path: root/mm
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2011-11-16UBUNTU: SAUCE: (no-up) add tracing for user initiated readahead requestsAndy Whitcroft
Track pages which undergo readahead and for each record which were actually consumed, via either read or faulted into a map. This allows userspace readahead applications (such as ureadahead) to track which pages in core at the end of a boot are actually required and generate an optimal readahead pack. It also allows pack adjustment and optimisation in parallel with readahead, allowing the pack to evolve to be accurate as userspace paths change. The status of the pages are reported back via the mincore() call using a newly allocated bit. Signed-off-by: Andy Whitcroft <apw@canonical.com> Acked-by: Stefan Bader <stefan.bader@canonical.com> Signed-off-by: Leann Ogasawara <leann.ogasawara@canonical.com>
2011-11-16UBUNTU: ubuntu: nx-emu - i386: mmap randomization for executable mappingsIngo Molnar
This code is originally from Ingo Molnar, with some later rebasing and fixes to respect all the randomization-disabling knobs. It provides address randomization algorithm when NX emulation is in use in 32-bit processes. Kees Cook pushed the brk area further away in the case of PIE binaries landing their brk inside the CS limit. Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <kees.cook@canonical.com> Signed-off-by: Leann Ogasawara <leann.ogasawara@canonical.com>
2011-11-16UBUNTU: ubuntu: nx-emu - i386: NX emulationIngo Molnar
This is old code with some cruft, all originally by Ingo Molnar with much later rebasing by Fedora folks and at least one arcane fix by Roland McGrath a few years ago. No longer uses exec-shield sysctl, merged with disable_nx. Kees Cook fixed boottime NX reporting for various corner cases. Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <kees.cook@canonical.com> Signed-off-by: Leann Ogasawara <leann.ogasawara@canonical.com>
2011-11-16UBUNTU: SAUCE: (no-up) swap: Add notify_swap_entry_free callback for compcacheTim Gardner
Code is required for ubuntu/compcache Signed-off-by: Ben Collins <ben.collins@canonical.com> Signed-off-by: Tim Gardner <tim.gardner@canonical.com>
2011-11-11mm: thp: tail page refcounting fixAndrea Arcangeli
commit 70b50f94f1644e2aa7cb374819cfd93f3c28d725 upstream. Michel while working on the working set estimation code, noticed that calling get_page_unless_zero() on a random pfn_to_page(random_pfn) wasn't safe, if the pfn ended up being a tail page of a transparent hugepage under splitting by __split_huge_page_refcount(). He then found the problem could also theoretically materialize with page_cache_get_speculative() during the speculative radix tree lookups that uses get_page_unless_zero() in SMP if the radix tree page is freed and reallocated and get_user_pages is called on it before page_cache_get_speculative has a chance to call get_page_unless_zero(). So the best way to fix the problem is to keep page_tail->_count zero at all times. This will guarantee that get_page_unless_zero() can never succeed on any tail page. page_tail->_mapcount is guaranteed zero and is unused for all tail pages of a compound page, so we can simply account the tail page references there and transfer them to tail_page->_count in __split_huge_page_refcount() (in addition to the head_page->_mapcount). While debugging this s/_count/_mapcount/ change I also noticed get_page is called by direct-io.c on pages returned by get_user_pages. That wasn't entirely safe because the two atomic_inc in get_page weren't atomic. As opposed to other get_user_page users like secondary-MMU page fault to establish the shadow pagetables would never call any superflous get_page after get_user_page returns. It's safer to make get_page universally safe for tail pages and to use get_page_foll() within follow_page (inside get_user_pages()). get_page_foll() is safe to do the refcounting for tail pages without taking any locks because it is run within PT lock protected critical sections (PT lock for pte and page_table_lock for pmd_trans_huge). The standard get_page() as invoked by direct-io instead will now take the compound_lock but still only for tail pages. The direct-io paths are usually I/O bound and the compound_lock is per THP so very finegrined, so there's no risk of scalability issues with it. A simple direct-io benchmarks with all lockdep prove locking and spinlock debugging infrastructure enabled shows identical performance and no overhead. So it's worth it. Ideally direct-io should stop calling get_page() on pages returned by get_user_pages(). The spinlock in get_page() is already optimized away for no-THP builds but doing get_page() on tail pages returned by GUP is generally a rare operation and usually only run in I/O paths. This new refcounting on page_tail->_mapcount in addition to avoiding new RCU critical sections will also allow the working set estimation code to work without any further complexity associated to the tail page refcounting with THP. Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Reported-by: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Reviewed-by: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <jweiner@redhat.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org> Cc: David Gibson <david@gibson.dropbear.id.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@suse.de>
2011-11-11mm: avoid null pointer access in vm_struct via /proc/vmallocinfoMitsuo Hayasaka
commit f5252e009d5b87071a919221e4f6624184005368 upstream. The /proc/vmallocinfo shows information about vmalloc allocations in vmlist that is a linklist of vm_struct. It, however, may access pages field of vm_struct where a page was not allocated. This results in a null pointer access and leads to a kernel panic. Why this happens: In __vmalloc_node_range() called from vmalloc(), newly allocated vm_struct is added to vmlist at __get_vm_area_node() and then, some fields of vm_struct such as nr_pages and pages are set at __vmalloc_area_node(). In other words, it is added to vmlist before it is fully initialized. At the same time, when the /proc/vmallocinfo is read, it accesses the pages field of vm_struct according to the nr_pages field at show_numa_info(). Thus, a null pointer access happens. The patch adds the newly allocated vm_struct to the vmlist *after* it is fully initialized. So, it can avoid accessing the pages field with unallocated page when show_numa_info() is called. Signed-off-by: Mitsuo Hayasaka <mitsuo.hayasaka.hu@hitachi.com> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@gmail.com> Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Jeremy Fitzhardinge <jeremy.fitzhardinge@citrix.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@suse.de>
2011-10-19mm: fix race between mremap and removing migration entryHugh Dickins
I don't usually pay much attention to the stale "? " addresses in stack backtraces, but this lucky report from Pawel Sikora hints that mremap's move_ptes() has inadequate locking against page migration. 3.0 BUG_ON(!PageLocked(p)) in migration_entry_to_page(): kernel BUG at include/linux/swapops.h:105! RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff81127b76>] [<ffffffff81127b76>] migration_entry_wait+0x156/0x160 [<ffffffff811016a1>] handle_pte_fault+0xae1/0xaf0 [<ffffffff810feee2>] ? __pte_alloc+0x42/0x120 [<ffffffff8112c26b>] ? do_huge_pmd_anonymous_page+0xab/0x310 [<ffffffff81102a31>] handle_mm_fault+0x181/0x310 [<ffffffff81106097>] ? vma_adjust+0x537/0x570 [<ffffffff81424bed>] do_page_fault+0x11d/0x4e0 [<ffffffff81109a05>] ? do_mremap+0x2d5/0x570 [<ffffffff81421d5f>] page_fault+0x1f/0x30 mremap's down_write of mmap_sem, together with i_mmap_mutex or lock, and pagetable locks, were good enough before page migration (with its requirement that every migration entry be found) came in, and enough while migration always held mmap_sem; but not enough nowadays, when there's memory hotremove and compaction. The danger is that move_ptes() lets a migration entry dodge around behind remove_migration_pte()'s back, so it's in the old location when looking at the new, then in the new location when looking at the old. Either mremap's move_ptes() must additionally take anon_vma lock(), or migration's remove_migration_pte() must stop peeking for is_swap_entry() before it takes pagetable lock. Consensus chooses the latter: we prefer to add overhead to migration than to mremapping, which gets used by JVMs and by exec stack setup. Reported-and-tested-by: Paweł Sikora <pluto@agmk.net> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: stable@vger.kernel.org Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-09-21Merge branch 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.dk/linux-blockLinus Torvalds
* 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.dk/linux-block: floppy: use del_timer_sync() in init cleanup blk-cgroup: be able to remove the record of unplugged device block: Don't check QUEUE_FLAG_SAME_COMP in __blk_complete_request mm: Add comment explaining task state setting in bdi_forker_thread() mm: Cleanup clearing of BDI_pending bit in bdi_forker_thread() block: simplify force plug flush code a little bit block: change force plug flush call order block: Fix queue_flag update when rq_affinity goes from 2 to 1 block: separate priority boosting from REQ_META block: remove READ_META and WRITE_META xen-blkback: fixed indentation and comments xen-blkback: Don't disconnect backend until state switched to XenbusStateClosed.
2011-09-19Merge branch 'slab/urgent' of git://github.com/penberg/linuxLinus Torvalds
* 'slab/urgent' of git://github.com/penberg/linux: slub: add slab with one free object to partial list tail
2011-09-14mm: account skipped entries to avoid looping in find_get_pagesShaohua Li
The found entries by find_get_pages() could be all swap entries. In this case we skip the entries, but make sure the skipped entries are accounted, so we don't keep looping. Using nr_found > nr_skip to simplify code as suggested by Eric. Reported-and-tested-by: Eric Dumazet <eric.dumazet@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-09-14mm: sync vmalloc address space page tables in alloc_vm_area()David Vrabel
Xen backend drivers (e.g., blkback and netback) would sometimes fail to map grant pages into the vmalloc address space allocated with alloc_vm_area(). The GNTTABOP_map_grant_ref would fail because Xen could not find the page (in the L2 table) containing the PTEs it needed to update. (XEN) mm.c:3846:d0 Could not find L1 PTE for address fbb42000 netback and blkback were making the hypercall from a kernel thread where task->active_mm != &init_mm and alloc_vm_area() was only updating the page tables for init_mm. The usual method of deferring the update to the page tables of other processes (i.e., after taking a fault) doesn't work as a fault cannot occur during the hypercall. This would work on some systems depending on what else was using vmalloc. Fix this by reverting ef691947d8a3 ("vmalloc: remove vmalloc_sync_all() from alloc_vm_area()") and add a comment to explain why it's needed. Signed-off-by: David Vrabel <david.vrabel@citrix.com> Cc: Jeremy Fitzhardinge <jeremy.fitzhardinge@citrix.com> Cc: Konrad Rzeszutek Wilk <konrad.wilk@oracle.com> Cc: Ian Campbell <Ian.Campbell@citrix.com> Cc: Keir Fraser <keir.xen@gmail.com> Cc: <stable@kernel.org> [3.0.x] Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-09-14memcg: Revert "memcg: add memory.vmscan_stat"Johannes Weiner
Revert the post-3.0 commit 82f9d486e59f5 ("memcg: add memory.vmscan_stat"). The implementation of per-memcg reclaim statistics violates how memcg hierarchies usually behave: hierarchically. The reclaim statistics are accounted to child memcgs and the parent hitting the limit, but not to hierarchy levels in between. Usually, hierarchical statistics are perfectly recursive, with each level representing the sum of itself and all its children. Since this exports statistics to userspace, this may lead to confusion and problems with changing things after the release, so revert it now, we can try again later. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <jweiner@redhat.com> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Cc: Ying Han <yinghan@google.com> Cc: Balbir Singh <bsingharora@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-09-14mm: vmscan: fix force-scanning small targets without swapJohannes Weiner
Without swap, anonymous pages are not scanned. As such, they should not count when considering force-scanning a small target if there is no swap. Otherwise, targets are not force-scanned even when their effective scan number is zero and the other conditions--kswapd/memcg--apply. This fixes 246e87a93934 ("memcg: fix get_scan_count() for small targets"). [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix comment] Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <jweiner@redhat.com> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Cc: Ying Han <yinghan@google.com> Cc: Balbir Singh <bsingharora@gmail.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-09-14numa: fix NUMA compile error when sysfs and procfs are disabledDavid Rientjes
The vmstat_text array is only defined for CONFIG_SYSFS or CONFIG_PROC_FS, yet it is referenced for per-node vmstat with CONFIG_NUMA: drivers/built-in.o: In function `node_read_vmstat': node.c:(.text+0x1106df): undefined reference to `vmstat_text' Introduced in commit fa25c503dfa2 ("mm: per-node vmstat: show proper vmstats"). Define the array for CONFIG_NUMA as well. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: remove unneeded ifdefs] Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Reported-by: Cong Wang <amwang@redhat.com> Acked-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@xenotime.net> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-09-14mm/mempolicy.c: make copy_from_user() provably correctKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki
When compiling mm/mempolicy.c with struct user copy checks the following warning is shown: In file included from arch/x86/include/asm/uaccess.h:572, from include/linux/uaccess.h:5, from include/linux/highmem.h:7, from include/linux/pagemap.h:10, from include/linux/mempolicy.h:70, from mm/mempolicy.c:68: In function `copy_from_user', inlined from `compat_sys_get_mempolicy' at mm/mempolicy.c:1415: arch/x86/include/asm/uaccess_64.h:64: warning: call to `copy_from_user_overflow' declared with attribute warning: copy_from_user() buffer size is not provably correct LD mm/built-in.o Fix this by passing correct buffer size value. Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-09-14mm/mempolicy.c: fix pgoff in mbind vma mergeCaspar Zhang
commit 9d8cebd4bcd7 ("mm: fix mbind vma merge problem") didn't really fix the mbind vma merge problem due to wrong pgoff value passing to vma_merge(), which made vma_merge() always return NULL. Before the patch applied, we are getting a result like: addr = 0x7fa58f00c000 [snip] 7fa58f00c000-7fa58f00d000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 7fa58f00d000-7fa58f00e000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 7fa58f00e000-7fa58f00f000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 here 7fa58f00c000->7fa58f00f000 we get 3 VMAs which are expected to be merged described as described in commit 9d8cebd. Re-testing the patched kernel with the reproducer provided in commit 9d8cebd, we get the correct result: addr = 0x7ffa5aaa2000 [snip] 7ffa5aaa2000-7ffa5aaa6000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 7fffd556f000-7fffd5584000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 [stack] Signed-off-by: Caspar Zhang <caspar@casparzhang.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-09-02mm: Add comment explaining task state setting in bdi_forker_thread()Jan Kara
CC: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> CC: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <jaxboe@fusionio.com>
2011-09-02mm: Cleanup clearing of BDI_pending bit in bdi_forker_thread()Jan Kara
bdi_forker_thread() clears BDI_pending bit at the end of the main loop. However clearing of this bit must not be done in some cases which is handled by calling 'continue' from switch statement. That's kind of unusual construct and without a good reason so change the function into more intuitive code flow. CC: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> CC: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <jaxboe@fusionio.com>
2011-08-27slub: add slab with one free object to partial list tailShaohua Li
The slab has just one free object, adding it to partial list head doesn't make sense. And it can cause lock contentation. For example, 1. CPU takes the slab from partial list 2. fetch an object 3. switch to another slab 4. free an object, then the slab is added to partial list again In this way n->list_lock will be heavily contended. In fact, Alex had a hackbench regression. 3.1-rc1 performance drops about 70% against 3.0. This patch fixes it. Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Reported-by: Alex Shi <alex.shi@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <shli@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
2011-08-25memcg: fix hierarchical oom lockingJohannes Weiner
Commit 79dfdaccd1d5 ("memcg: make oom_lock 0 and 1 based rather than counter") tried to oom lock the hierarchy and roll back upon encountering an already locked memcg. The code is confused when it comes to detecting a locked memcg, though, so it would fail and rollback after locking one memcg and encountering an unlocked second one. The result is that oom-locking hierarchies fails unconditionally and that every oom killer invocation simply goes to sleep on the oom waitqueue forever. The tasks practically hang forever without anyone intervening, possibly holding locks that trip up unrelated tasks, too. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <jweiner@redhat.com> Acked-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-25vmscan: clear ZONE_CONGESTED for zone with good watermarkShaohua Li
ZONE_CONGESTED is only cleared in kswapd, but pages can be freed in any task. It's possible ZONE_CONGESTED isn't cleared in some cases: 1. the zone is already balanced just entering balance_pgdat() for order-0 because concurrent tasks free memory. In this case, later check will skip the zone as it's balanced so the flag isn't cleared. 2. high order balance fallbacks to order-0. quote from Mel: At the end of balance_pgdat(), kswapd uses the following logic; If reclaiming at high order { for each zone { if all_unreclaimable skip if watermark is not met order = 0 loop again /* watermark is met */ clear congested } } i.e. it clears ZONE_CONGESTED if it the zone is balanced. if not, it restarts balancing at order-0. However, if the higher zones are balanced for order-0, kswapd will miss clearing ZONE_CONGESTED as that only happens after a zone is shrunk. This can mean that wait_iff_congested() stalls unnecessarily. This patch makes kswapd clear ZONE_CONGESTED during its initial highmem->dma scan for zones that are already balanced. Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-25mm: fix a vmscan warningShaohua Li
I get the below warning: BUG: using smp_processor_id() in preemptible [00000000] code: bash/746 caller is native_sched_clock+0x37/0x6e Pid: 746, comm: bash Tainted: G W 3.0.0+ #254 Call Trace: [<ffffffff813435c6>] debug_smp_processor_id+0xc2/0xdc [<ffffffff8104158d>] native_sched_clock+0x37/0x6e [<ffffffff81116219>] try_to_free_mem_cgroup_pages+0x7d/0x270 [<ffffffff8114f1f8>] mem_cgroup_force_empty+0x24b/0x27a [<ffffffff8114ff21>] ? sys_close+0x38/0x138 [<ffffffff8114ff21>] ? sys_close+0x38/0x138 [<ffffffff8114f257>] mem_cgroup_force_empty_write+0x17/0x19 [<ffffffff810c72fb>] cgroup_file_write+0xa8/0xba [<ffffffff811522d2>] vfs_write+0xb3/0x138 [<ffffffff8115241a>] sys_write+0x4a/0x71 [<ffffffff8114ffd9>] ? sys_close+0xf0/0x138 [<ffffffff8176deab>] system_call_fastpath+0x16/0x1b sched_clock() can't be used with preempt enabled. And we don't need fast approach to get clock here, so let's use ktime API. Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Tested-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-25memcg: pin execution to current cpu while draining stockJohannes Weiner
Commit d1a05b6973c7 ("memcg do not try to drain per-cpu caches without pages") added a drain_local_stock() call to a preemptible section. The draining task looks up the cpu-local stock twice to set the draining-flag, then to drain the stock and clear the flag again. If the task is migrated to a different CPU in between, noone will clear the flag on the first stock and it will be forever undrainable. Its charge can not be recovered and the cgroup can not be deleted anymore. Properly pin the task to the executing CPU while draining stocks. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <jweiner@redhat.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com Acked-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-25Merge branch 'urgent-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/wfg/writeback * 'urgent-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/wfg/writeback: squeeze max-pause area and drop pass-good area
2011-08-19squeeze max-pause area and drop pass-good areaWu Fengguang
Revert the pass-good area introduced in ffd1f609ab10 ("writeback: introduce max-pause and pass-good dirty limits") and make the max-pause area smaller and safe. This fixes ~30% performance regression in the ext3 data=writeback fio_mmap_randwrite_64k/fio_mmap_randrw_64k test cases, where there are 12 JBOD disks, on each disk runs 8 concurrent tasks doing reads+writes. Using deadline scheduler also has a regression, but not that big as CFQ, so this suggests we have some write starvation. The test logs show that - the disks are sometimes under utilized - global dirty pages sometimes rush high to the pass-good area for several hundred seconds, while in the mean time some bdi dirty pages drop to very low value (bdi_dirty << bdi_thresh). Then suddenly the global dirty pages dropped under global dirty threshold and bdi_dirty rush very high (for example, 2 times higher than bdi_thresh). During which time balance_dirty_pages() is not called at all. So the problems are 1) The random writes progress so slow that they break the assumption of the max-pause logic that "8 pages per 200ms is typically more than enough to curb heavy dirtiers". 2) The max-pause logic ignored task_bdi_thresh and thus opens the possibility for some bdi's to over dirty pages, leading to (bdi_dirty >> bdi_thresh) and then (bdi_thresh >> bdi_dirty) for others. 3) The higher max-pause/pass-good thresholds somehow leads to the bad swing of dirty pages. The fix is to allow the task to slightly dirty over task_bdi_thresh, but no way to exceed bdi_dirty and/or global dirty_thresh. Tests show that it fixed the JBOD regression completely (both behavior and performance), while still being able to cut down large pause times in balance_dirty_pages() for single-disk cases. Reported-by: Li Shaohua <shaohua.li@intel.com> Tested-by: Li Shaohua <shaohua.li@intel.com> Acked-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
2011-08-17mm: make HASHED_PAGE_VIRTUAL page_address' struct page argument const.Ian Campbell
Followup to 33dd4e0ec911 "mm: make some struct page's const" which missed the HASHED_PAGE_VIRTUAL case. Signed-off-by: Ian Campbell <ian.campbell@citrix.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-14mm: fix wrong vmap address calculations with odd NR_CPUS valuesClemens Ladisch
Commit db64fe02258f ("mm: rewrite vmap layer") introduced code that does address calculations under the assumption that VMAP_BLOCK_SIZE is a power of two. However, this might not be true if CONFIG_NR_CPUS is not set to a power of two. Wrong vmap_block index/offset values could lead to memory corruption. However, this has never been observed in practice (or never been diagnosed correctly); what caught this was the BUG_ON in vb_alloc() that checks for inconsistent vmap_block indices. To fix this, ensure that VMAP_BLOCK_SIZE always is a power of two. BugLink: https://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=31572 Reported-by: Pavel Kysilka <goldenfish@linuxsoft.cz> Reported-by: Matias A. Fonzo <selk@dragora.org> Signed-off-by: Clemens Ladisch <clemens@ladisch.de> Signed-off-by: Stefan Richter <stefanr@s5r6.in-berlin.de> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Jeremy Fitzhardinge <jeremy@goop.org> Cc: Krzysztof Helt <krzysztof.h1@poczta.fm> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: 2.6.28+ <stable@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-09Revert "memcg: get rid of percpu_charge_mutex lock"Michal Hocko
This reverts commit 8521fc50d433507a7cdc96bec280f9e5888a54cc. The patch incorrectly assumes that using atomic FLUSHING_CACHED_CHARGE bit operations is sufficient but that is not true. Johannes Weiner has reported a crash during parallel memory cgroup removal: BUG: unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at 0000000000000018 IP: [<ffffffff81083b70>] css_is_ancestor+0x20/0x70 Oops: 0000 [#1] PREEMPT SMP Pid: 19677, comm: rmdir Tainted: G W 3.0.0-mm1-00188-gf38d32b #35 ECS MCP61M-M3/MCP61M-M3 RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff81083b70>] css_is_ancestor+0x20/0x70 RSP: 0018:ffff880077b09c88 EFLAGS: 00010202 Process rmdir (pid: 19677, threadinfo ffff880077b08000, task ffff8800781bb310) Call Trace: [<ffffffff810feba3>] mem_cgroup_same_or_subtree+0x33/0x40 [<ffffffff810feccf>] drain_all_stock+0x11f/0x170 [<ffffffff81103211>] mem_cgroup_force_empty+0x231/0x6d0 [<ffffffff811036c4>] mem_cgroup_pre_destroy+0x14/0x20 [<ffffffff81080559>] cgroup_rmdir+0xb9/0x500 [<ffffffff81114d26>] vfs_rmdir+0x86/0xe0 [<ffffffff81114e7b>] do_rmdir+0xfb/0x110 [<ffffffff81114ea6>] sys_rmdir+0x16/0x20 [<ffffffff8154d76b>] system_call_fastpath+0x16/0x1b We are crashing because we try to dereference cached memcg when we are checking whether we should wait for draining on the cache. The cache is already cleaned up, though. There is also a theoretical chance that the cached memcg gets freed between we test for the FLUSHING_CACHED_CHARGE and dereference it in mem_cgroup_same_or_subtree: CPU0 CPU1 CPU2 mem=stock->cached stock->cached=NULL clear_bit test_and_set_bit test_bit() ... <preempted> mem_cgroup_destroy use after free The percpu_charge_mutex protected from this race because sync draining is exclusive. It is safer to revert now and come up with a more parallel implementation later. Signed-off-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Reported-by: Johannes Weiner <jweiner@redhat.com> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <jweiner@redhat.com> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: stable@kernel.org Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-09slub: Fix partial count comparison confusionChristoph Lameter
deactivate_slab() has the comparison if more than the minimum number of partial pages are in the partial list wrong. An effect of this may be that empty pages are not freed from deactivate_slab(). The result could be an OOM due to growth of the partial slabs per node. Frees mostly occur from __slab_free which is okay so this would only affect use cases where a lot of switching around of per cpu slabs occur. Switching per cpu slabs occurs with high frequency if debugging options are enabled. Reported-and-tested-by: Xiaotian Feng <xtfeng@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Signed-off-by: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
2011-08-09slub: fix check_bytes() for slub debuggingAkinobu Mita
The check_bytes() function is used by slub debugging. It returns a pointer to the first unmatching byte for a character in the given memory area. If the character for matching byte is greater than 0x80, check_bytes() doesn't work. Becuase 64-bit pattern is generated as below. value64 = value | value << 8 | value << 16 | value << 24; value64 = value64 | value64 << 32; The integer promotions are performed and sign-extended as the type of value is u8. The upper 32 bits of value64 is 0xffffffff in the first line, and the second line has no effect. This fixes the 64-bit pattern generation. Signed-off-by: Akinobu Mita <akinobu.mita@gmail.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Matt Mackall <mpm@selenic.com> Reviewed-by: Marcin Slusarz <marcin.slusarz@gmail.com> Acked-by: Eric Dumazet <eric.dumazet@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
2011-08-09slub: Fix full list corruption if debugging is onChristoph Lameter
When a slab is freed by __slab_free() and the slab can only contain a single object ever then it was full (and therefore not on the partial lists but on the full list in the debug case) before we reached slab_empty. This caused the following full list corruption when SLUB debugging was enabled: [ 5913.233035] ------------[ cut here ]------------ [ 5913.233097] WARNING: at lib/list_debug.c:53 __list_del_entry+0x8d/0x98() [ 5913.233101] Hardware name: Adamo 13 [ 5913.233105] list_del corruption. prev->next should be ffffea000434fd20, but was ffffea0004199520 [ 5913.233108] Modules linked in: nfs fscache fuse ebtable_nat ebtables ppdev parport_pc lp parport ipt_MASQUERADE iptable_nat nf_nat nfsd lockd nfs_acl auth_rpcgss xt_CHECKSUM sunrpc iptable_mangle bridge stp llc cpufreq_ondemand acpi_cpufreq freq_table mperf ip6t_REJECT nf_conntrack_ipv6 nf_defrag_ipv6 ip6table_filter ip6_tables rfcomm bnep arc4 iwlagn snd_hda_codec_hdmi snd_hda_codec_idt snd_hda_intel btusb mac80211 snd_hda_codec bluetooth snd_hwdep snd_seq snd_seq_device snd_pcm usb_debug dell_wmi sparse_keymap cdc_ether usbnet cdc_acm uvcvideo cdc_wdm mii cfg80211 snd_timer dell_laptop videodev dcdbas snd microcode v4l2_compat_ioctl32 soundcore joydev tg3 pcspkr snd_page_alloc iTCO_wdt i2c_i801 rfkill iTCO_vendor_support wmi virtio_net kvm_intel kvm ipv6 xts gf128mul dm_crypt i915 drm_kms_helper drm i2c_algo_bit i2c_core video [last unloaded: scsi_wait_scan] [ 5913.233213] Pid: 0, comm: swapper Not tainted 3.0.0+ #127 [ 5913.233213] Call Trace: [ 5913.233213] <IRQ> [<ffffffff8105df18>] warn_slowpath_common+0x83/0x9b [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffff8105dfd3>] warn_slowpath_fmt+0x46/0x48 [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffff8127e7c1>] __list_del_entry+0x8d/0x98 [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffff8127e7da>] list_del+0xe/0x2d [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffff814e0430>] __slab_free+0x1db/0x235 [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffff811706ab>] ? bvec_free_bs+0x35/0x37 [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffff811706ab>] ? bvec_free_bs+0x35/0x37 [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffff811706ab>] ? bvec_free_bs+0x35/0x37 [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffff81133085>] kmem_cache_free+0x88/0x102 [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffff811706ab>] bvec_free_bs+0x35/0x37 [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffff811706e1>] bio_free+0x34/0x64 [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffff813dc390>] dm_bio_destructor+0x12/0x14 [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffff8116fef6>] bio_put+0x2b/0x2d [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffff813dccab>] clone_endio+0x9e/0xb4 [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffff8116f7dd>] bio_endio+0x2d/0x2f [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffffa00148da>] crypt_dec_pending+0x5c/0x8b [dm_crypt] [ 5913.233213] [<ffffffffa00150a9>] crypt_endio+0x78/0x81 [dm_crypt] [ Full discussion here: https://lkml.org/lkml/2011/8/4/375 ] Make sure that we remove such a slab also from the full lists. Reported-and-tested-by: Dave Jones <davej@redhat.com> Reported-and-tested-by: Xiaotian Feng <xtfeng@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Signed-off-by: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
2011-08-04Merge branch 'core-urgent-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/linux-2.6-tip * 'core-urgent-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/linux-2.6-tip: slab, lockdep: Annotate the locks before using them lockdep: Clear whole lockdep_map on initialization slab, lockdep: Annotate slab -> rcu -> debug_object -> slab lockdep: Fix up warning lockdep: Fix trace_hardirqs_on_caller() futex: Fix regression with read only mappings
2011-08-04slab, lockdep: Annotate the locks before using themPeter Zijlstra
Fernando found we hit the regular OFF_SLAB 'recursion' before we annotate the locks, cure this. The relevant portion of the stack-trace: > [ 0.000000] [<c085e24f>] rt_spin_lock+0x50/0x56 > [ 0.000000] [<c04fb406>] __cache_free+0x43/0xc3 > [ 0.000000] [<c04fb23f>] kmem_cache_free+0x6c/0xdc > [ 0.000000] [<c04fb2fe>] slab_destroy+0x4f/0x53 > [ 0.000000] [<c04fb396>] free_block+0x94/0xc1 > [ 0.000000] [<c04fc551>] do_tune_cpucache+0x10b/0x2bb > [ 0.000000] [<c04fc8dc>] enable_cpucache+0x7b/0xa7 > [ 0.000000] [<c0bd9d3c>] kmem_cache_init_late+0x1f/0x61 > [ 0.000000] [<c0bba687>] start_kernel+0x24c/0x363 > [ 0.000000] [<c0bba0ba>] i386_start_kernel+0xa9/0xaf Reported-by: Fernando Lopez-Lezcano <nando@ccrma.Stanford.EDU> Acked-by: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1311888176.2617.379.camel@laptop Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2011-08-04slab, lockdep: Annotate slab -> rcu -> debug_object -> slabPeter Zijlstra
Lockdep thinks there's lock recursion through: kmem_cache_free() cache_flusharray() spin_lock(&l3->list_lock) <----------------. free_block() | slab_destroy() | call_rcu() | debug_object_activate() | debug_object_init() | __debug_object_init() | kmem_cache_alloc() | cache_alloc_refill() | spin_lock(&l3->list_lock) --' Now debug objects doesn't use SLAB_DESTROY_BY_RCU and hence there is no actual possibility of recursing. Luckily debug objects marks it slab with SLAB_DEBUG_OBJECTS so we can identify the thing. Mark all SLAB_DEBUG_OBJECTS (all one!) slab caches with a special lockdep key so that lockdep sees its a different cachep. Also add a WARN on trying to create a SLAB_DESTROY_BY_RCU | SLAB_DEBUG_OBJECTS cache, to avoid possible future trouble. Reported-and-tested-by: Sebastian Siewior <sebastian@breakpoint.cc> [ fixes to the initial patch ] Reported-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Acked-by: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1311341165.27400.58.camel@twins Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2011-08-03Merge branch 'apei-release' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/lenb/linux-acpi-2.6 * 'apei-release' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/lenb/linux-acpi-2.6: ACPI, APEI, EINJ Param support is disabled by default APEI GHES: 32-bit buildfix ACPI: APEI build fix ACPI, APEI, GHES: Add hardware memory error recovery support HWPoison: add memory_failure_queue() ACPI, APEI, GHES, Error records content based throttle ACPI, APEI, GHES, printk support for recoverable error via NMI lib, Make gen_pool memory allocator lockless lib, Add lock-less NULL terminated single list Add Kconfig option ARCH_HAVE_NMI_SAFE_CMPXCHG ACPI, APEI, Add WHEA _OSC support ACPI, APEI, Add APEI bit support in generic _OSC call ACPI, APEI, GHES, Support disable GHES at boot time ACPI, APEI, GHES, Prevent GHES to be built as module ACPI, APEI, Use apei_exec_run_optional in APEI EINJ and ERST ACPI, APEI, Add apei_exec_run_optional ACPI, APEI, GHES, Do not ratelimit fatal error printk before panic ACPI, APEI, ERST, Fix erst-dbg long record reading issue ACPI, APEI, ERST, Prevent erst_dbg from loading if ERST is disabled
2011-08-03mm: clarify the radix_tree exceptional casesHugh Dickins
Make the radix_tree exceptional cases, mostly in filemap.c, clearer. It's hard to devise a suitable snappy name that illuminates the use by shmem/tmpfs for swap, while keeping filemap/pagecache/radix_tree generality. And akpm points out that /* radix_tree_deref_retry(page) */ comments look like calls that have been commented out for unknown reason. Skirt the naming difficulty by rearranging these blocks to handle the transient radix_tree_deref_retry(page) case first; then just explain the remaining shmem/tmpfs swap case in a comment. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-03tmpfs radix_tree: locate_item to speed up swapoffHugh Dickins
We have already acknowledged that swapoff of a tmpfs file is slower than it was before conversion to the generic radix_tree: a little slower there will be acceptable, if the hotter paths are faster. But it was a shock to find swapoff of a 500MB file 20 times slower on my laptop, taking 10 minutes; and at that rate it significantly slows down my testing. Now, most of that turned out to be overhead from PROVE_LOCKING and PROVE_RCU: without those it was only 4 times slower than before; and more realistic tests on other machines don't fare as badly. I've tried a number of things to improve it, including tagging the swap entries, then doing lookup by tag: I'd expected that to halve the time, but in practice it's erratic, and often counter-productive. The only change I've so far found to make a consistent improvement, is to short-circuit the way we go back and forth, gang lookup packing entries into the array supplied, then shmem scanning that array for the target entry. Scanning in place doubles the speed, so it's now only twice as slow as before (or three times slower when the PROVEs are on). So, add radix_tree_locate_item() as an expedient, once-off, single-caller hack to do the lookup directly in place. #ifdef it on CONFIG_SHMEM and CONFIG_SWAP, as much to document its limited applicability as save space in other configurations. And, sadly, #include sched.h for cond_resched(). Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-03mm: a few small updates for radix-swapHugh Dickins
Remove PageSwapBacked (!page_is_file_cache) cases from add_to_page_cache_locked() and add_to_page_cache_lru(): those pages now go through shmem_add_to_page_cache(). Remove a comment on maximum tmpfs size from fsstack_copy_inode_size(), and add a comment on swap entries to invalidate_mapping_pages(). And mincore_page() uses find_get_page() on what might be shmem or a tmpfs file: allow for a radix_tree_exceptional_entry(), and proceed to find_get_page() on swapper_space if so (oh, swapper_space needs #ifdef). Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-03tmpfs: use kmemdup for short symlinksHugh Dickins
But we've not yet removed the old swp_entry_t i_direct[16] from shmem_inode_info. That's because it was still being shared with the inline symlink. Remove it now (saving 64 or 128 bytes from shmem inode size), and use kmemdup() for short symlinks, say, those up to 128 bytes. I wonder why mpol_free_shared_policy() is done in shmem_destroy_inode() rather than shmem_evict_inode(), where we usually do such freeing? I guess it doesn't matter, and I'm not into NUMA mpol testing right now. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-03tmpfs: convert shmem_writepage and enable swapHugh Dickins
Convert shmem_writepage() to use shmem_delete_from_page_cache() to use shmem_radix_tree_replace() to substitute swap entry for page pointer atomically in the radix tree. As with shmem_add_to_page_cache(), it's not entirely satisfactory to be copying such code from delete_from_swap_cache, but again judged easier to sell than making its other callers go through the extras. Remove the toy implementation's shmem_put_swap() and shmem_get_swap(), now unreferenced, and the hack to disable swap: it's now good to go. The way things have worked out, info->lock no longer helps to guard the shmem_swaplist: we increment swapped under shmem_swaplist_mutex only. That global mutex exclusion between shmem_writepage() and shmem_unuse() is not pretty, and we ought to find another way; but it's been forced on us by recent race discoveries, not a consequence of this patchset. And what has become of the WARN_ON_ONCE(1) free_swap_and_cache() if a swap entry was found already present? That's no longer possible, the (unknown) one inserting this page into filecache would hit the swap entry occupying that slot. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-03tmpfs: convert mem_cgroup shmem to radix-swapHugh Dickins
Remove mem_cgroup_shmem_charge_fallback(): it was only required when we had to move swappage to filecache with GFP_NOWAIT. Remove the GFP_NOWAIT special case from mem_cgroup_cache_charge(), by moving its call out from shmem_add_to_page_cache() to two of thats three callers. But leave it doing mem_cgroup_uncharge_cache_page() on error: although asymmetrical, it's easier for all 3 callers to handle. These two changes would also be appropriate if anyone were to start using shmem_read_mapping_page_gfp() with GFP_NOWAIT. Remove mem_cgroup_get_shmem_target(): mc_handle_file_pte() can test radix_tree_exceptional_entry() to get what it needs for itself. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-03tmpfs: convert shmem_getpage_gfp to radix-swapHugh Dickins
Convert shmem_getpage_gfp(), the engine-room of shmem, to expect page or swap entry returned from radix tree by find_lock_page(). Whereas the repetitive old method proceeded mainly under info->lock, dropping and repeating whenever one of the conditions needed was not met, now we can proceed without it, leaving shmem_add_to_page_cache() to check for a race. This way there is no need to preallocate a page, no need for an early radix_tree_preload(), no need for mem_cgroup_shmem_charge_fallback(). Move the error unwinding down to the bottom instead of repeating it throughout. ENOSPC handling is a little different from before: there is no longer any race between find_lock_page() and finding swap, but we can arrive at ENOSPC before calling shmem_recalc_inode(), which might occasionally discover freed space. Be stricter to check i_size before returning. info->lock is used for little but alloced, swapped, i_blocks updates. Move i_blocks updates out from under the max_blocks check, so even an unlimited size=0 mount can show accurate du. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-03tmpfs: convert shmem_unuse_inode to radix-swapHugh Dickins
Convert shmem_unuse_inode() to use a lockless gang lookup of the radix tree, searching for matching swap. This is somewhat slower than the old method: because of repeated radix tree descents, because of copying entries up, but probably most because the old method noted and skipped once a vector page was cleared of swap. Perhaps we can devise a use of radix tree tagging to achieve that later. shmem_add_to_page_cache() uses shmem_radix_tree_replace() to compensate for the lockless lookup by checking that the expected entry is in place, under lock. It is not very satisfactory to be copying this much from add_to_page_cache_locked(), but I think easier to sell than insisting that every caller of add_to_page_cache*() go through the extras. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-03tmpfs: convert shmem_truncate_range to radix-swapHugh Dickins
Disable the toy swapping implementation in shmem_writepage() - it's hard to support two schemes at once - and convert shmem_truncate_range() to a lockless gang lookup of swap entries along with pages, freeing both. Since the second loop tightens its noose until all entries of either kind have been squeezed out (and we shall make sure that there's not an instant when neither is visible), there is no longer a need for yet another pass below. shmem_radix_tree_replace() compensates for the lockless lookup by checking that the expected entry is in place, under lock, before replacing it. Here it just deletes, but will be used in later patches to substitute swap entry for page or page for swap entry. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-03tmpfs: copy truncate_inode_pages_rangeHugh Dickins
Bring truncate.c's code for truncate_inode_pages_range() inline into shmem_truncate_range(), replacing its first call (there's a followup call below, but leave that one, it will disappear next). Don't play with it yet, apart from leaving out the cleancache flush, and (importantly) the nrpages == 0 skip, and moving shmem_setattr()'s partial page preparation into its partial page handling. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-03tmpfs: miscellaneous trivial cleanupsHugh Dickins
While it's at its least, make a number of boring nitpicky cleanups to shmem.c, mostly for consistency of variable naming. Things like "swap" instead of "entry", "pgoff_t index" instead of "unsigned long idx". And since everything else here is prefixed "shmem_", better change init_tmpfs() to shmem_init(). Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-03tmpfs: demolish old swap vector supportHugh Dickins
The maximum size of a shmem/tmpfs file has been limited by the maximum size of its triple-indirect swap vector. With 4kB page size, maximum filesize was just over 2TB on a 32-bit kernel, but sadly one eighth of that on a 64-bit kernel. (With 8kB page size, maximum filesize was just over 4TB on a 64-bit kernel, but 16TB on a 32-bit kernel, MAX_LFS_FILESIZE being then more restrictive than swap vector layout.) It's a shame that tmpfs should be more restrictive than ramfs, and this limitation has now been noticed. Add another level to the swap vector? No, it became obscure and hard to maintain, once I complicated it to make use of highmem pages nine years ago: better choose another way. Surely, if 2.4 had had the radix tree pagecache introduced in 2.5, then tmpfs would never have invented its own peculiar radix tree: we would have fitted swap entries into the common radix tree instead, in much the same way as we fit swap entries into page tables. And why should each file have a separate radix tree for its pages and for its swap entries? The swap entries are required precisely where and when the pages are not. We want to put them together in a single radix tree: which can then avoid much of the locking which was needed to prevent them from being exchanged underneath us. This also avoids the waste of memory devoted to swap vectors, first in the shmem_inode itself, then at least two more pages once a file grew beyond 16 data pages (pages accounted by df and du, but not by memcg). Allocated upfront, to avoid allocation when under swapping pressure, but pure waste when CONFIG_SWAP is not set - I have never spattered around the ifdefs to prevent that, preferring this move to sharing the common radix tree instead. There are three downsides to sharing the radix tree. One, that it binds tmpfs more tightly to the rest of mm, either requiring knowledge of swap entries in radix tree there, or duplication of its code here in shmem.c. I believe that the simplications and memory savings (and probable higher performance, not yet measured) justify that. Two, that on HIGHMEM systems with SWAP enabled, it's the lowmem radix nodes that cannot be freed under memory pressure - whereas before it was the less precious highmem swap vector pages that could not be freed. I'm hoping that 64-bit has now been accessible for long enough, that the highmem argument has grown much less persuasive. Three, that swapoff is slower than it used to be on tmpfs files, since it's using a simple generic mechanism not tailored to it: I find this noticeable, and shall want to improve, but maybe nobody else will notice. So... now remove most of the old swap vector code from shmem.c. But, for the moment, keep the simple i_direct vector of 16 pages, with simple accessors shmem_put_swap() and shmem_get_swap(), as a toy implementation to help mark where swap needs to be handled in subsequent patches. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-03mm: let swap use exceptional entriesHugh Dickins
If swap entries are to be stored along with struct page pointers in a radix tree, they need to be distinguished as exceptional entries. Most of the handling of swap entries in radix tree will be contained in shmem.c, but a few functions in filemap.c's common code need to check for their appearance: find_get_page(), find_lock_page(), find_get_pages() and find_get_pages_contig(). So as not to slow their fast paths, tuck those checks inside the existing checks for unlikely radix_tree_deref_slot(); except for find_lock_page(), where it is an added test. And make it a BUG in find_get_pages_tag(), which is not applied to tmpfs files. A part of the reason for eliminating shmem_readpage() earlier, was to minimize the places where common code would need to allow for swap entries. The swp_entry_t known to swapfile.c must be massaged into a slightly different form when stored in the radix tree, just as it gets massaged into a pte_t when stored in page tables. In an i386 kernel this limits its information (type and page offset) to 30 bits: given 32 "types" of swapfile and 4kB pagesize, that's a maximum swapfile size of 128GB. Which is less than the 512GB we previously allowed with X86_PAE (where the swap entry can occupy the entire upper 32 bits of a pte_t), but not a new limitation on 32-bit without PAE; and there's not a new limitation on 64-bit (where swap filesize is already limited to 16TB by a 32-bit page offset). Thirty areas of 128GB is probably still enough swap for a 64GB 32-bit machine. Provide swp_to_radix_entry() and radix_to_swp_entry() conversions, and enforce filesize limit in read_swap_header(), just as for ptes. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-03radix_tree: exceptional entries and indicesHugh Dickins
A patchset to extend tmpfs to MAX_LFS_FILESIZE by abandoning its peculiar swap vector, instead keeping a file's swap entries in the same radix tree as its struct page pointers: thus saving memory, and simplifying its code and locking. This patch: The radix_tree is used by several subsystems for different purposes. A major use is to store the struct page pointers of a file's pagecache for memory management. But what if mm wanted to store something other than page pointers there too? The low bit of a radix_tree entry is already used to denote an indirect pointer, for internal use, and the unlikely radix_tree_deref_retry() case. Define the next bit as denoting an exceptional entry, and supply inline functions radix_tree_exception() to return non-0 in either unlikely case, and radix_tree_exceptional_entry() to return non-0 in the second case. If a subsystem already uses radix_tree with that bit set, no problem: it does not affect internal workings at all, but is defined for the convenience of those storing well-aligned pointers in the radix_tree. The radix_tree_gang_lookups have an implicit assumption that the caller can deduce the offset of each entry returned e.g. by the page->index of a struct page. But that may not be feasible for some kinds of item to be stored there. radix_tree_gang_lookup_slot() allow for an optional indices argument, output array in which to return those offsets. The same could be added to other radix_tree_gang_lookups, but for now keep it to the only one for which we need it. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-08-03fault-injection: add ability to export fault_attr in arbitrary directoryAkinobu Mita
init_fault_attr_dentries() is used to export fault_attr via debugfs. But it can only export it in debugfs root directory. Per Forlin is working on mmc_fail_request which adds support to inject data errors after a completed host transfer in MMC subsystem. The fault_attr for mmc_fail_request should be defined per mmc host and export it in debugfs directory per mmc host like /sys/kernel/debug/mmc0/mmc_fail_request. init_fault_attr_dentries() doesn't help for mmc_fail_request. So this introduces fault_create_debugfs_attr() which is able to create a directory in the arbitrary directory and replace init_fault_attr_dentries(). [akpm@linux-foundation.org: extraneous semicolon, per Randy] Signed-off-by: Akinobu Mita <akinobu.mita@gmail.com> Tested-by: Per Forlin <per.forlin@linaro.org> Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org> Cc: Matt Mackall <mpm@selenic.com> Cc: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@xenotime.net> Cc: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>