optarg)
- uint64_t flags = parse_flag_names(optarg, 0);
- printf("0x%016llx\t%s\t%s\n",
- (unsigned long long)flags,
- page_flag_name(flags),
- page_flag_longname(flags));
-static const struct option opts[] = {
- { "raw" , 0, NULL, 'r' },
- { "pid" , 1, NULL, 'p' },
- { "file" , 1, NULL, 'f' },
- { "addr" , 1, NULL, 'a' },
- { "bits" , 1, NULL, 'b' },
- { "describe" , 1, NULL, 'd' },
- { "list" , 0, NULL, 'l' },
- { "list-each" , 0, NULL, 'L' },
- { "no-summary", 0, NULL, 'N' },
- { "hwpoison" , 0, NULL, 'X' },
- { "unpoison" , 0, NULL, 'x' },
- { "help" , 0, NULL, 'h' },
- { NULL , 0, NULL, 0 }
-int main(int argc, char *argv[])
- int c;
- page_size = getpagesize();
- while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv,
- "rp:f:a:b:d:lLNXxh", opts, NULL)) != -1) {
- switch (c) {
- case 'r':
- opt_raw = 1;
- break;
- case 'p':
- parse_pid(optarg);
- break;
- case 'f':
- parse_file(optarg);
- break;
- case 'a':
- parse_addr_range(optarg);
- break;
- case 'b':
- parse_bits_mask(optarg);
- break;
- case 'd':
- describe_flags(optarg);
- exit(0);
- case 'l':
- opt_list = 1;
- break;
- case 'L':
- opt_list = 2;
- break;
- case 'N':
- opt_no_summary = 1;
- break;
- case 'X':
- opt_hwpoison = 1;
- prepare_hwpoison_fd();
- break;
- case 'x':
- opt_unpoison = 1;
- prepare_hwpoison_fd();
- break;
- case 'h':
- usage();
- exit(0);
- default:
- usage();
- exit(1);
- }
- }
- if (opt_list && opt_pid)
- printf("voffset\t");
- if (opt_list == 1)
- printf("offset\tlen\tflags\n");
- if (opt_list == 2)
- printf("offset\tflags\n");
- walk_addr_ranges();
- if (opt_list == 1)
- show_page_range(0, 0, 0); /* drain the buffer */
- if (opt_no_summary)
- return 0;
- if (opt_list)
- printf("\n\n");
- show_summary();
- return 0;
diff --git a/Documentation/watchdog/00-INDEX b/Documentation/watchdog/00-INDEX
deleted file mode 100644
index fc9082a1477..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/watchdog/00-INDEX
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,19 +0,0 @@
- - this file.
- - how-to for converting old watchdog drivers to the new kernel API.
- - information on the HP iLO2 NMI watchdog
- - documentation for Berkshire Products PC Watchdog ISA cards.
- - directory holding watchdog related example programs.
- - description of the Linux Watchdog driver API.
- - description of the Linux WatchDog Timer Driver Core kernel API.
- - information on driver parameters (for drivers other than
- the ones that have driver-specific files here)
- - description of the Watchdog Timer Interfaces for Linux.
diff --git a/Documentation/watchdog/convert_drivers_to_kernel_api.txt b/Documentation/watchdog/convert_drivers_to_kernel_api.txt
index be8119bb15d..271b8850dde 100644
--- a/Documentation/watchdog/convert_drivers_to_kernel_api.txt
+++ b/Documentation/watchdog/convert_drivers_to_kernel_api.txt
@@ -59,6 +59,10 @@ Here is a overview of the functions and probably needed actions:
No preparations needed
+ It needs get_timeleft() callback to be defined. Otherwise it
+ will return EOPNOTSUPP
Other IOCTLs can be served using the ioctl-callback. Note that this is mainly
intended for porting old drivers; new drivers should not invent private IOCTLs.
Private IOCTLs are processed first. When the callback returns with
diff --git a/Documentation/watchdog/watchdog-kernel-api.txt b/Documentation/watchdog/watchdog-kernel-api.txt
index 9e162465b0c..227f6cd0e5f 100644
--- a/Documentation/watchdog/watchdog-kernel-api.txt
+++ b/Documentation/watchdog/watchdog-kernel-api.txt
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
The Linux WatchDog Timer Driver Core kernel API.
-Last reviewed: 29-Nov-2011
+Last reviewed: 16-Mar-2012
Wim Van Sebroeck <wim@iguana.be>
@@ -77,6 +77,7 @@ struct watchdog_ops {
int (*ping)(struct watchdog_device *);
unsigned int (*status)(struct watchdog_device *);
int (*set_timeout)(struct watchdog_device *, unsigned int);
+ unsigned int (*get_timeleft)(struct watchdog_device *);
long (*ioctl)(struct watchdog_device *, unsigned int, unsigned long);
@@ -117,11 +118,13 @@ they are supported. These optional routines/operations are:
status of the device is reported with watchdog WDIOF_* status flags/bits.
* set_timeout: this routine checks and changes the timeout of the watchdog
timer device. It returns 0 on success, -EINVAL for "parameter out of range"
- and -EIO for "could not write value to the watchdog". On success the timeout
- value of the watchdog_device will be changed to the value that was just used
- to re-program the watchdog timer device.
+ and -EIO for "could not write value to the watchdog". On success this
+ routine should set the timeout value of the watchdog_device to the
+ achieved timeout value (which may be different from the requested one
+ because the watchdog does not necessarily has a 1 second resolution).
(Note: the WDIOF_SETTIMEOUT needs to be set in the options field of the
watchdog's info structure).
+* get_timeleft: this routines returns the time that's left before a reset.
* ioctl: if this routine is present then it will be called first before we do
our own internal ioctl call handling. This routine should return -ENOIOCTLCMD
if a command is not supported. The parameters that are passed to the ioctl