path: root/mm
diff options
authorJoonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>2018-04-10 16:30:15 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2018-04-11 10:28:32 -0700
commitbad8c6c0b1144694ecb0bc5629ede9b8b578b86e (patch)
tree4f35d3265bcb009ce44b6cd9fe20c45be1f22bc6 /mm
parentd3cda2337bbc9edd2a26b83cb00eaa8c048ff274 (diff)
mm/cma: manage the memory of the CMA area by using the ZONE_MOVABLE
Patch series "mm/cma: manage the memory of the CMA area by using the ZONE_MOVABLE", v2. 0. History This patchset is the follow-up of the discussion about the "Introduce ZONE_CMA (v7)" [1]. Please reference it if more information is needed. 1. What does this patch do? This patch changes the management way for the memory of the CMA area in the MM subsystem. Currently the memory of the CMA area is managed by the zone where their pfn is belong to. However, this approach has some problems since MM subsystem doesn't have enough logic to handle the situation that different characteristic memories are in a single zone. To solve this issue, this patch try to manage all the memory of the CMA area by using the MOVABLE zone. In MM subsystem's point of view, characteristic of the memory on the MOVABLE zone and the memory of the CMA area are the same. So, managing the memory of the CMA area by using the MOVABLE zone will not have any problem. 2. Motivation There are some problems with current approach. See following. Although these problem would not be inherent and it could be fixed without this conception change, it requires many hooks addition in various code path and it would be intrusive to core MM and would be really error-prone. Therefore, I try to solve them with this new approach. Anyway, following is the problems of the current implementation. o CMA memory utilization First, following is the freepage calculation logic in MM. - For movable allocation: freepage = total freepage - For unmovable allocation: freepage = total freepage - CMA freepage Freepages on the CMA area is used after the normal freepages in the zone where the memory of the CMA area is belong to are exhausted. At that moment that the number of the normal freepages is zero, so - For movable allocation: freepage = total freepage = CMA freepage - For unmovable allocation: freepage = 0 If unmovable allocation comes at this moment, allocation request would fail to pass the watermark check and reclaim is started. After reclaim, there would exist the normal freepages so freepages on the CMA areas would not be used. FYI, there is another attempt [2] trying to solve this problem in lkml. And, as far as I know, Qualcomm also has out-of-tree solution for this problem. Useless reclaim: There is no logic to distinguish CMA pages in the reclaim path. Hence, CMA page is reclaimed even if the system just needs the page that can be usable for the kernel allocation. Atomic allocation failure: This is also related to the fallback allocation policy for the memory of the CMA area. Consider the situation that the number of the normal freepages is *zero* since the bunch of the movable allocation requests come. Kswapd would not be woken up due to following freepage calculation logic. - For movable allocation: freepage = total freepage = CMA freepage If atomic unmovable allocation request comes at this moment, it would fails due to following logic. - For unmovable allocation: freepage = total freepage - CMA freepage = 0 It was reported by Aneesh [3]. Useless compaction: Usual high-order allocation request is unmovable allocation request and it cannot be served from the memory of the CMA area. In compaction, migration scanner try to migrate the page in the CMA area and make high-order page there. As mentioned above, it cannot be usable for the unmovable allocation request so it's just waste. 3. Current approach and new approach Current approach is that the memory of the CMA area is managed by the zone where their pfn is belong to. However, these memory should be distinguishable since they have a strong limitation. So, they are marked as MIGRATE_CMA in pageblock flag and handled specially. However, as mentioned in section 2, the MM subsystem doesn't have enough logic to deal with this special pageblock so many problems raised. New approach is that the memory of the CMA area is managed by the MOVABLE zone. MM already have enough logic to deal with special zone like as HIGHMEM and MOVABLE zone. So, managing the memory of the CMA area by the MOVABLE zone just naturally work well because constraints for the memory of the CMA area that the memory should always be migratable is the same with the constraint for the MOVABLE zone. There is one side-effect for the usability of the memory of the CMA area. The use of MOVABLE zone is only allowed for a request with GFP_HIGHMEM && GFP_MOVABLE so now the memory of the CMA area is also only allowed for this gfp flag. Before this patchset, a request with GFP_MOVABLE can use them. IMO, It would not be a big issue since most of GFP_MOVABLE request also has GFP_HIGHMEM flag. For example, file cache page and anonymous page. However, file cache page for blockdev file is an exception. Request for it has no GFP_HIGHMEM flag. There is pros and cons on this exception. In my experience, blockdev file cache pages are one of the top reason that causes cma_alloc() to fail temporarily. So, we can get more guarantee of cma_alloc() success by discarding this case. Note that there is no change in admin POV since this patchset is just for internal implementation change in MM subsystem. Just one minor difference for admin is that the memory stat for CMA area will be printed in the MOVABLE zone. That's all. 4. Result Following is the experimental result related to utilization problem. 8 CPUs, 1024 MB, VIRTUAL MACHINE make -j16 <Before> CMA area: 0 MB 512 MB Elapsed-time: 92.4 186.5 pswpin: 82 18647 pswpout: 160 69839 <After> CMA : 0 MB 512 MB Elapsed-time: 93.1 93.4 pswpin: 84 46 pswpout: 183 92 akpm: "kernel test robot" reported a 26% improvement in vm-scalability.throughput: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20180330012721.GA3845@yexl-desktop [1]: lkml.kernel.org/r/1491880640-9944-1-git-send-email-iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com [2]: https://lkml.org/lkml/2014/10/15/623 [3]: http://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-mm/msg100562.html Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1512114786-5085-2-git-send-email-iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com Signed-off-by: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com> Reviewed-by: Aneesh Kumar K.V <aneesh.kumar@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Tested-by: Tony Lindgren <tony@atomide.com> Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Laura Abbott <lauraa@codeaurora.org> Cc: Marek Szyprowski <m.szyprowski@samsung.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net> Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com> Cc: Michal Nazarewicz <mina86@mina86.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Russell King <linux@armlinux.org.uk> Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'mm')
3 files changed, 125 insertions, 16 deletions
diff --git a/mm/cma.c b/mm/cma.c
index 5809bbe360d7..aa40e6c7b042 100644
--- a/mm/cma.c
+++ b/mm/cma.c
@@ -39,6 +39,7 @@
#include <trace/events/cma.h>
#include "cma.h"
+#include "internal.h"
struct cma cma_areas[MAX_CMA_AREAS];
unsigned cma_area_count;
@@ -109,23 +110,25 @@ static int __init cma_activate_area(struct cma *cma)
if (!cma->bitmap)
return -ENOMEM;
- WARN_ON_ONCE(!pfn_valid(pfn));
- zone = page_zone(pfn_to_page(pfn));
do {
unsigned j;
base_pfn = pfn;
+ if (!pfn_valid(base_pfn))
+ goto err;
+ zone = page_zone(pfn_to_page(base_pfn));
for (j = pageblock_nr_pages; j; --j, pfn++) {
- WARN_ON_ONCE(!pfn_valid(pfn));
+ if (!pfn_valid(pfn))
+ goto err;
- * alloc_contig_range requires the pfn range
- * specified to be in the same zone. Make this
- * simple by forcing the entire CMA resv range
- * to be in the same zone.
+ * In init_cma_reserved_pageblock(), present_pages
+ * is adjusted with assumption that all pages in
+ * the pageblock come from a single zone.
if (page_zone(pfn_to_page(pfn)) != zone)
- goto not_in_zone;
+ goto err;
} while (--i);
@@ -139,7 +142,7 @@ static int __init cma_activate_area(struct cma *cma)
return 0;
pr_err("CMA area %s could not be activated\n", cma->name);
cma->count = 0;
@@ -149,6 +152,41 @@ not_in_zone:
static int __init cma_init_reserved_areas(void)
int i;
+ struct zone *zone;
+ pg_data_t *pgdat;
+ if (!cma_area_count)
+ return 0;
+ for_each_online_pgdat(pgdat) {
+ unsigned long start_pfn = UINT_MAX, end_pfn = 0;
+ zone = &pgdat->node_zones[ZONE_MOVABLE];
+ /*
+ * In this case, we cannot adjust the zone range
+ * since it is now maximum node span and we don't
+ * know original zone range.
+ */
+ if (populated_zone(zone))
+ continue;
+ for (i = 0; i < cma_area_count; i++) {
+ if (pfn_to_nid(cma_areas[i].base_pfn) !=
+ pgdat->node_id)
+ continue;
+ start_pfn = min(start_pfn, cma_areas[i].base_pfn);
+ end_pfn = max(end_pfn, cma_areas[i].base_pfn +
+ cma_areas[i].count);
+ }
+ if (!end_pfn)
+ continue;
+ zone->zone_start_pfn = start_pfn;
+ zone->spanned_pages = end_pfn - start_pfn;
+ }
for (i = 0; i < cma_area_count; i++) {
int ret = cma_activate_area(&cma_areas[i]);
@@ -157,9 +195,32 @@ static int __init cma_init_reserved_areas(void)
return ret;
+ /*
+ * Reserved pages for ZONE_MOVABLE are now activated and
+ * this would change ZONE_MOVABLE's managed page counter and
+ * the other zones' present counter. We need to re-calculate
+ * various zone information that depends on this initialization.
+ */
+ build_all_zonelists(NULL);
+ for_each_populated_zone(zone) {
+ if (zone_idx(zone) == ZONE_MOVABLE) {
+ zone_pcp_reset(zone);
+ setup_zone_pageset(zone);
+ } else
+ zone_pcp_update(zone);
+ set_zone_contiguous(zone);
+ }
+ /*
+ * We need to re-init per zone wmark by calling
+ * init_per_zone_wmark_min() but doesn't call here because it is
+ * registered on core_initcall and it will be called later than us.
+ */
return 0;
* cma_init_reserved_mem() - create custom contiguous area from reserved memory
diff --git a/mm/internal.h b/mm/internal.h
index 502d14189794..228dd6642951 100644
--- a/mm/internal.h
+++ b/mm/internal.h
@@ -168,6 +168,9 @@ extern void post_alloc_hook(struct page *page, unsigned int order,
gfp_t gfp_flags);
extern int user_min_free_kbytes;
+extern void set_zone_contiguous(struct zone *zone);
+extern void clear_zone_contiguous(struct zone *zone);
#if defined CONFIG_COMPACTION || defined CONFIG_CMA
diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
index 34a4c12d2675..facc25ee6e2d 100644
--- a/mm/page_alloc.c
+++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
@@ -1747,16 +1747,38 @@ void __init page_alloc_init_late(void)
+static void __init adjust_present_page_count(struct page *page, long count)
+ struct zone *zone = page_zone(page);
+ /* We don't need to hold a lock since it is boot-up process */
+ zone->present_pages += count;
/* Free whole pageblock and set its migration type to MIGRATE_CMA. */
void __init init_cma_reserved_pageblock(struct page *page)
unsigned i = pageblock_nr_pages;
+ unsigned long pfn = page_to_pfn(page);
struct page *p = page;
+ int nid = page_to_nid(page);
+ /*
+ * ZONE_MOVABLE will steal present pages from other zones by
+ * changing page links so page_zone() is changed. Before that,
+ * we need to adjust previous zone's page count first.
+ */
+ adjust_present_page_count(page, -pageblock_nr_pages);
do {
set_page_count(p, 0);
- } while (++p, --i);
+ /* Steal pages from other zones */
+ set_page_links(p, ZONE_MOVABLE, nid, pfn);
+ } while (++p, ++pfn, --i);
+ adjust_present_page_count(page, pageblock_nr_pages);
set_pageblock_migratetype(page, MIGRATE_CMA);
@@ -6208,6 +6230,7 @@ static void __paginginit free_area_init_core(struct pglist_data *pgdat)
enum zone_type j;
int nid = pgdat->node_id;
+ unsigned long node_end_pfn = 0;
@@ -6235,9 +6258,13 @@ static void __paginginit free_area_init_core(struct pglist_data *pgdat)
struct zone *zone = pgdat->node_zones + j;
unsigned long size, realsize, freesize, memmap_pages;
unsigned long zone_start_pfn = zone->zone_start_pfn;
+ unsigned long movable_size = 0;
size = zone->spanned_pages;
realsize = freesize = zone->present_pages;
+ if (zone_end_pfn(zone) > node_end_pfn)
+ node_end_pfn = zone_end_pfn(zone);
* Adjust freesize so that it accounts for how much memory
@@ -6286,12 +6313,30 @@ static void __paginginit free_area_init_core(struct pglist_data *pgdat)
- if (!size)
+ /*
+ * The size of the CMA area is unknown now so we need to
+ * prepare the memory for the usemap at maximum.
+ */
+ pgdat->node_spanned_pages) {
+ movable_size = node_end_pfn - pgdat->node_start_pfn;
+ }
+ if (!size && !movable_size)
- setup_usemap(pgdat, zone, zone_start_pfn, size);
- init_currently_empty_zone(zone, zone_start_pfn, size);
+ if (movable_size) {
+ zone->zone_start_pfn = pgdat->node_start_pfn;
+ zone->spanned_pages = movable_size;
+ setup_usemap(pgdat, zone,
+ pgdat->node_start_pfn, movable_size);
+ init_currently_empty_zone(zone,
+ pgdat->node_start_pfn, movable_size);
+ } else {
+ setup_usemap(pgdat, zone, zone_start_pfn, size);
+ init_currently_empty_zone(zone, zone_start_pfn, size);
+ }
memmap_init(size, nid, j, zone_start_pfn);
@@ -7932,7 +7977,7 @@ void free_contig_range(unsigned long pfn, unsigned nr_pages)
+#if defined CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTPLUG || defined CONFIG_CMA
* The zone indicated has a new number of managed_pages; batch sizes and percpu
* page high values need to be recalulated.