path: root/Documentation
diff options
authorLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2014-04-02 16:24:28 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2014-04-02 16:24:28 -0700
commit0f1b1e6d73cb989ce2c071edc57deade3b084dfe (patch)
tree1bd8f2d3ea66dbc3fadd9a9ca522caa99d9b5277 /Documentation
parent159d8133d0b54a501a41a66fe3a0e7d16405e36d (diff)
parent3ae821effdfea47dcb36b52e0a8dffd9757a96a6 (diff)
Merge branch 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/jikos/hid
Pull HID updates from Jiri Kosina: - substantial cleanup of the generic and transport layers, in the direction of an ultimate goal of making struct hid_device completely transport independent, by Benjamin Tissoires - cp2112 driver from David Barksdale - a lot of fixes and new hardware support (Dualshock 4) to hid-sony driver, by Frank Praznik - support for Win 8.1 multitouch protocol by Andrew Duggan - other smaller fixes / device ID additions * 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/jikos/hid: (75 commits) HID: sony: fix force feedback mismerge HID: sony: Set the quriks flag for Bluetooth controllers HID: sony: Fix Sixaxis cable state detection HID: uhid: Add UHID_CREATE2 + UHID_INPUT2 HID: hyperv: fix _raw_request() prototype HID: hyperv: Implement a stub raw_request() entry point HID: hid-sensor-hub: fix sleeping function called from invalid context HID: multitouch: add support for Win 8.1 multitouch touchpads HID: remove hid_output_raw_report transport implementations HID: sony: do not rely on hid_output_raw_report HID: cp2112: remove the last hid_output_raw_report() call HID: cp2112: remove various hid_out_raw_report calls HID: multitouch: add support of other generic collections in hid-mt HID: multitouch: remove pen special handling HID: multitouch: remove registered devices with default behavior HID: hidp: Add a comment that some devices depend on the current behavior of uniq HID: sony: Prevent duplicate controller connections. HID: sony: Perform a boundry check on the sixaxis battery level index. HID: sony: Fix work queue issues HID: sony: Fix multi-line comment styling ...
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
2 files changed, 328 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/hid/hid-transport.txt b/Documentation/hid/hid-transport.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..3dcba9fd4a3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/hid/hid-transport.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,317 @@
+ HID I/O Transport Drivers
+ ===========================
+The HID subsystem is independent of the underlying transport driver. Initially,
+only USB was supported, but other specifications adopted the HID design and
+provided new transport drivers. The kernel includes at least support for USB,
+Bluetooth, I2C and user-space I/O drivers.
+1) HID Bus
+The HID subsystem is designed as a bus. Any I/O subsystem may provide HID
+devices and register them with the HID bus. HID core then loads generic device
+drivers on top of it. The transport drivers are responsible of raw data
+transport and device setup/management. HID core is responsible of
+report-parsing, report interpretation and the user-space API. Device specifics
+and quirks are handled by all layers depending on the quirk.
+ +-----------+ +-----------+ +-----------+ +-----------+
+ | Device #1 | | Device #i | | Device #j | | Device #k |
+ +-----------+ +-----------+ +-----------+ +-----------+
+ \\ // \\ //
+ +------------+ +------------+
+ | I/O Driver | | I/O Driver |
+ +------------+ +------------+
+ || ||
+ +------------------+ +------------------+
+ | Transport Driver | | Transport Driver |
+ +------------------+ +------------------+
+ \___ ___/
+ \ /
+ +----------------+
+ | HID Core |
+ +----------------+
+ / | | \
+ / | | \
+ ____________/ | | \_________________
+ / | | \
+ / | | \
+ +----------------+ +-----------+ +------------------+ +------------------+
+ | Generic Driver | | MT Driver | | Custom Driver #1 | | Custom Driver #2 |
+ +----------------+ +-----------+ +------------------+ +------------------+
+Example Drivers:
+ I/O: USB, I2C, Bluetooth-l2cap
+ Transport: USB-HID, I2C-HID, BT-HIDP
+Everything below "HID Core" is simplified in this graph as it is only of
+interest to HID device drivers. Transport drivers do not need to know the
+1.1) Device Setup
+I/O drivers normally provide hotplug detection or device enumeration APIs to the
+transport drivers. Transport drivers use this to find any suitable HID device.
+They allocate HID device objects and register them with HID core. Transport
+drivers are not required to register themselves with HID core. HID core is never
+aware of which transport drivers are available and is not interested in it. It
+is only interested in devices.
+Transport drivers attach a constant "struct hid_ll_driver" object with each
+device. Once a device is registered with HID core, the callbacks provided via
+this struct are used by HID core to communicate with the device.
+Transport drivers are responsible of detecting device failures and unplugging.
+HID core will operate a device as long as it is registered regardless of any
+device failures. Once transport drivers detect unplug or failure events, they
+must unregister the device from HID core and HID core will stop using the
+provided callbacks.
+1.2) Transport Driver Requirements
+The terms "asynchronous" and "synchronous" in this document describe the
+transmission behavior regarding acknowledgements. An asynchronous channel must
+not perform any synchronous operations like waiting for acknowledgements or
+verifications. Generally, HID calls operating on asynchronous channels must be
+running in atomic-context just fine.
+On the other hand, synchronous channels can be implemented by the transport
+driver in whatever way they like. They might just be the same as asynchronous
+channels, but they can also provide acknowledgement reports, automatic
+retransmission on failure, etc. in a blocking manner. If such functionality is
+required on asynchronous channels, a transport-driver must implement that via
+its own worker threads.
+HID core requires transport drivers to follow a given design. A Transport
+driver must provide two bi-directional I/O channels to each HID device. These
+channels must not necessarily be bi-directional in the hardware itself. A
+transport driver might just provide 4 uni-directional channels. Or it might
+multiplex all four on a single physical channel. However, in this document we
+will describe them as two bi-directional channels as they have several
+properties in common.
+ - Interrupt Channel (intr): The intr channel is used for asynchronous data
+ reports. No management commands or data acknowledgements are sent on this
+ channel. Any unrequested incoming or outgoing data report must be sent on
+ this channel and is never acknowledged by the remote side. Devices usually
+ send their input events on this channel. Outgoing events are normally
+ not send via intr, except if high throughput is required.
+ - Control Channel (ctrl): The ctrl channel is used for synchronous requests and
+ device management. Unrequested data input events must not be sent on this
+ channel and are normally ignored. Instead, devices only send management
+ events or answers to host requests on this channel.
+ The control-channel is used for direct blocking queries to the device
+ independent of any events on the intr-channel.
+ Outgoing reports are usually sent on the ctrl channel via synchronous
+ SET_REPORT requests.
+Communication between devices and HID core is mostly done via HID reports. A
+report can be of one of three types:
+ - INPUT Report: Input reports provide data from device to host. This
+ data may include button events, axis events, battery status or more. This
+ data is generated by the device and sent to the host with or without
+ requiring explicit requests. Devices can choose to send data continuously or
+ only on change.
+ - OUTPUT Report: Output reports change device states. They are sent from host
+ to device and may include LED requests, rumble requests or more. Output
+ reports are never sent from device to host, but a host can retrieve their
+ current state.
+ Hosts may choose to send output reports either continuously or only on
+ change.
+ - FEATURE Report: Feature reports are used for specific static device features
+ and never reported spontaneously. A host can read and/or write them to access
+ data like battery-state or device-settings.
+ Feature reports are never sent without requests. A host must explicitly set
+ or retrieve a feature report. This also means, feature reports are never sent
+ on the intr channel as this channel is asynchronous.
+INPUT and OUTPUT reports can be sent as pure data reports on the intr channel.
+For INPUT reports this is the usual operational mode. But for OUTPUT reports,
+this is rarely done as OUTPUT reports are normally quite scarce. But devices are
+free to make excessive use of asynchronous OUTPUT reports (for instance, custom
+HID audio speakers make great use of it).
+Plain reports must not be sent on the ctrl channel, though. Instead, the ctrl
+channel provides synchronous GET/SET_REPORT requests. Plain reports are only
+allowed on the intr channel and are the only means of data there.
+ - GET_REPORT: A GET_REPORT request has a report ID as payload and is sent
+ from host to device. The device must answer with a data report for the
+ requested report ID on the ctrl channel as a synchronous acknowledgement.
+ Only one GET_REPORT request can be pending for each device. This restriction
+ is enforced by HID core as several transport drivers don't allow multiple
+ simultaneous GET_REPORT requests.
+ Note that data reports which are sent as answer to a GET_REPORT request are
+ not handled as generic device events. That is, if a device does not operate
+ in continuous data reporting mode, an answer to GET_REPORT does not replace
+ the raw data report on the intr channel on state change.
+ GET_REPORT is only used by custom HID device drivers to query device state.
+ Normally, HID core caches any device state so this request is not necessary
+ on devices that follow the HID specs except during device initialization to
+ retrieve the current state.
+ GET_REPORT requests can be sent for any of the 3 report types and shall
+ return the current report state of the device. However, OUTPUT reports as
+ payload may be blocked by the underlying transport driver if the
+ specification does not allow them.
+ - SET_REPORT: A SET_REPORT request has a report ID plus data as payload. It is
+ sent from host to device and a device must update it's current report state
+ according to the given data. Any of the 3 report types can be used. However,
+ INPUT reports as payload might be blocked by the underlying transport driver
+ if the specification does not allow them.
+ A device must answer with a synchronous acknowledgement. However, HID core
+ does not require transport drivers to forward this acknowledgement to HID
+ core.
+ Same as for GET_REPORT, only one SET_REPORT can be pending at a time. This
+ restriction is enforced by HID core as some transport drivers do not support
+ multiple synchronous SET_REPORT requests.
+Other ctrl-channel requests are supported by USB-HID but are not available
+(or deprecated) in most other transport level specifications:
+ - GET/SET_IDLE: Only used by USB-HID and I2C-HID.
+ - GET/SET_PROTOCOL: Not used by HID core.
+ - RESET: Used by I2C-HID, not hooked up in HID core.
+ - SET_POWER: Used by I2C-HID, not hooked up in HID core.
+2.1) Initialization
+Transport drivers normally use the following procedure to register a new device
+with HID core:
+ struct hid_device *hid;
+ int ret;
+ hid = hid_allocate_device();
+ if (IS_ERR(hid)) {
+ ret = PTR_ERR(hid);
+ goto err_<...>;
+ }
+ strlcpy(hid->name, <device-name-src>, 127);
+ strlcpy(hid->phys, <device-phys-src>, 63);
+ strlcpy(hid->uniq, <device-uniq-src>, 63);
+ hid->ll_driver = &custom_ll_driver;
+ hid->bus = <device-bus>;
+ hid->vendor = <device-vendor>;
+ hid->product = <device-product>;
+ hid->version = <device-version>;
+ hid->country = <device-country>;
+ hid->dev.parent = <pointer-to-parent-device>;
+ hid->driver_data = <transport-driver-data-field>;
+ ret = hid_add_device(hid);
+ if (ret)
+ goto err_<...>;
+Once hid_add_device() is entered, HID core might use the callbacks provided in
+"custom_ll_driver". Note that fields like "country" can be ignored by underlying
+transport-drivers if not supported.
+To unregister a device, use:
+ hid_destroy_device(hid);
+Once hid_destroy_device() returns, HID core will no longer make use of any
+driver callbacks.
+2.2) hid_ll_driver operations
+The available HID callbacks are:
+ - int (*start) (struct hid_device *hdev)
+ Called from HID device drivers once they want to use the device. Transport
+ drivers can choose to setup their device in this callback. However, normally
+ devices are already set up before transport drivers register them to HID core
+ so this is mostly only used by USB-HID.
+ - void (*stop) (struct hid_device *hdev)
+ Called from HID device drivers once they are done with a device. Transport
+ drivers can free any buffers and deinitialize the device. But note that
+ ->start() might be called again if another HID device driver is loaded on the
+ device.
+ Transport drivers are free to ignore it and deinitialize devices after they
+ destroyed them via hid_destroy_device().
+ - int (*open) (struct hid_device *hdev)
+ Called from HID device drivers once they are interested in data reports.
+ Usually, while user-space didn't open any input API/etc., device drivers are
+ not interested in device data and transport drivers can put devices asleep.
+ However, once ->open() is called, transport drivers must be ready for I/O.
+ ->open() calls are nested for each client that opens the HID device.
+ - void (*close) (struct hid_device *hdev)
+ Called from HID device drivers after ->open() was called but they are no
+ longer interested in device reports. (Usually if user-space closed any input
+ devices of the driver).
+ Transport drivers can put devices asleep and terminate any I/O of all
+ ->open() calls have been followed by a ->close() call. However, ->start() may
+ be called again if the device driver is interested in input reports again.
+ - int (*parse) (struct hid_device *hdev)
+ Called once during device setup after ->start() has been called. Transport
+ drivers must read the HID report-descriptor from the device and tell HID core
+ about it via hid_parse_report().
+ - int (*power) (struct hid_device *hdev, int level)
+ Called by HID core to give PM hints to transport drivers. Usually this is
+ analogical to the ->open() and ->close() hints and redundant.
+ - void (*request) (struct hid_device *hdev, struct hid_report *report,
+ int reqtype)
+ Send an HID request on the ctrl channel. "report" contains the report that
+ should be sent and "reqtype" the request type. Request-type can be
+ This callback is optional. If not provided, HID core will assemble a raw
+ report following the HID specs and send it via the ->raw_request() callback.
+ The transport driver is free to implement this asynchronously.
+ - int (*wait) (struct hid_device *hdev)
+ Used by HID core before calling ->request() again. A transport driver can use
+ it to wait for any pending requests to complete if only one request is
+ allowed at a time.
+ - int (*raw_request) (struct hid_device *hdev, unsigned char reportnum,
+ __u8 *buf, size_t count, unsigned char rtype,
+ int reqtype)
+ Same as ->request() but provides the report as raw buffer. This request shall
+ be synchronous. A transport driver must not use ->wait() to complete such
+ requests. This request is mandatory and hid core will reject the device if
+ it is missing.
+ - int (*output_report) (struct hid_device *hdev, __u8 *buf, size_t len)
+ Send raw output report via intr channel. Used by some HID device drivers
+ which require high throughput for outgoing requests on the intr channel. This
+ must not cause SET_REPORT calls! This must be implemented as asynchronous
+ output report on the intr channel!
+ - int (*idle) (struct hid_device *hdev, int report, int idle, int reqtype)
+ Perform SET/GET_IDLE request. Only used by USB-HID, do not implement!
+2.3) Data Path
+Transport drivers are responsible of reading data from I/O devices. They must
+handle any I/O-related state-tracking themselves. HID core does not implement
+protocol handshakes or other management commands which can be required by the
+given HID transport specification.
+Every raw data packet read from a device must be fed into HID core via
+hid_input_report(). You must specify the channel-type (intr or ctrl) and report
+type (input/output/feature). Under normal conditions, only input reports are
+provided via this API.
+Responses to GET_REPORT requests via ->request() must also be provided via this
+API. Responses to ->raw_request() are synchronous and must be intercepted by the
+transport driver and not passed to hid_input_report().
+Acknowledgements to SET_REPORT requests are not of interest to HID core.
+Written 2013, David Herrmann <dh.herrmann@gmail.com>
diff --git a/Documentation/hid/uhid.txt b/Documentation/hid/uhid.txt
index dc35a2b75ee..ee6593608c8 100644
--- a/Documentation/hid/uhid.txt
+++ b/Documentation/hid/uhid.txt
@@ -93,6 +93,11 @@ the request was handled successfully.
event to the kernel. The payload is of type struct uhid_create_req and
contains information about your device. You can start I/O now.
+ Same as UHID_CREATE, but the HID report descriptor data (rd_data) is an array
+ inside struct uhid_create2_req, instead of a pointer to a separate array.
+ Enables use from languages that don't support pointers, e.g. Python.
This destroys the internal HID device. No further I/O will be accepted. There
may still be pending messages that you can receive with read() but no further
@@ -105,6 +110,12 @@ the request was handled successfully.
contains a data-payload. This is the raw data that you read from your device.
The kernel will parse the HID reports and react on it.
+ Same as UHID_INPUT, but the data array is the last field of uhid_input2_req.
+ Enables userspace to write only the required bytes to kernel (ev.type +
+ ev.u.input2.size + the part of the data array that matters), instead of
+ the entire struct uhid_input2_req.
If you receive a UHID_FEATURE request you must answer with this request. You
must copy the "id" field from the request into the answer. Set the "err" field