path: root/mm/swap_cgroup.c
AgeCommit message (Collapse)Author
2017-11-02License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no licenseGreg Kroah-Hartman
Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license. By default all files without license information are under the default license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2. Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0' SPDX license identifier. The SPDX identifier is a legally binding shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text. This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and Philippe Ombredanne. How this work was done: Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of the use cases: - file had no licensing information it it. - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it, - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information, Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords. The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne. Philippe prepared the base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files. The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files assessed. Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s) to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation. Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was: - Files considered eligible had to be source code files. - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5 lines of source - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5 lines). All documentation files were explicitly excluded. The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license identifiers to apply. - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was considered to have no license information in it, and the top level COPYING file license applied. For non */uapi/* files that summary was: SPDX license identifier # files ---------------------------------------------------|------- GPL-2.0 11139 and resulted in the first patch in this series. If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0". Results of that was: SPDX license identifier # files ---------------------------------------------------|------- GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 930 and resulted in the second patch in this series. - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in it (per prior point). Results summary: SPDX license identifier # files ---------------------------------------------------|------ GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 270 GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 169 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause) 21 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 17 LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 15 GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 14 ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 5 LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 4 LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note 3 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT) 3 ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT) 1 and that resulted in the third patch in this series. - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became the concluded license(s). - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a license but the other didn't, or they both detected different licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred. - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics). - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation. - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier, the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later in time. In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation. Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights. The Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so they are related. Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks in about 15000 files. In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the correct identifier. Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch version early this week with: - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected license ids and scores - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+ files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction. This worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the different types of files to be modified. These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg. Thomas wrote a script to parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the format that the file expected. This script was further refined by Greg based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different comment types.) Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to generate the patches. Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org> Reviewed-by: Philippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com> Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
2017-07-06mm, THP, swap: delay splitting THP during swap outHuang Ying
Patch series "THP swap: Delay splitting THP during swapping out", v11. This patchset is to optimize the performance of Transparent Huge Page (THP) swap. Recently, the performance of the storage devices improved so fast that we cannot saturate the disk bandwidth with single logical CPU when do page swap out even on a high-end server machine. Because the performance of the storage device improved faster than that of single logical CPU. And it seems that the trend will not change in the near future. On the other hand, the THP becomes more and more popular because of increased memory size. So it becomes necessary to optimize THP swap performance. The advantages of the THP swap support include: - Batch the swap operations for the THP to reduce lock acquiring/releasing, including allocating/freeing the swap space, adding/deleting to/from the swap cache, and writing/reading the swap space, etc. This will help improve the performance of the THP swap. - The THP swap space read/write will be 2M sequential IO. It is particularly helpful for the swap read, which are usually 4k random IO. This will improve the performance of the THP swap too. - It will help the memory fragmentation, especially when the THP is heavily used by the applications. The 2M continuous pages will be free up after THP swapping out. - It will improve the THP utilization on the system with the swap turned on. Because the speed for khugepaged to collapse the normal pages into the THP is quite slow. After the THP is split during the swapping out, it will take quite long time for the normal pages to collapse back into the THP after being swapped in. The high THP utilization helps the efficiency of the page based memory management too. There are some concerns regarding THP swap in, mainly because possible enlarged read/write IO size (for swap in/out) may put more overhead on the storage device. To deal with that, the THP swap in should be turned on only when necessary. For example, it can be selected via "always/never/madvise" logic, to be turned on globally, turned off globally, or turned on only for VMA with MADV_HUGEPAGE, etc. This patchset is the first step for the THP swap support. The plan is to delay splitting THP step by step, finally avoid splitting THP during the THP swapping out and swap out/in the THP as a whole. As the first step, in this patchset, the splitting huge page is delayed from almost the first step of swapping out to after allocating the swap space for the THP and adding the THP into the swap cache. This will reduce lock acquiring/releasing for the locks used for the swap cache management. With the patchset, the swap out throughput improves 15.5% (from about 3.73GB/s to about 4.31GB/s) in the vm-scalability swap-w-seq test case with 8 processes. The test is done on a Xeon E5 v3 system. The swap device used is a RAM simulated PMEM (persistent memory) device. To test the sequential swapping out, the test case creates 8 processes, which sequentially allocate and write to the anonymous pages until the RAM and part of the swap device is used up. This patch (of 5): In this patch, splitting huge page is delayed from almost the first step of swapping out to after allocating the swap space for the THP (Transparent Huge Page) and adding the THP into the swap cache. This will batch the corresponding operation, thus improve THP swap out throughput. This is the first step for the THP swap optimization. The plan is to delay splitting the THP step by step and avoid splitting the THP finally. In this patch, one swap cluster is used to hold the contents of each THP swapped out. So, the size of the swap cluster is changed to that of the THP (Transparent Huge Page) on x86_64 architecture (512). For other architectures which want such THP swap optimization, ARCH_USES_THP_SWAP_CLUSTER needs to be selected in the Kconfig file for the architecture. In effect, this will enlarge swap cluster size by 2 times on x86_64. Which may make it harder to find a free cluster when the swap space becomes fragmented. So that, this may reduce the continuous swap space allocation and sequential write in theory. The performance test in 0day shows no regressions caused by this. In the future of THP swap optimization, some information of the swapped out THP (such as compound map count) will be recorded in the swap_cluster_info data structure. The mem cgroup swap accounting functions are enhanced to support charge or uncharge a swap cluster backing a THP as a whole. The swap cluster allocate/free functions are added to allocate/free a swap cluster for a THP. A fair simple algorithm is used for swap cluster allocation, that is, only the first swap device in priority list will be tried to allocate the swap cluster. The function will fail if the trying is not successful, and the caller will fallback to allocate a single swap slot instead. This works good enough for normal cases. If the difference of the number of the free swap clusters among multiple swap devices is significant, it is possible that some THPs are split earlier than necessary. For example, this could be caused by big size difference among multiple swap devices. The swap cache functions is enhanced to support add/delete THP to/from the swap cache as a set of (HPAGE_PMD_NR) sub-pages. This may be enhanced in the future with multi-order radix tree. But because we will split the THP soon during swapping out, that optimization doesn't make much sense for this first step. The THP splitting functions are enhanced to support to split THP in swap cache during swapping out. The page lock will be held during allocating the swap cluster, adding the THP into the swap cache and splitting the THP. So in the code path other than swapping out, if the THP need to be split, the PageSwapCache(THP) will be always false. The swap cluster is only available for SSD, so the THP swap optimization in this patchset has no effect for HDD. [ying.huang@intel.com: fix two issues in THP optimize patch] Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/87k25ed8zo.fsf@yhuang-dev.intel.com [hannes@cmpxchg.org: extensive cleanups and simplifications, reduce code size] Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170515112522.32457-2-ying.huang@intel.com Signed-off-by: "Huang, Ying" <ying.huang@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Suggested-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> [for config option] Acked-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> [for changes in huge_memory.c and huge_mm.h] Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Ebru Akagunduz <ebru.akagunduz@gmail.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@kernel.org> Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: Shaohua Li <shli@kernel.org> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2017-06-17swap: cond_resched in swap_cgroup_prepare()Yu Zhao
I saw need_resched() warnings when swapping on large swapfile (TBs) because continuously allocating many pages in swap_cgroup_prepare() took too long. We already cond_resched when freeing page in swap_cgroup_swapoff(). Do the same for the page allocation. Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170604200109.17606-1-yuzhao@google.com Signed-off-by: Yu Zhao <yuzhao@google.com> Acked-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com> Acked-by: Vladimir Davydov <vdavydov.dev@gmail.com> Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2017-04-08mm, swap_cgroup: reschedule when neeed in swap_cgroup_swapoff()David Rientjes
We got need_resched() warnings in swap_cgroup_swapoff() because swap_cgroup_ctrl[type].length is particularly large. Reschedule when needed. Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/alpine.DEB.2.10.1704061315270.80559@chino.kir.corp.google.com Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Acked-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Vladimir Davydov <vdavydov.dev@gmail.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2016-03-17mm: convert printk(KERN_<LEVEL> to pr_<level>Joe Perches
Most of the mm subsystem uses pr_<level> so make it consistent. Miscellanea: - Realign arguments - Add missing newline to format - kmemleak-test.c has a "kmemleak: " prefix added to the "Kmemleak testing" logging message via pr_fmt Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Acked-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> [percpu] Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-12-10mm: page_cgroup: rename file to mm/swap_cgroup.cJohannes Weiner
Now that the external page_cgroup data structure and its lookup is gone, the only code remaining in there is swap slot accounting. Rename it and move the conditional compilation into mm/Makefile. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Acked-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Acked-by: Vladimir Davydov <vdavydov@parallels.com> Acked-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: "Kirill A. Shutemov" <kirill@shutemov.name> Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>