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authorMauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab@s-opensource.com>2016-09-21 09:51:11 -0300
committerMauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab@s-opensource.com>2016-10-24 08:12:35 -0200
commit9d85025b0418163fae079c9ba8f8445212de8568 (patch)
tree4629e2dedf4a9ed45a6855c129101f9b52138372 /README
parent186128f75392f8478ad1b32a675627d738881ca4 (diff)
download96b-common-9d85025b0418163fae079c9ba8f8445212de8568.tar.gz
docs-rst: create an user's manual book
Place README, REPORTING-BUGS, SecurityBugs and kernel-parameters on an user's manual book. As we'll be numbering the user's manual, remove the manual numbering from SecurityBugs. Signed-off-by: Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab@s-opensource.com>
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-Linux kernel release 4.x <http://kernel.org/>
-=============================================
-
-These are the release notes for Linux version 4. Read them carefully,
-as they tell you what this is all about, explain how to install the
-kernel, and what to do if something goes wrong.
-
-What is Linux?
---------------
-
- Linux is a clone of the operating system Unix, written from scratch by
- Linus Torvalds with assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across
- the Net. It aims towards POSIX and Single UNIX Specification compliance.
-
- It has all the features you would expect in a modern fully-fledged Unix,
- including true multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries, demand
- loading, shared copy-on-write executables, proper memory management,
- and multistack networking including IPv4 and IPv6.
-
- It is distributed under the GNU General Public License - see the
- accompanying COPYING file for more details.
-
-On what hardware does it run?
------------------------------
-
- Although originally developed first for 32-bit x86-based PCs (386 or higher),
- today Linux also runs on (at least) the Compaq Alpha AXP, Sun SPARC and
- UltraSPARC, Motorola 68000, PowerPC, PowerPC64, ARM, Hitachi SuperH, Cell,
- IBM S/390, MIPS, HP PA-RISC, Intel IA-64, DEC VAX, AMD x86-64, AXIS CRIS,
- Xtensa, Tilera TILE, AVR32, ARC and Renesas M32R architectures.
-
- Linux is easily portable to most general-purpose 32- or 64-bit architectures
- as long as they have a paged memory management unit (PMMU) and a port of the
- GNU C compiler (gcc) (part of The GNU Compiler Collection, GCC). Linux has
- also been ported to a number of architectures without a PMMU, although
- functionality is then obviously somewhat limited.
- Linux has also been ported to itself. You can now run the kernel as a
- userspace application - this is called UserMode Linux (UML).
-
-Documentation
--------------
-
- - There is a lot of documentation available both in electronic form on
- the Internet and in books, both Linux-specific and pertaining to
- general UNIX questions. I'd recommend looking into the documentation
- subdirectories on any Linux FTP site for the LDP (Linux Documentation
- Project) books. This README is not meant to be documentation on the
- system: there are much better sources available.
-
- - There are various README files in the Documentation/ subdirectory:
- these typically contain kernel-specific installation notes for some
- drivers for example. See Documentation/00-INDEX for a list of what
- is contained in each file. Please read the Changes file, as it
- contains information about the problems, which may result by upgrading
- your kernel.
-
- - The Documentation/DocBook/ subdirectory contains several guides for
- kernel developers and users. These guides can be rendered in a
- number of formats: PostScript (.ps), PDF, HTML, & man-pages, among others.
- After installation, ``make psdocs``, ``make pdfdocs``, ``make htmldocs``,
- or ``make mandocs`` will render the documentation in the requested format.
-
-Installing the kernel source
-----------------------------
-
- - If you install the full sources, put the kernel tarball in a
- directory where you have permissions (e.g. your home directory) and
- unpack it::
-
- xz -cd linux-4.X.tar.xz | tar xvf -
-
- Replace "X" with the version number of the latest kernel.
-
- Do NOT use the /usr/src/linux area! This area has a (usually
- incomplete) set of kernel headers that are used by the library header
- files. They should match the library, and not get messed up by
- whatever the kernel-du-jour happens to be.
-
- - You can also upgrade between 4.x releases by patching. Patches are
- distributed in the xz format. To install by patching, get all the
- newer patch files, enter the top level directory of the kernel source
- (linux-4.X) and execute::
-
- xz -cd ../patch-4.x.xz | patch -p1
-
- Replace "x" for all versions bigger than the version "X" of your current
- source tree, **in_order**, and you should be ok. You may want to remove
- the backup files (some-file-name~ or some-file-name.orig), and make sure
- that there are no failed patches (some-file-name# or some-file-name.rej).
- If there are, either you or I have made a mistake.
-
- Unlike patches for the 4.x kernels, patches for the 4.x.y kernels
- (also known as the -stable kernels) are not incremental but instead apply
- directly to the base 4.x kernel. For example, if your base kernel is 4.0
- and you want to apply the 4.0.3 patch, you must not first apply the 4.0.1
- and 4.0.2 patches. Similarly, if you are running kernel version 4.0.2 and
- want to jump to 4.0.3, you must first reverse the 4.0.2 patch (that is,
- patch -R) **before** applying the 4.0.3 patch. You can read more on this in
- :ref:`Documentation/applying-patches.txt <applying_patches>`.
-
- Alternatively, the script patch-kernel can be used to automate this
- process. It determines the current kernel version and applies any
- patches found::
-
- linux/scripts/patch-kernel linux
-
- The first argument in the command above is the location of the
- kernel source. Patches are applied from the current directory, but
- an alternative directory can be specified as the second argument.
-
- - Make sure you have no stale .o files and dependencies lying around::
-
- cd linux
- make mrproper
-
- You should now have the sources correctly installed.
-
-Software requirements
----------------------
-
- Compiling and running the 4.x kernels requires up-to-date
- versions of various software packages. Consult
- :ref:`Documentation/Changes <changes>` for the minimum version numbers
- required and how to get updates for these packages. Beware that using
- excessively old versions of these packages can cause indirect
- errors that are very difficult to track down, so don't assume that
- you can just update packages when obvious problems arise during
- build or operation.
-
-Build directory for the kernel
-------------------------------
-
- When compiling the kernel, all output files will per default be
- stored together with the kernel source code.
- Using the option ``make O=output/dir`` allows you to specify an alternate
- place for the output files (including .config).
- Example::
-
- kernel source code: /usr/src/linux-4.X
- build directory: /home/name/build/kernel
-
- To configure and build the kernel, use::
-
- cd /usr/src/linux-4.X
- make O=/home/name/build/kernel menuconfig
- make O=/home/name/build/kernel
- sudo make O=/home/name/build/kernel modules_install install
-
- Please note: If the ``O=output/dir`` option is used, then it must be
- used for all invocations of make.
-
-Configuring the kernel
-----------------------
-
- Do not skip this step even if you are only upgrading one minor
- version. New configuration options are added in each release, and
- odd problems will turn up if the configuration files are not set up
- as expected. If you want to carry your existing configuration to a
- new version with minimal work, use ``make oldconfig``, which will
- only ask you for the answers to new questions.
-
- - Alternative configuration commands are::
-
- "make config" Plain text interface.
-
- "make menuconfig" Text based color menus, radiolists & dialogs.
-
- "make nconfig" Enhanced text based color menus.
-
- "make xconfig" Qt based configuration tool.
-
- "make gconfig" GTK+ based configuration tool.
-
- "make oldconfig" Default all questions based on the contents of
- your existing ./.config file and asking about
- new config symbols.
-
- "make silentoldconfig"
- Like above, but avoids cluttering the screen
- with questions already answered.
- Additionally updates the dependencies.
-
- "make olddefconfig"
- Like above, but sets new symbols to their default
- values without prompting.
-
- "make defconfig" Create a ./.config file by using the default
- symbol values from either arch/$ARCH/defconfig
- or arch/$ARCH/configs/${PLATFORM}_defconfig,
- depending on the architecture.
-
- "make ${PLATFORM}_defconfig"
- Create a ./.config file by using the default
- symbol values from
- arch/$ARCH/configs/${PLATFORM}_defconfig.
- Use "make help" to get a list of all available
- platforms of your architecture.
-
- "make allyesconfig"
- Create a ./.config file by setting symbol
- values to 'y' as much as possible.
-
- "make allmodconfig"
- Create a ./.config file by setting symbol
- values to 'm' as much as possible.
-
- "make allnoconfig" Create a ./.config file by setting symbol
- values to 'n' as much as possible.
-
- "make randconfig" Create a ./.config file by setting symbol
- values to random values.
-
- "make localmodconfig" Create a config based on current config and
- loaded modules (lsmod). Disables any module
- option that is not needed for the loaded modules.
-
- To create a localmodconfig for another machine,
- store the lsmod of that machine into a file
- and pass it in as a LSMOD parameter.
-
- target$ lsmod > /tmp/mylsmod
- target$ scp /tmp/mylsmod host:/tmp
-
- host$ make LSMOD=/tmp/mylsmod localmodconfig
-
- The above also works when cross compiling.
-
- "make localyesconfig" Similar to localmodconfig, except it will convert
- all module options to built in (=y) options.
-
- You can find more information on using the Linux kernel config tools
- in Documentation/kbuild/kconfig.txt.
-
- - NOTES on ``make config``:
-
- - Having unnecessary drivers will make the kernel bigger, and can
- under some circumstances lead to problems: probing for a
- nonexistent controller card may confuse your other controllers
-
- - A kernel with math-emulation compiled in will still use the
- coprocessor if one is present: the math emulation will just
- never get used in that case. The kernel will be slightly larger,
- but will work on different machines regardless of whether they
- have a math coprocessor or not.
-
- - The "kernel hacking" configuration details usually result in a
- bigger or slower kernel (or both), and can even make the kernel
- less stable by configuring some routines to actively try to
- break bad code to find kernel problems (kmalloc()). Thus you
- should probably answer 'n' to the questions for "development",
- "experimental", or "debugging" features.
-
-Compiling the kernel
---------------------
-
- - Make sure you have at least gcc 3.2 available.
- For more information, refer to :ref:`Documentation/Changes <changes>`.
-
- Please note that you can still run a.out user programs with this kernel.
-
- - Do a ``make`` to create a compressed kernel image. It is also
- possible to do ``make install`` if you have lilo installed to suit the
- kernel makefiles, but you may want to check your particular lilo setup first.
-
- To do the actual install, you have to be root, but none of the normal
- build should require that. Don't take the name of root in vain.
-
- - If you configured any of the parts of the kernel as ``modules``, you
- will also have to do ``make modules_install``.
-
- - Verbose kernel compile/build output:
-
- Normally, the kernel build system runs in a fairly quiet mode (but not
- totally silent). However, sometimes you or other kernel developers need
- to see compile, link, or other commands exactly as they are executed.
- For this, use "verbose" build mode. This is done by passing
- ``V=1`` to the ``make`` command, e.g.::
-
- make V=1 all
-
- To have the build system also tell the reason for the rebuild of each
- target, use ``V=2``. The default is ``V=0``.
-
- - Keep a backup kernel handy in case something goes wrong. This is
- especially true for the development releases, since each new release
- contains new code which has not been debugged. Make sure you keep a
- backup of the modules corresponding to that kernel, as well. If you
- are installing a new kernel with the same version number as your
- working kernel, make a backup of your modules directory before you
- do a ``make modules_install``.
-
- Alternatively, before compiling, use the kernel config option
- "LOCALVERSION" to append a unique suffix to the regular kernel version.
- LOCALVERSION can be set in the "General Setup" menu.
-
- - In order to boot your new kernel, you'll need to copy the kernel
- image (e.g. .../linux/arch/x86/boot/bzImage after compilation)
- to the place where your regular bootable kernel is found.
-
- - Booting a kernel directly from a floppy without the assistance of a
- bootloader such as LILO, is no longer supported.
-
- If you boot Linux from the hard drive, chances are you use LILO, which
- uses the kernel image as specified in the file /etc/lilo.conf. The
- kernel image file is usually /vmlinuz, /boot/vmlinuz, /bzImage or
- /boot/bzImage. To use the new kernel, save a copy of the old image
- and copy the new image over the old one. Then, you MUST RERUN LILO
- to update the loading map! If you don't, you won't be able to boot
- the new kernel image.
-
- Reinstalling LILO is usually a matter of running /sbin/lilo.
- You may wish to edit /etc/lilo.conf to specify an entry for your
- old kernel image (say, /vmlinux.old) in case the new one does not
- work. See the LILO docs for more information.
-
- After reinstalling LILO, you should be all set. Shutdown the system,
- reboot, and enjoy!
-
- If you ever need to change the default root device, video mode,
- ramdisk size, etc. in the kernel image, use the ``rdev`` program (or
- alternatively the LILO boot options when appropriate). No need to
- recompile the kernel to change these parameters.
-
- - Reboot with the new kernel and enjoy.
-
-If something goes wrong
------------------------
-
- - If you have problems that seem to be due to kernel bugs, please check
- the file MAINTAINERS to see if there is a particular person associated
- with the part of the kernel that you are having trouble with. If there
- isn't anyone listed there, then the second best thing is to mail
- them to me (torvalds@linux-foundation.org), and possibly to any other
- relevant mailing-list or to the newsgroup.
-
- - In all bug-reports, *please* tell what kernel you are talking about,
- how to duplicate the problem, and what your setup is (use your common
- sense). If the problem is new, tell me so, and if the problem is
- old, please try to tell me when you first noticed it.
-
- - If the bug results in a message like::
-
- unable to handle kernel paging request at address C0000010
- Oops: 0002
- EIP: 0010:XXXXXXXX
- eax: xxxxxxxx ebx: xxxxxxxx ecx: xxxxxxxx edx: xxxxxxxx
- esi: xxxxxxxx edi: xxxxxxxx ebp: xxxxxxxx
- ds: xxxx es: xxxx fs: xxxx gs: xxxx
- Pid: xx, process nr: xx
- xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
-
- or similar kernel debugging information on your screen or in your
- system log, please duplicate it *exactly*. The dump may look
- incomprehensible to you, but it does contain information that may
- help debugging the problem. The text above the dump is also
- important: it tells something about why the kernel dumped code (in
- the above example, it's due to a bad kernel pointer). More information
- on making sense of the dump is in Documentation/oops-tracing.txt
-
- - If you compiled the kernel with CONFIG_KALLSYMS you can send the dump
- as is, otherwise you will have to use the ``ksymoops`` program to make
- sense of the dump (but compiling with CONFIG_KALLSYMS is usually preferred).
- This utility can be downloaded from
- ftp://ftp.<country>.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/ksymoops/ .
- Alternatively, you can do the dump lookup by hand:
-
- - In debugging dumps like the above, it helps enormously if you can
- look up what the EIP value means. The hex value as such doesn't help
- me or anybody else very much: it will depend on your particular
- kernel setup. What you should do is take the hex value from the EIP
- line (ignore the ``0010:``), and look it up in the kernel namelist to
- see which kernel function contains the offending address.
-
- To find out the kernel function name, you'll need to find the system
- binary associated with the kernel that exhibited the symptom. This is
- the file 'linux/vmlinux'. To extract the namelist and match it against
- the EIP from the kernel crash, do::
-
- nm vmlinux | sort | less
-
- This will give you a list of kernel addresses sorted in ascending
- order, from which it is simple to find the function that contains the
- offending address. Note that the address given by the kernel
- debugging messages will not necessarily match exactly with the
- function addresses (in fact, that is very unlikely), so you can't
- just 'grep' the list: the list will, however, give you the starting
- point of each kernel function, so by looking for the function that
- has a starting address lower than the one you are searching for but
- is followed by a function with a higher address you will find the one
- you want. In fact, it may be a good idea to include a bit of
- "context" in your problem report, giving a few lines around the
- interesting one.
-
- If you for some reason cannot do the above (you have a pre-compiled
- kernel image or similar), telling me as much about your setup as
- possible will help. Please read the :ref:`REPORTING-BUGS <reportingbugs>`
- document for details.
-
- - Alternatively, you can use gdb on a running kernel. (read-only; i.e. you
- cannot change values or set break points.) To do this, first compile the
- kernel with -g; edit arch/x86/Makefile appropriately, then do a ``make
- clean``. You'll also need to enable CONFIG_PROC_FS (via ``make config``).
-
- After you've rebooted with the new kernel, do ``gdb vmlinux /proc/kcore``.
- You can now use all the usual gdb commands. The command to look up the
- point where your system crashed is ``l *0xXXXXXXXX``. (Replace the XXXes
- with the EIP value.)
-
- gdb'ing a non-running kernel currently fails because ``gdb`` (wrongly)
- disregards the starting offset for which the kernel is compiled.
-