aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/Documentation/MSI-HOWTO.txt
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/MSI-HOWTO.txt')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/MSI-HOWTO.txt503
1 files changed, 503 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/MSI-HOWTO.txt b/Documentation/MSI-HOWTO.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d5032eb480aa
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/MSI-HOWTO.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,503 @@
+ The MSI Driver Guide HOWTO
+ Tom L Nguyen tom.l.nguyen@intel.com
+ 10/03/2003
+ Revised Feb 12, 2004 by Martine Silbermann
+ email: Martine.Silbermann@hp.com
+ Revised Jun 25, 2004 by Tom L Nguyen
+
+1. About this guide
+
+This guide describes the basics of Message Signaled Interrupts (MSI),
+the advantages of using MSI over traditional interrupt mechanisms,
+and how to enable your driver to use MSI or MSI-X. Also included is
+a Frequently Asked Questions.
+
+2. Copyright 2003 Intel Corporation
+
+3. What is MSI/MSI-X?
+
+Message Signaled Interrupt (MSI), as described in the PCI Local Bus
+Specification Revision 2.3 or latest, is an optional feature, and a
+required feature for PCI Express devices. MSI enables a device function
+to request service by sending an Inbound Memory Write on its PCI bus to
+the FSB as a Message Signal Interrupt transaction. Because MSI is
+generated in the form of a Memory Write, all transaction conditions,
+such as a Retry, Master-Abort, Target-Abort or normal completion, are
+supported.
+
+A PCI device that supports MSI must also support pin IRQ assertion
+interrupt mechanism to provide backward compatibility for systems that
+do not support MSI. In Systems, which support MSI, the bus driver is
+responsible for initializing the message address and message data of
+the device function's MSI/MSI-X capability structure during device
+initial configuration.
+
+An MSI capable device function indicates MSI support by implementing
+the MSI/MSI-X capability structure in its PCI capability list. The
+device function may implement both the MSI capability structure and
+the MSI-X capability structure; however, the bus driver should not
+enable both.
+
+The MSI capability structure contains Message Control register,
+Message Address register and Message Data register. These registers
+provide the bus driver control over MSI. The Message Control register
+indicates the MSI capability supported by the device. The Message
+Address register specifies the target address and the Message Data
+register specifies the characteristics of the message. To request
+service, the device function writes the content of the Message Data
+register to the target address. The device and its software driver
+are prohibited from writing to these registers.
+
+The MSI-X capability structure is an optional extension to MSI. It
+uses an independent and separate capability structure. There are
+some key advantages to implementing the MSI-X capability structure
+over the MSI capability structure as described below.
+
+ - Support a larger maximum number of vectors per function.
+
+ - Provide the ability for system software to configure
+ each vector with an independent message address and message
+ data, specified by a table that resides in Memory Space.
+
+ - MSI and MSI-X both support per-vector masking. Per-vector
+ masking is an optional extension of MSI but a required
+ feature for MSI-X. Per-vector masking provides the kernel
+ the ability to mask/unmask MSI when servicing its software
+ interrupt service routing handler. If per-vector masking is
+ not supported, then the device driver should provide the
+ hardware/software synchronization to ensure that the device
+ generates MSI when the driver wants it to do so.
+
+4. Why use MSI?
+
+As a benefit the simplification of board design, MSI allows board
+designers to remove out of band interrupt routing. MSI is another
+step towards a legacy-free environment.
+
+Due to increasing pressure on chipset and processor packages to
+reduce pin count, the need for interrupt pins is expected to
+diminish over time. Devices, due to pin constraints, may implement
+messages to increase performance.
+
+PCI Express endpoints uses INTx emulation (in-band messages) instead
+of IRQ pin assertion. Using INTx emulation requires interrupt
+sharing among devices connected to the same node (PCI bridge) while
+MSI is unique (non-shared) and does not require BIOS configuration
+support. As a result, the PCI Express technology requires MSI
+support for better interrupt performance.
+
+Using MSI enables the device functions to support two or more
+vectors, which can be configured to target different CPU's to
+increase scalability.
+
+5. Configuring a driver to use MSI/MSI-X
+
+By default, the kernel will not enable MSI/MSI-X on all devices that
+support this capability. The CONFIG_PCI_MSI kernel option
+must be selected to enable MSI/MSI-X support.
+
+5.1 Including MSI/MSI-X support into the kernel
+
+To allow MSI/MSI-X capable device drivers to selectively enable
+MSI/MSI-X (using pci_enable_msi()/pci_enable_msix() as described
+below), the VECTOR based scheme needs to be enabled by setting
+CONFIG_PCI_MSI during kernel config.
+
+Since the target of the inbound message is the local APIC, providing
+CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC must be enabled as well as CONFIG_PCI_MSI.
+
+5.2 Configuring for MSI support
+
+Due to the non-contiguous fashion in vector assignment of the
+existing Linux kernel, this version does not support multiple
+messages regardless of a device function is capable of supporting
+more than one vector. To enable MSI on a device function's MSI
+capability structure requires a device driver to call the function
+pci_enable_msi() explicitly.
+
+5.2.1 API pci_enable_msi
+
+int pci_enable_msi(struct pci_dev *dev)
+
+With this new API, any existing device driver, which like to have
+MSI enabled on its device function, must call this API to enable MSI
+A successful call will initialize the MSI capability structure
+with ONE vector, regardless of whether a device function is
+capable of supporting multiple messages. This vector replaces the
+pre-assigned dev->irq with a new MSI vector. To avoid the conflict
+of new assigned vector with existing pre-assigned vector requires
+a device driver to call this API before calling request_irq().
+
+5.2.2 API pci_disable_msi
+
+void pci_disable_msi(struct pci_dev *dev)
+
+This API should always be used to undo the effect of pci_enable_msi()
+when a device driver is unloading. This API restores dev->irq with
+the pre-assigned IOAPIC vector and switches a device's interrupt
+mode to PCI pin-irq assertion/INTx emulation mode.
+
+Note that a device driver should always call free_irq() on MSI vector
+it has done request_irq() on before calling this API. Failure to do
+so results a BUG_ON() and a device will be left with MSI enabled and
+leaks its vector.
+
+5.2.3 MSI mode vs. legacy mode diagram
+
+The below diagram shows the events, which switches the interrupt
+mode on the MSI-capable device function between MSI mode and
+PIN-IRQ assertion mode.
+
+ ------------ pci_enable_msi ------------------------
+ | | <=============== | |
+ | MSI MODE | | PIN-IRQ ASSERTION MODE |
+ | | ===============> | |
+ ------------ pci_disable_msi ------------------------
+
+
+Figure 1.0 MSI Mode vs. Legacy Mode
+
+In Figure 1.0, a device operates by default in legacy mode. Legacy
+in this context means PCI pin-irq assertion or PCI-Express INTx
+emulation. A successful MSI request (using pci_enable_msi()) switches
+a device's interrupt mode to MSI mode. A pre-assigned IOAPIC vector
+stored in dev->irq will be saved by the PCI subsystem and a new
+assigned MSI vector will replace dev->irq.
+
+To return back to its default mode, a device driver should always call
+pci_disable_msi() to undo the effect of pci_enable_msi(). Note that a
+device driver should always call free_irq() on MSI vector it has done
+request_irq() on before calling pci_disable_msi(). Failure to do so
+results a BUG_ON() and a device will be left with MSI enabled and
+leaks its vector. Otherwise, the PCI subsystem restores a device's
+dev->irq with a pre-assigned IOAPIC vector and marks released
+MSI vector as unused.
+
+Once being marked as unused, there is no guarantee that the PCI
+subsystem will reserve this MSI vector for a device. Depending on
+the availability of current PCI vector resources and the number of
+MSI/MSI-X requests from other drivers, this MSI may be re-assigned.
+
+For the case where the PCI subsystem re-assigned this MSI vector
+another driver, a request to switching back to MSI mode may result
+in being assigned a different MSI vector or a failure if no more
+vectors are available.
+
+5.3 Configuring for MSI-X support
+
+Due to the ability of the system software to configure each vector of
+the MSI-X capability structure with an independent message address
+and message data, the non-contiguous fashion in vector assignment of
+the existing Linux kernel has no impact on supporting multiple
+messages on an MSI-X capable device functions. To enable MSI-X on
+a device function's MSI-X capability structure requires its device
+driver to call the function pci_enable_msix() explicitly.
+
+The function pci_enable_msix(), once invoked, enables either
+all or nothing, depending on the current availability of PCI vector
+resources. If the PCI vector resources are available for the number
+of vectors requested by a device driver, this function will configure
+the MSI-X table of the MSI-X capability structure of a device with
+requested messages. To emphasize this reason, for example, a device
+may be capable for supporting the maximum of 32 vectors while its
+software driver usually may request 4 vectors. It is recommended
+that the device driver should call this function once during the
+initialization phase of the device driver.
+
+Unlike the function pci_enable_msi(), the function pci_enable_msix()
+does not replace the pre-assigned IOAPIC dev->irq with a new MSI
+vector because the PCI subsystem writes the 1:1 vector-to-entry mapping
+into the field vector of each element contained in a second argument.
+Note that the pre-assigned IO-APIC dev->irq is valid only if the device
+operates in PIN-IRQ assertion mode. In MSI-X mode, any attempt of
+using dev->irq by the device driver to request for interrupt service
+may result unpredictabe behavior.
+
+For each MSI-X vector granted, a device driver is responsible to call
+other functions like request_irq(), enable_irq(), etc. to enable
+this vector with its corresponding interrupt service handler. It is
+a device driver's choice to assign all vectors with the same
+interrupt service handler or each vector with a unique interrupt
+service handler.
+
+5.3.1 Handling MMIO address space of MSI-X Table
+
+The PCI 3.0 specification has implementation notes that MMIO address
+space for a device's MSI-X structure should be isolated so that the
+software system can set different page for controlling accesses to
+the MSI-X structure. The implementation of MSI patch requires the PCI
+subsystem, not a device driver, to maintain full control of the MSI-X
+table/MSI-X PBA and MMIO address space of the MSI-X table/MSI-X PBA.
+A device driver is prohibited from requesting the MMIO address space
+of the MSI-X table/MSI-X PBA. Otherwise, the PCI subsystem will fail
+enabling MSI-X on its hardware device when it calls the function
+pci_enable_msix().
+
+5.3.2 Handling MSI-X allocation
+
+Determining the number of MSI-X vectors allocated to a function is
+dependent on the number of MSI capable devices and MSI-X capable
+devices populated in the system. The policy of allocating MSI-X
+vectors to a function is defined as the following:
+
+#of MSI-X vectors allocated to a function = (x - y)/z where
+
+x = The number of available PCI vector resources by the time
+ the device driver calls pci_enable_msix(). The PCI vector
+ resources is the sum of the number of unassigned vectors
+ (new) and the number of released vectors when any MSI/MSI-X
+ device driver switches its hardware device back to a legacy
+ mode or is hot-removed. The number of unassigned vectors
+ may exclude some vectors reserved, as defined in parameter
+ NR_HP_RESERVED_VECTORS, for the case where the system is
+ capable of supporting hot-add/hot-remove operations. Users
+ may change the value defined in NR_HR_RESERVED_VECTORS to
+ meet their specific needs.
+
+y = The number of MSI capable devices populated in the system.
+ This policy ensures that each MSI capable device has its
+ vector reserved to avoid the case where some MSI-X capable
+ drivers may attempt to claim all available vector resources.
+
+z = The number of MSI-X capable devices pupulated in the system.
+ This policy ensures that maximum (x - y) is distributed
+ evenly among MSI-X capable devices.
+
+Note that the PCI subsystem scans y and z during a bus enumeration.
+When the PCI subsystem completes configuring MSI/MSI-X capability
+structure of a device as requested by its device driver, y/z is
+decremented accordingly.
+
+5.3.3 Handling MSI-X shortages
+
+For the case where fewer MSI-X vectors are allocated to a function
+than requested, the function pci_enable_msix() will return the
+maximum number of MSI-X vectors available to the caller. A device
+driver may re-send its request with fewer or equal vectors indicated
+in a return. For example, if a device driver requests 5 vectors, but
+the number of available vectors is 3 vectors, a value of 3 will be a
+return as a result of pci_enable_msix() call. A function could be
+designed for its driver to use only 3 MSI-X table entries as
+different combinations as ABC--, A-B-C, A--CB, etc. Note that this
+patch does not support multiple entries with the same vector. Such
+attempt by a device driver to use 5 MSI-X table entries with 3 vectors
+as ABBCC, AABCC, BCCBA, etc will result as a failure by the function
+pci_enable_msix(). Below are the reasons why supporting multiple
+entries with the same vector is an undesirable solution.
+
+ - The PCI subsystem can not determine which entry, which
+ generated the message, to mask/unmask MSI while handling
+ software driver ISR. Attempting to walk through all MSI-X
+ table entries (2048 max) to mask/unmask any match vector
+ is an undesirable solution.
+
+ - Walk through all MSI-X table entries (2048 max) to handle
+ SMP affinity of any match vector is an undesirable solution.
+
+5.3.4 API pci_enable_msix
+
+int pci_enable_msix(struct pci_dev *dev, u32 *entries, int nvec)
+
+This API enables a device driver to request the PCI subsystem
+for enabling MSI-X messages on its hardware device. Depending on
+the availability of PCI vectors resources, the PCI subsystem enables
+either all or nothing.
+
+Argument dev points to the device (pci_dev) structure.
+
+Argument entries is a pointer of unsigned integer type. The number of
+elements is indicated in argument nvec. The content of each element
+will be mapped to the following struct defined in /driver/pci/msi.h.
+
+struct msix_entry {
+ u16 vector; /* kernel uses to write alloc vector */
+ u16 entry; /* driver uses to specify entry */
+};
+
+A device driver is responsible for initializing the field entry of
+each element with unique entry supported by MSI-X table. Otherwise,
+-EINVAL will be returned as a result. A successful return of zero
+indicates the PCI subsystem completes initializing each of requested
+entries of the MSI-X table with message address and message data.
+Last but not least, the PCI subsystem will write the 1:1
+vector-to-entry mapping into the field vector of each element. A
+device driver is responsible of keeping track of allocated MSI-X
+vectors in its internal data structure.
+
+Argument nvec is an integer indicating the number of messages
+requested.
+
+A return of zero indicates that the number of MSI-X vectors is
+successfully allocated. A return of greater than zero indicates
+MSI-X vector shortage. Or a return of less than zero indicates
+a failure. This failure may be a result of duplicate entries
+specified in second argument, or a result of no available vector,
+or a result of failing to initialize MSI-X table entries.
+
+5.3.5 API pci_disable_msix
+
+void pci_disable_msix(struct pci_dev *dev)
+
+This API should always be used to undo the effect of pci_enable_msix()
+when a device driver is unloading. Note that a device driver should
+always call free_irq() on all MSI-X vectors it has done request_irq()
+on before calling this API. Failure to do so results a BUG_ON() and
+a device will be left with MSI-X enabled and leaks its vectors.
+
+5.3.6 MSI-X mode vs. legacy mode diagram
+
+The below diagram shows the events, which switches the interrupt
+mode on the MSI-X capable device function between MSI-X mode and
+PIN-IRQ assertion mode (legacy).
+
+ ------------ pci_enable_msix(,,n) ------------------------
+ | | <=============== | |
+ | MSI-X MODE | | PIN-IRQ ASSERTION MODE |
+ | | ===============> | |
+ ------------ pci_disable_msix ------------------------
+
+Figure 2.0 MSI-X Mode vs. Legacy Mode
+
+In Figure 2.0, a device operates by default in legacy mode. A
+successful MSI-X request (using pci_enable_msix()) switches a
+device's interrupt mode to MSI-X mode. A pre-assigned IOAPIC vector
+stored in dev->irq will be saved by the PCI subsystem; however,
+unlike MSI mode, the PCI subsystem will not replace dev->irq with
+assigned MSI-X vector because the PCI subsystem already writes the 1:1
+vector-to-entry mapping into the field vector of each element
+specified in second argument.
+
+To return back to its default mode, a device driver should always call
+pci_disable_msix() to undo the effect of pci_enable_msix(). Note that
+a device driver should always call free_irq() on all MSI-X vectors it
+has done request_irq() on before calling pci_disable_msix(). Failure
+to do so results a BUG_ON() and a device will be left with MSI-X
+enabled and leaks its vectors. Otherwise, the PCI subsystem switches a
+device function's interrupt mode from MSI-X mode to legacy mode and
+marks all allocated MSI-X vectors as unused.
+
+Once being marked as unused, there is no guarantee that the PCI
+subsystem will reserve these MSI-X vectors for a device. Depending on
+the availability of current PCI vector resources and the number of
+MSI/MSI-X requests from other drivers, these MSI-X vectors may be
+re-assigned.
+
+For the case where the PCI subsystem re-assigned these MSI-X vectors
+to other driver, a request to switching back to MSI-X mode may result
+being assigned with another set of MSI-X vectors or a failure if no
+more vectors are available.
+
+5.4 Handling function implementng both MSI and MSI-X capabilities
+
+For the case where a function implements both MSI and MSI-X
+capabilities, the PCI subsystem enables a device to run either in MSI
+mode or MSI-X mode but not both. A device driver determines whether it
+wants MSI or MSI-X enabled on its hardware device. Once a device
+driver requests for MSI, for example, it is prohibited to request for
+MSI-X; in other words, a device driver is not permitted to ping-pong
+between MSI mod MSI-X mode during a run-time.
+
+5.5 Hardware requirements for MSI/MSI-X support
+MSI/MSI-X support requires support from both system hardware and
+individual hardware device functions.
+
+5.5.1 System hardware support
+Since the target of MSI address is the local APIC CPU, enabling
+MSI/MSI-X support in Linux kernel is dependent on whether existing
+system hardware supports local APIC. Users should verify their
+system whether it runs when CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC=y.
+
+In SMP environment, CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC is automatically set;
+however, in UP environment, users must manually set
+CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC. Once CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC=y, setting
+CONFIG_PCI_MSI enables the VECTOR based scheme and
+the option for MSI-capable device drivers to selectively enable
+MSI/MSI-X.
+
+Note that CONFIG_X86_IO_APIC setting is irrelevant because MSI/MSI-X
+vector is allocated new during runtime and MSI/MSI-X support does not
+depend on BIOS support. This key independency enables MSI/MSI-X
+support on future IOxAPIC free platform.
+
+5.5.2 Device hardware support
+The hardware device function supports MSI by indicating the
+MSI/MSI-X capability structure on its PCI capability list. By
+default, this capability structure will not be initialized by
+the kernel to enable MSI during the system boot. In other words,
+the device function is running on its default pin assertion mode.
+Note that in many cases the hardware supporting MSI have bugs,
+which may result in system hang. The software driver of specific
+MSI-capable hardware is responsible for whether calling
+pci_enable_msi or not. A return of zero indicates the kernel
+successfully initializes the MSI/MSI-X capability structure of the
+device funtion. The device function is now running on MSI/MSI-X mode.
+
+5.6 How to tell whether MSI/MSI-X is enabled on device function
+
+At the driver level, a return of zero from the function call of
+pci_enable_msi()/pci_enable_msix() indicates to a device driver that
+its device function is initialized successfully and ready to run in
+MSI/MSI-X mode.
+
+At the user level, users can use command 'cat /proc/interrupts'
+to display the vector allocated for a device and its interrupt
+MSI/MSI-X mode ("PCI MSI"/"PCI MSIX"). Below shows below MSI mode is
+enabled on a SCSI Adaptec 39320D Ultra320.
+
+ CPU0 CPU1
+ 0: 324639 0 IO-APIC-edge timer
+ 1: 1186 0 IO-APIC-edge i8042
+ 2: 0 0 XT-PIC cascade
+ 12: 2797 0 IO-APIC-edge i8042
+ 14: 6543 0 IO-APIC-edge ide0
+ 15: 1 0 IO-APIC-edge ide1
+169: 0 0 IO-APIC-level uhci-hcd
+185: 0 0 IO-APIC-level uhci-hcd
+193: 138 10 PCI MSI aic79xx
+201: 30 0 PCI MSI aic79xx
+225: 30 0 IO-APIC-level aic7xxx
+233: 30 0 IO-APIC-level aic7xxx
+NMI: 0 0
+LOC: 324553 325068
+ERR: 0
+MIS: 0
+
+6. FAQ
+
+Q1. Are there any limitations on using the MSI?
+
+A1. If the PCI device supports MSI and conforms to the
+specification and the platform supports the APIC local bus,
+then using MSI should work.
+
+Q2. Will it work on all the Pentium processors (P3, P4, Xeon,
+AMD processors)? In P3 IPI's are transmitted on the APIC local
+bus and in P4 and Xeon they are transmitted on the system
+bus. Are there any implications with this?
+
+A2. MSI support enables a PCI device sending an inbound
+memory write (0xfeexxxxx as target address) on its PCI bus
+directly to the FSB. Since the message address has a
+redirection hint bit cleared, it should work.
+
+Q3. The target address 0xfeexxxxx will be translated by the
+Host Bridge into an interrupt message. Are there any
+limitations on the chipsets such as Intel 8xx, Intel e7xxx,
+or VIA?
+
+A3. If these chipsets support an inbound memory write with
+target address set as 0xfeexxxxx, as conformed to PCI
+specification 2.3 or latest, then it should work.
+
+Q4. From the driver point of view, if the MSI is lost because
+of the errors occur during inbound memory write, then it may
+wait for ever. Is there a mechanism for it to recover?
+
+A4. Since the target of the transaction is an inbound memory
+write, all transaction termination conditions (Retry,
+Master-Abort, Target-Abort, or normal completion) are
+supported. A device sending an MSI must abide by all the PCI
+rules and conditions regarding that inbound memory write. So,
+if a retry is signaled it must retry, etc... We believe that
+the recommendation for Abort is also a retry (refer to PCI
+specification 2.3 or latest).