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2015-04-14Merge branch 'perf-core-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// Pull perf changes from Ingo Molnar: "Core kernel changes: - One of the more interesting features in this cycle is the ability to attach eBPF programs (user-defined, sandboxed bytecode executed by the kernel) to kprobes. This allows user-defined instrumentation on a live kernel image that can never crash, hang or interfere with the kernel negatively. (Right now it's limited to root-only, but in the future we might allow unprivileged use as well.) (Alexei Starovoitov) - Another non-trivial feature is per event clockid support: this allows, amongst other things, the selection of different clock sources for event timestamps traced via perf. This feature is sought by people who'd like to merge perf generated events with external events that were measured with different clocks: - cluster wide profiling - for system wide tracing with user-space events, - JIT profiling events etc. Matching perf tooling support is added as well, available via the -k, --clockid <clockid> parameter to perf record et al. (Peter Zijlstra) Hardware enablement kernel changes: - x86 Intel Processor Trace (PT) support: which is a hardware tracer on steroids, available on Broadwell CPUs. The hardware trace stream is directly output into the user-space ring-buffer, using the 'AUX' data format extension that was added to the perf core to support hardware constraints such as the necessity to have the tracing buffer physically contiguous. This patch-set was developed for two years and this is the result. A simple way to make use of this is to use BTS tracing, the PT driver emulates BTS output - available via the 'intel_bts' PMU. More explicit PT specific tooling support is in the works as well - will probably be ready by 4.2. (Alexander Shishkin, Peter Zijlstra) - x86 Intel Cache QoS Monitoring (CQM) support: this is a hardware feature of Intel Xeon CPUs that allows the measurement and allocation/partitioning of caches to individual workloads. These kernel changes expose the measurement side as a new PMU driver, which exposes various QoS related PMU events. (The partitioning change is work in progress and is planned to be merged as a cgroup extension.) (Matt Fleming, Peter Zijlstra; CPU feature detection by Peter P Waskiewicz Jr) - x86 Intel Haswell LBR call stack support: this is a new Haswell feature that allows the hardware recording of call chains, plus tooling support. To activate this feature you have to enable it via the new 'lbr' call-graph recording option: perf record --call-graph lbr perf report or: perf top --call-graph lbr This hardware feature is a lot faster than stack walk or dwarf based unwinding, but has some limitations: - It reuses the current LBR facility, so LBR call stack and branch record can not be enabled at the same time. - It is only available for user-space callchains. (Yan, Zheng) - x86 Intel Broadwell CPU support and various event constraints and event table fixes for earlier models. (Andi Kleen) - x86 Intel HT CPUs event scheduling workarounds. This is a complex CPU bug affecting the SNB,IVB,HSW families that results in counter value corruption. The mitigation code is automatically enabled and is transparent. (Maria Dimakopoulou, Stephane Eranian) The perf tooling side had a ton of changes in this cycle as well, so I'm only able to list the user visible changes here, in addition to the tooling changes outlined above: User visible changes affecting all tools: - Improve support of compressed kernel modules (Jiri Olsa) - Save DSO loading errno to better report errors (Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo) - Bash completion for subcommands (Yunlong Song) - Add 'I' event modifier for perf_event_attr.exclude_idle bit (Jiri Olsa) - Support missing -f to override file ownership. (Yunlong Song) - Show the first event with an invalid filter (David Ahern, Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo) User visible changes in individual tools: 'perf data': New tool for converting to other formats, initially for the CTF (Common Trace Format) from LTTng (Jiri Olsa, Sebastian Siewior) 'perf diff': Add --kallsyms option (David Ahern) 'perf list': Allow listing events with 'tracepoint' prefix (Yunlong Song) Sort the output of the command (Yunlong Song) 'perf kmem': Respect -i option (Jiri Olsa) Print big numbers using thousands' group (Namhyung Kim) Allow -v option (Namhyung Kim) Fix alignment of slab result table (Namhyung Kim) 'perf probe': Support multiple probes on different binaries on the same command line (Masami Hiramatsu) Support unnamed union/structure members data collection. (Masami Hiramatsu) Check kprobes blacklist when adding new events. (Masami Hiramatsu) 'perf record': Teach 'perf record' about perf_event_attr.clockid (Peter Zijlstra) Support recording running/enabled time (Andi Kleen) 'perf sched': Improve the performance of 'perf sched replay' on high CPU core count machines (Yunlong Song) 'perf report' and 'perf top': Allow annotating entries in callchains in the hists browser (Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo) Indicate which callchain entries are annotated in the TUI hists browser (Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo) Add pid/tid filtering to 'report' and 'script' commands (David Ahern) Consider PERF_RECORD_ events with cpumode == 0 in 'perf top', removing one cause of long term memory usage buildup, i.e. not processing PERF_RECORD_EXIT events (Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo) 'perf stat': Report unsupported events properly (Suzuki K. Poulose) Output running time and run/enabled ratio in CSV mode (Andi Kleen) 'perf trace': Handle legacy syscalls tracepoints (David Ahern, Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo) Only insert blank duration bracket when tracing syscalls (Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo) Filter out the trace pid when no threads are specified (Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo) Dump stack on segfaults (Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo) No need to explicitely enable evsels for workload started from perf, let it be enabled via perf_event_attr.enable_on_exec, removing some events that take place in the 'perf trace' before a workload is really started by it. (Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo) Allow mixing with tracepoints and suppressing plain syscalls. (Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo) There's also been a ton of infrastructure work done, such as the split-out of perf's build system into tools/build/ and other changes - see the shortlog and changelog for details" * 'perf-core-for-linus' of git:// (358 commits) perf/x86/intel/pt: Clean up the control flow in pt_pmu_hw_init() perf evlist: Fix type for references to data_head/tail perf probe: Check the orphaned -x option perf probe: Support multiple probes on different binaries perf buildid-list: Fix segfault when show DSOs with hits perf tools: Fix cross-endian analysis perf tools: Fix error path to do closedir() when synthesizing threads perf tools: Fix synthesizing fork_event.ppid for non-main thread perf tools: Add 'I' event modifier for exclude_idle bit perf report: Don't call map__kmap if map is NULL. perf tests: Fix attr tests perf probe: Fix ARM 32 building error perf tools: Merge all perf_event_attr print functions perf record: Add clockid parameter perf sched replay: Use replay_repeat to calculate the runavg of cpu usage instead of the default value 10 perf sched replay: Support using -f to override file ownership perf sched replay: Fix the EMFILE error caused by the limitation of the maximum open files perf sched replay: Handle the dead halt of sem_wait when create_tasks() fails for any task perf sched replay: Fix the segmentation fault problem caused by pr_err in threads perf sched replay: Realloc the memory of pid_to_task stepwise to adapt to the different pid_max configurations ...
2015-04-14Merge tag 'trace-v4.1' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// Pull tracing updates from Steven Rostedt: "Some clean ups and small fixes, but the biggest change is the addition of the TRACE_DEFINE_ENUM() macro that can be used by tracepoints. Tracepoints have helper functions for the TP_printk() called __print_symbolic() and __print_flags() that lets a numeric number be displayed as a a human comprehensible text. What is placed in the TP_printk() is also shown in the tracepoint format file such that user space tools like perf and trace-cmd can parse the binary data and express the values too. Unfortunately, the way the TRACE_EVENT() macro works, anything placed in the TP_printk() will be shown pretty much exactly as is. The problem arises when enums are used. That's because unlike macros, enums will not be changed into their values by the C pre-processor. Thus, the enum string is exported to the format file, and this makes it useless for user space tools. The TRACE_DEFINE_ENUM() solves this by converting the enum strings in the TP_printk() format into their number, and that is what is shown to user space. For example, the tracepoint tlb_flush currently has this in its format file: __print_symbolic(REC->reason, { TLB_FLUSH_ON_TASK_SWITCH, "flush on task switch" }, { TLB_REMOTE_SHOOTDOWN, "remote shootdown" }, { TLB_LOCAL_SHOOTDOWN, "local shootdown" }, { TLB_LOCAL_MM_SHOOTDOWN, "local mm shootdown" }) After adding: TRACE_DEFINE_ENUM(TLB_FLUSH_ON_TASK_SWITCH); TRACE_DEFINE_ENUM(TLB_REMOTE_SHOOTDOWN); TRACE_DEFINE_ENUM(TLB_LOCAL_SHOOTDOWN); TRACE_DEFINE_ENUM(TLB_LOCAL_MM_SHOOTDOWN); Its format file will contain this: __print_symbolic(REC->reason, { 0, "flush on task switch" }, { 1, "remote shootdown" }, { 2, "local shootdown" }, { 3, "local mm shootdown" })" * tag 'trace-v4.1' of git:// (27 commits) tracing: Add enum_map file to show enums that have been mapped writeback: Export enums used by tracepoint to user space v4l: Export enums used by tracepoints to user space SUNRPC: Export enums in tracepoints to user space mm: tracing: Export enums in tracepoints to user space irq/tracing: Export enums in tracepoints to user space f2fs: Export the enums in the tracepoints to userspace net/9p/tracing: Export enums in tracepoints to userspace x86/tlb/trace: Export enums in used by tlb_flush tracepoint tracing/samples: Update the trace-event-sample.h with TRACE_DEFINE_ENUM() tracing: Allow for modules to convert their enums to values tracing: Add TRACE_DEFINE_ENUM() macro to map enums to their values tracing: Update trace-event-sample with TRACE_SYSTEM_VAR documentation tracing: Give system name a pointer brcmsmac: Move each system tracepoints to their own header iwlwifi: Move each system tracepoints to their own header mac80211: Move message tracepoints to their own header tracing: Add TRACE_SYSTEM_VAR to xhci-hcd tracing: Add TRACE_SYSTEM_VAR to kvm-s390 tracing: Add TRACE_SYSTEM_VAR to intel-sst ...
2015-04-14Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// Pull HID updates from Jiri Kosina: - quite a few firmware fixes for RMI driver by Andrew Duggan - huion and uclogic drivers have been substantially overlaping in functionality laterly. This redundancy is fixed by hid-huion driver being merged into hid-uclogic; work done by Benjamin Tissoires and Nikolai Kondrashov - i2c-hid now supports ACPI GPIO interrupts; patch from Mika Westerberg - Some of the quirks, that got separated into individual drivers, have historically had EXPERT dependency. As HID subsystem matured (as well as the individual drivers), this made less and less sense. This dependency is now being removed by patch from Jean Delvare - Logitech lg4ff driver received a couple of improvements for mode switching, by Michal Malý - multitouch driver now supports clickpads, patches by Benjamin Tissoires and Seth Forshee - hid-sensor framework received a substantial update; namely support for Custom and Generic pages is being added; work done by Srinivas Pandruvada - wacom driver received substantial update; it now supports i2c-conntected devices (Mika Westerberg), Bamboo PADs are now properly supported (Benjamin Tissoires), much improved battery reporting (Jason Gerecke) and pen proximity cleanups (Ping Cheng) - small assorted fixes and device ID additions * 'for-linus' of git:// (68 commits) HID: sensor: Update document for custom sensor HID: sensor: Custom and Generic sensor support HID: debug: fix error handling in hid_debug_events_read() Input - mt: Fix input_mt_get_slot_by_key HID: logitech-hidpp: fix error return code HID: wacom: Add support for Cintiq 13HD Touch HID: logitech-hidpp: add a module parameter to keep firmware gestures HID: usbhid: yet another mouse with ALWAYS_POLL HID: usbhid: more mice with ALWAYS_POLL HID: wacom: set stylus_in_proximity before checking touch_down HID: wacom: use wacom_wac_finger_count_touches to set touch_down HID: wacom: remove hardcoded WACOM_QUIRK_MULTI_INPUT HID: pidff: effect can't be NULL HID: add quirk for PIXART OEM mouse used by HP HID: add HP OEM mouse to quirk ALWAYS_POLL HID: wacom: ask for a in-prox report when it was missed HID: hid-sensor-hub: Fix sparse warning HID: hid-sensor-hub: fix attribute read for logical usage id HID: plantronics: fix Kconfig default HID: pidff: support more than one concurrent effect ...
2015-04-13Merge branches 'for-4.0/upstream-fixes', 'for-4.1/genius', ↵Jiri Kosina
'for-4.1/huion-uclogic-merge', 'for-4.1/i2c-hid', 'for-4.1/kconfig-drop-expert-dependency', 'for-4.1/logitech', 'for-4.1/multitouch', 'for-4.1/rmi', 'for-4.1/sony', 'for-4.1/upstream' and 'for-4.1/wacom' into for-linus
2015-04-08tracing/samples: Update the trace-event-sample.h with TRACE_DEFINE_ENUM()Steven Rostedt (Red Hat)
Document the use of TRACE_DEFINE_ENUM() by adding enums to the trace-event-sample.h and using this macro to convert them in the format files. Also update the comments and sho the use of __print_symbolic() and __print_flags() as well as adding comments abount __print_array(). Link: Reviewed-by: Masami Hiramatsu <> Tested-by: Masami Hiramatsu <> Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <>
2015-04-08tracing: Update trace-event-sample with TRACE_SYSTEM_VAR documentationSteven Rostedt (Red Hat)
Add documentation about TRACE_SYSTEM needing to be alpha-numeric or with underscores, and that if it is not, then the use of TRACE_SYSTEM_VAR is required to make something that is. An example of this is shown in samples/trace_events/trace-events-sample.h Link: Reviewed-by: Masami Hiramatsu <> Tested-by: Masami Hiramatsu <> Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <>
2015-04-02samples/bpf: Add kmem_alloc()/free() tracker toolAlexei Starovoitov
One BPF program attaches to kmem_cache_alloc_node() and remembers all allocated objects in the map. Another program attaches to kmem_cache_free() and deletes corresponding object from the map. User space walks the map every second and prints any objects which are older than 1 second. Usage: $ sudo tracex4 Then start few long living processes. The 'tracex4' will print something like this: obj 0xffff880465928000 is 13sec old was allocated at ip ffffffff8105dc32 obj 0xffff88043181c280 is 13sec old was allocated at ip ffffffff8105dc32 obj 0xffff880465848000 is 8sec old was allocated at ip ffffffff8105dc32 obj 0xffff8804338bc280 is 15sec old was allocated at ip ffffffff8105dc32 $ addr2line -fispe vmlinux ffffffff8105dc32 do_fork at fork.c:1665 As soon as processes exit the memory is reclaimed and 'tracex4' prints nothing. Similar experiment can be done with the __kmalloc()/kfree() pair. Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Cc: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <> Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <> Cc: Daniel Borkmann <> Cc: David S. Miller <> Cc: Jiri Olsa <> Cc: Linus Torvalds <> Cc: Masami Hiramatsu <> Cc: Namhyung Kim <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Steven Rostedt <> Link: Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <>
2015-04-02samples/bpf: Add IO latency analysis (iosnoop/heatmap) toolAlexei Starovoitov
BPF C program attaches to blk_mq_start_request()/blk_update_request() kprobe events to calculate IO latency. For every completed block IO event it computes the time delta in nsec and records in a histogram map: map[log10(delta)*10]++ User space reads this histogram map every 2 seconds and prints it as a 'heatmap' using gray shades of text terminal. Black spaces have many events and white spaces have very few events. Left most space is the smallest latency, right most space is the largest latency in the range. Usage: $ sudo ./tracex3 and do 'sudo dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/null' in other terminal. Observe IO latencies and how different activity (like 'make kernel') affects it. Similar experiments can be done for network transmit latencies, syscalls, etc. '-t' flag prints the heatmap using normal ascii characters: $ sudo ./tracex3 -t heatmap of IO latency # - many events with this latency - few events |1us |10us |100us |1ms |10ms |100ms |1s |10s *ooo. *O.#. # 221 . *# . # 125 .. .o#*.. # 55 . . . . .#O # 37 .# # 175 .#*. # 37 # # 199 . . *#*. # 55 *#..* # 42 # # 266 ...***Oo#*OO**o#* . # 629 # # 271 . .#o* o.*o* # 221 . . o* *#O.. # 50 Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <> Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <> Cc: Daniel Borkmann <> Cc: David S. Miller <> Cc: Jiri Olsa <> Cc: Linus Torvalds <> Cc: Masami Hiramatsu <> Cc: Namhyung Kim <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Steven Rostedt <> Link: Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <>
2015-04-02samples/bpf: Add counting example for kfree_skb() function calls and the ↵Alexei Starovoitov
write() syscall this example has two probes in one C file that attach to different kprove events and use two different maps. 1st probe is x64 specific equivalent of dropmon. It attaches to kfree_skb, retrevies 'ip' address of kfree_skb() caller and counts number of packet drops at that 'ip' address. User space prints 'location - count' map every second. 2nd probe attaches to kprobe:sys_write and computes a histogram of different write sizes Usage: $ sudo tracex2 location 0xffffffff81695995 count 1 location 0xffffffff816d0da9 count 2 location 0xffffffff81695995 count 2 location 0xffffffff816d0da9 count 2 location 0xffffffff81695995 count 3 location 0xffffffff816d0da9 count 2 557145+0 records in 557145+0 records out 285258240 bytes (285 MB) copied, 1.02379 s, 279 MB/s syscall write() stats byte_size : count distribution 1 -> 1 : 3 | | 2 -> 3 : 0 | | 4 -> 7 : 0 | | 8 -> 15 : 0 | | 16 -> 31 : 2 | | 32 -> 63 : 3 | | 64 -> 127 : 1 | | 128 -> 255 : 1 | | 256 -> 511 : 0 | | 512 -> 1023 : 1118968 |************************************* | Ctrl-C at any time. Kernel will auto cleanup maps and programs $ addr2line -ape ./bld_x64/vmlinux 0xffffffff81695995 0xffffffff816d0da9 0xffffffff81695995: ./bld_x64/../net/ipv4/icmp.c:1038 0xffffffff816d0da9: ./bld_x64/../net/unix/af_unix.c:1231 Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <> Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <> Cc: Daniel Borkmann <> Cc: David S. Miller <> Cc: Jiri Olsa <> Cc: Linus Torvalds <> Cc: Masami Hiramatsu <> Cc: Namhyung Kim <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Steven Rostedt <> Link: Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <>
2015-04-02samples/bpf: Add simple non-portable kprobe filter exampleAlexei Starovoitov
tracex1_kern.c - C program compiled into BPF. It attaches to kprobe:netif_receive_skb() When skb->dev->name == "lo", it prints sample debug message into trace_pipe via bpf_trace_printk() helper function. tracex1_user.c - corresponding user space component that: - loads BPF program via bpf() syscall - opens kprobes:netif_receive_skb event via perf_event_open() syscall - attaches the program to event via ioctl(event_fd, PERF_EVENT_IOC_SET_BPF, prog_fd); - prints from trace_pipe Note, this BPF program is non-portable. It must be recompiled with current kernel headers. kprobe is not a stable ABI and BPF+kprobe scripts may no longer be meaningful when kernel internals change. No matter in what way the kernel changes, neither the kprobe, nor the BPF program can ever crash or corrupt the kernel, assuming the kprobes, perf and BPF subsystem has no bugs. The verifier will detect that the program is using bpf_trace_printk() and the kernel will print 'this is a DEBUG kernel' warning banner, which means that bpf_trace_printk() should be used for debugging of the BPF program only. Usage: $ sudo tracex1 ping-19826 [000] d.s2 63103.382648: : skb ffff880466b1ca00 len 84 ping-19826 [000] d.s2 63103.382684: : skb ffff880466b1d300 len 84 ping-19826 [000] d.s2 63104.382533: : skb ffff880466b1ca00 len 84 ping-19826 [000] d.s2 63104.382594: : skb ffff880466b1d300 len 84 Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <> Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <> Cc: Daniel Borkmann <> Cc: David S. Miller <> Cc: Jiri Olsa <> Cc: Linus Torvalds <> Cc: Masami Hiramatsu <> Cc: Namhyung Kim <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Steven Rostedt <> Link: Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <>
2015-03-25samples/kobject: be explicit in the module licenseGreg Kroah-Hartman
Rusty pointed out that the module license should be "GPL v2" to properly match the notice at the top of the files, so make that change. Reported-by: Rusty Russell <> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <>
2015-03-25samples/kobject: Use kstrtoint instead of sscanfRastislav Barlik
Use kstrtoint function instead of sscanf and check for return values. Signed-off-by: Rastislav Barlik <> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <>
2015-03-15HID: samples/hidraw: make it possible to select devicePavel Machek
Makefile that can actually build the example, and allow selecting device to work on. Signed-off-by: Pavel Machek <> Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <>
2015-02-17samples/seccomp: improve label helperKees Cook
Fixes a potential corruption with uninitialized stack memory in the seccomp BPF sample program. [ coding-style fixlet] Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <> Reported-by: Robert Swiecki <> Tested-by: Robert Swiecki <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2015-02-12Merge tag 'trace-v3.20' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// Pull tracing updates from Steven Rostedt: "The updates included in this pull request for ftrace are: o Several clean ups to the code One such clean up was to convert to 64 bit time keeping, in the ring buffer benchmark code. o Adding of __print_array() helper macro for TRACE_EVENT() o Updating the sample/trace_events/ to add samples of different ways to make trace events. Lots of features have been added since the sample code was made, and these features are mostly unknown. Developers have been making their own hacks to do things that are already available. o Performance improvements. Most notably, I found a performance bug where a waiter that is waiting for a full page from the ring buffer will see that a full page is not available, and go to sleep. The sched event caused by it going to sleep would cause it to wake up again. It would see that there was still not a full page, and go back to sleep again, and that would wake it up again, until finally it would see a full page. This change has been marked for stable. Other improvements include removing global locks from fast paths" * tag 'trace-v3.20' of git:// ring-buffer: Do not wake up a splice waiter when page is not full tracing: Fix unmapping loop in tracing_mark_write tracing: Add samples of DECLARE_EVENT_CLASS() and DEFINE_EVENT() tracing: Add TRACE_EVENT_FN example tracing: Add TRACE_EVENT_CONDITION sample tracing: Update the TRACE_EVENT fields available in the sample code tracing: Separate out initializing top level dir from instances tracing: Make tracing_init_dentry_tr() static trace: Use 64-bit timekeeping tracing: Add array printing helper tracing: Remove newline from trace_printk warning banner tracing: Use IS_ERR() check for return value of tracing_init_dentry() tracing: Remove unneeded includes of debugfs.h and fs.h tracing: Remove taking of trace_types_lock in pipe files tracing: Add ref count to tracer for when they are being read by pipe
2015-02-10Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// Pull live patching infrastructure from Jiri Kosina: "Let me provide a bit of history first, before describing what is in this pile. Originally, there was kSplice as a standalone project that implemented stop_machine()-based patching for the linux kernel. This project got later acquired, and the current owner is providing live patching as a proprietary service, without any intentions to have their implementation merged. Then, due to rising user/customer demand, both Red Hat and SUSE started working on their own implementation (not knowing about each other), and announced first versions roughly at the same time [1] [2]. The principle difference between the two solutions is how they are making sure that the patching is performed in a consistent way when it comes to different execution threads with respect to the semantic nature of the change that is being introduced. In a nutshell, kPatch is issuing stop_machine(), then looking at stacks of all existing processess, and if it decides that the system is in a state that can be patched safely, it proceeds insterting code redirection machinery to the patched functions. On the other hand, kGraft provides a per-thread consistency during one single pass of a process through the kernel and performs a lazy contignuous migration of threads from "unpatched" universe to the "patched" one at safe checkpoints. If interested in a more detailed discussion about the consistency models and its possible combinations, please see the thread that evolved around [3]. It pretty quickly became obvious to the interested parties that it's absolutely impractical in this case to have several isolated solutions for one task to co-exist in the kernel. During a dedicated Live Kernel Patching track at LPC in Dusseldorf, all the interested parties sat together and came up with a joint aproach that would work for both distro vendors. Steven Rostedt took notes [4] from this meeting. And the foundation for that aproach is what's present in this pull request. It provides a basic infrastructure for function "live patching" (i.e. code redirection), including API for kernel modules containing the actual patches, and API/ABI for userspace to be able to operate on the patches (look up what patches are applied, enable/disable them, etc). It's relatively simple and minimalistic, as it's making use of existing kernel infrastructure (namely ftrace) as much as possible. It's also self-contained, in a sense that it doesn't hook itself in any other kernel subsystem (it doesn't even touch any other code). It's now implemented for x86 only as a reference architecture, but support for powerpc, s390 and arm is already in the works (adding arch-specific support basically boils down to teaching ftrace about regs-saving). Once this common infrastructure gets merged, both Red Hat and SUSE have agreed to immediately start porting their current solutions on top of this, abandoning their out-of-tree code. The plan basically is that each patch will be marked by flag(s) that would indicate which consistency model it is willing to use (again, the details have been sketched out already in the thread at [3]). Before this happens, the current codebase can be used to patch a large group of secruity/stability problems the patches for which are not too complex (in a sense that they don't introduce non-trivial change of function's return value semantics, they don't change layout of data structures, etc) -- this corresponds to LEAVE_FUNCTION && SWITCH_FUNCTION semantics described at [3]. This tree has been in linux-next since December. [1] [2] [3] [4] [ The core code is introduced by the three commits authored by Seth Jennings, which got a lot of changes incorporated during numerous respins and reviews of the initial implementation. All the followup commits have materialized only after public tree has been created, so they were not folded into initial three commits so that the public tree doesn't get rebased ]" * 'for-linus' of git:// livepatch: add missing newline to error message livepatch: rename config to CONFIG_LIVEPATCH livepatch: fix uninitialized return value livepatch: support for repatching a function livepatch: enforce patch stacking semantics livepatch: change ARCH_HAVE_LIVE_PATCHING to HAVE_LIVE_PATCHING livepatch: fix deferred module patching order livepatch: handle ancient compilers with more grace livepatch: kconfig: use bool instead of boolean livepatch: samples: fix usage example comments livepatch: MAINTAINERS: add git tree location livepatch: use FTRACE_OPS_FL_IPMODIFY livepatch: move x86 specific ftrace handler code to arch/x86 livepatch: samples: add sample live patching module livepatch: kernel: add support for live patching livepatch: kernel: add TAINT_LIVEPATCH
2015-02-09tracing: Add samples of DECLARE_EVENT_CLASS() and DEFINE_EVENT()Steven Rostedt (Red Hat)
Add to samples/trace_events/ the macros DECLARE_EVENT_CLASS() and DEFINE_EVENT() and recommend using them over multiple TRACE_EVENT() macros if the multiple events have the same format. Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <>
2015-02-09tracing: Add TRACE_EVENT_FN exampleSteven Rostedt (Red Hat)
If a function should be called before a tracepoint is enabled and/or after it is disabled, the TRACE_EVENT_FN() serves this purpose. But it is not well documented. Having it as a sample would help developers to know how to use it. Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <>
2015-02-09tracing: Add TRACE_EVENT_CONDITION sampleSteven Rostedt (Red Hat)
The sample code lacks an example of TRACE_EVENT_CONDITION, and it has been expressed to me that this feature for TRACE_EVENT is not well known and not used when it could be. Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <>
2015-02-09tracing: Update the TRACE_EVENT fields available in the sample codeSteven Rostedt (Red Hat)
The sample code in samples/trace_events/ is extremely out of date and does not show all the new fields that have been added since the sample code was written. As most people are unaware of these new fields, adding sample code and explanations of those fields should help out. Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <>
2015-02-04livepatch: rename config to CONFIG_LIVEPATCHJosh Poimboeuf
Rename CONFIG_LIVE_PATCHING to CONFIG_LIVEPATCH to make the naming of the config and the code more consistent. Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <> Reviewed-by: Jingoo Han <> Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <>
2015-01-26samples: bpf: relax test_maps checkAlexei Starovoitov
hash map is unordered, so get_next_key() iterator shouldn't rely on particular order of elements. So relax this test. Fixes: ffb65f27a155 ("bpf: add a testsuite for eBPF maps") Reported-by: Michael Holzheu <> Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-12-24livepatch: samples: fix usage example commentsJosh Poimboeuf
Fix a few typos in the livepatch-sample.c usage example comments and add some whitespace to make the comments a little more legible. Reported-by: Udo Seidel <> Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <> Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <>
2014-12-22livepatch: samples: add sample live patching moduleSeth Jennings
Add a sample live patching module. Signed-off-by: Seth Jennings <> Reviewed-by: Miroslav Benes <> Reviewed-by: Petr Mladek <> Reviewed-by: Masami Hiramatsu <> Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <>
2014-12-05samples: bpf: large eBPF program in CAlexei Starovoitov
sockex2_kern.c is purposefully large eBPF program in C. llvm compiles ~200 lines of C code into ~300 eBPF instructions. It's similar to __skb_flow_dissect() to demonstrate that complex packet parsing can be done by eBPF. Then it uses (struct flow_keys)->dst IP address (or hash of ipv6 dst) to keep stats of number of packets per IP. User space loads eBPF program, attaches it to loopback interface and prints dest_ip->#packets stats every second. Usage: $sudo samples/bpf/sockex2 ip count 19 ip count 178115 ip count 369437 ip count 559841 ip count 750539 Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-12-05samples: bpf: trivial eBPF program in CAlexei Starovoitov
this example does the same task as previous socket example in assembler, but this one does it in C. eBPF program in kernel does: /* assume that packet is IPv4, load one byte of IP->proto */ int index = load_byte(skb, ETH_HLEN + offsetof(struct iphdr, protocol)); long *value; value = bpf_map_lookup_elem(&my_map, &index); if (value) __sync_fetch_and_add(value, 1); Corresponding user space reads map[tcp], map[udp], map[icmp] and prints protocol stats every second Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-12-05samples: bpf: elf_bpf file loaderAlexei Starovoitov
simple .o parser and loader using BPF syscall. .o is a standard ELF generated by LLVM backend It parses elf file compiled by llvm .c->.o - parses 'maps' section and creates maps via BPF syscall - parses 'license' section and passes it to syscall - parses elf relocations for BPF maps and adjusts BPF_LD_IMM64 insns by storing map_fd into insn->imm and marking such insns as BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_FD - loads eBPF programs via BPF syscall One ELF file can contain multiple BPF programs. int load_bpf_file(char *path); populates prog_fd[] and map_fd[] with FDs received from bpf syscall bpf_helpers.h - helper functions available to eBPF programs written in C Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-12-05samples: bpf: example of stateful socket filteringAlexei Starovoitov
this socket filter example does: - creates arraymap in kernel with key 4 bytes and value 8 bytes - loads eBPF program which assumes that packet is IPv4 and loads one byte of IP->proto from the packet and uses it as a key in a map r0 = skb->data[ETH_HLEN + offsetof(struct iphdr, protocol)]; *(u32*)(fp - 4) = r0; value = bpf_map_lookup_elem(map_fd, fp - 4); if (value) (*(u64*)value) += 1; - attaches this program to raw socket - every second user space reads map[IPPROTO_TCP], map[IPPROTO_UDP], map[IPPROTO_ICMP] to see how many packets of given protocol were seen on loopback interface Usage: $sudo samples/bpf/sock_example TCP 0 UDP 0 ICMP 0 packets TCP 187600 UDP 0 ICMP 4 packets TCP 376504 UDP 0 ICMP 8 packets TCP 563116 UDP 0 ICMP 12 packets TCP 753144 UDP 0 ICMP 16 packets Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-11-18bpf: remove test map scaffolding and user proper typesAlexei Starovoitov
proper types and function helpers are ready. Use them in verifier testsuite. Remove temporary stubs Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-11-18bpf: add a testsuite for eBPF mapsAlexei Starovoitov
. check error conditions and sanity of hash and array map APIs . check large maps (that kernel gracefully switches to vmalloc from kmalloc) . check multi-process parallel access and stress test Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-10-30samples: bpf: add a verifier test and summary lineAlexei Starovoitov
- add a test specifically targeting verifier state pruning. It checks state propagation between registers, storing that state into stack and state pruning algorithm recognizing equivalent stack and register states. - add summary line to spot failures easier Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-10-21bpf: fix bug in eBPF verifierAlexei Starovoitov
while comparing for verifier state equivalency the comparison was missing a check for uninitialized register. Make sure it does so and add a testcase. Fixes: f1bca824dabb ("bpf: add search pruning optimization to verifier") Cc: Hannes Frederic Sowa <> Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Acked-by: Hannes Frederic Sowa <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-10-08Merge git:// Torvalds
Pull networking updates from David Miller: "Most notable changes in here: 1) By far the biggest accomplishment, thanks to a large range of contributors, is the addition of multi-send for transmit. This is the result of discussions back in Chicago, and the hard work of several individuals. Now, when the ->ndo_start_xmit() method of a driver sees skb->xmit_more as true, it can choose to defer the doorbell telling the driver to start processing the new TX queue entires. skb->xmit_more means that the generic networking is guaranteed to call the driver immediately with another SKB to send. There is logic added to the qdisc layer to dequeue multiple packets at a time, and the handling mis-predicted offloads in software is now done with no locks held. Finally, pktgen is extended to have a "burst" parameter that can be used to test a multi-send implementation. Several drivers have xmit_more support: i40e, igb, ixgbe, mlx4, virtio_net Adding support is almost trivial, so export more drivers to support this optimization soon. I want to thank, in no particular or implied order, Jesper Dangaard Brouer, Eric Dumazet, Alexander Duyck, Tom Herbert, Jamal Hadi Salim, John Fastabend, Florian Westphal, Daniel Borkmann, David Tat, Hannes Frederic Sowa, and Rusty Russell. 2) PTP and timestamping support in bnx2x, from Michal Kalderon. 3) Allow adjusting the rx_copybreak threshold for a driver via ethtool, and add rx_copybreak support to enic driver. From Govindarajulu Varadarajan. 4) Significant enhancements to the generic PHY layer and the bcm7xxx driver in particular (EEE support, auto power down, etc.) from Florian Fainelli. 5) Allow raw buffers to be used for flow dissection, allowing drivers to determine the optimal "linear pull" size for devices that DMA into pools of pages. The objective is to get exactly the necessary amount of headers into the linear SKB area pre-pulled, but no more. The new interface drivers use is eth_get_headlen(). From WANG Cong, with driver conversions (several had their own by-hand duplicated implementations) by Alexander Duyck and Eric Dumazet. 6) Support checksumming more smoothly and efficiently for encapsulations, and add "foo over UDP" facility. From Tom Herbert. 7) Add Broadcom SF2 switch driver to DSA layer, from Florian Fainelli. 8) eBPF now can load programs via a system call and has an extensive testsuite. Alexei Starovoitov and Daniel Borkmann. 9) Major overhaul of the packet scheduler to use RCU in several major areas such as the classifiers and rate estimators. From John Fastabend. 10) Add driver for Intel FM10000 Ethernet Switch, from Alexander Duyck. 11) Rearrange TCP_SKB_CB() to reduce cache line misses, from Eric Dumazet. 12) Add Datacenter TCP congestion control algorithm support, From Florian Westphal. 13) Reorganize sk_buff so that __copy_skb_header() is significantly faster. From Eric Dumazet" * git:// (1558 commits) netlabel: directly return netlbl_unlabel_genl_init() net: add netdev_txq_bql_{enqueue, complete}_prefetchw() helpers net: description of dma_cookie cause make xmldocs warning cxgb4: clean up a type issue cxgb4: potential shift wrapping bug i40e: skb->xmit_more support net: fs_enet: Add NAPI TX net: fs_enet: Remove non NAPI RX r8169:add support for RTL8168EP net_sched: copy exts->type in tcf_exts_change() wimax: convert printk to pr_foo() af_unix: remove 0 assignment on static ipv6: Do not warn for informational ICMP messages, regardless of type. Update Intel Ethernet Driver maintainers list bridge: Save frag_max_size between PRE_ROUTING and POST_ROUTING tipc: fix bug in multicast congestion handling net: better IFF_XMIT_DST_RELEASE support net/mlx4_en: remove NETDEV_TX_BUSY 3c59x: fix bad split of cpu_to_le32(pci_map_single()) net: bcmgenet: fix Tx ring priority programming ...
2014-10-01bpf: add tests to verifier testsuiteAlexei Starovoitov
add 4 extra tests to cover jump verification better Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-09-26bpf: mini eBPF library, test stubs and verifier testsuiteAlexei Starovoitov
1. the library includes a trivial set of BPF syscall wrappers: int bpf_create_map(int key_size, int value_size, int max_entries); int bpf_update_elem(int fd, void *key, void *value); int bpf_lookup_elem(int fd, void *key, void *value); int bpf_delete_elem(int fd, void *key); int bpf_get_next_key(int fd, void *key, void *next_key); int bpf_prog_load(enum bpf_prog_type prog_type, const struct sock_filter_int *insns, int insn_len, const char *license); bpf_prog_load() stores verifier log into global bpf_log_buf[] array and BPF_*() macros to build instructions 2. test stubs configure eBPF infra with 'unspec' map and program types. These are fake types used by user space testsuite only. 3. verifier tests valid and invalid programs and expects predefined error log messages from kernel. 40 tests so far. $ sudo ./test_verifier #0 add+sub+mul OK #1 unreachable OK #2 unreachable2 OK #3 out of range jump OK #4 out of range jump2 OK #5 test1 ld_imm64 OK ... Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-09-26kprobes: update jprobe_example.c for do_fork() changeMichael Ellerman
In commit e80d666 "flagday: kill pt_regs argument of do_fork()", the arguments to do_fork() changed. The example code in jprobe_example.c was not updated to match, so the arguments inside the jprobe handler do not match reality. Fix it by updating the arguments to match do_fork(). While we're at it use pr_info() for brevity, and print stack_start as well for interest. Signed-off-by: Michael Ellerman <> Acked-by: Masami Hiramatsu <> Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <>
2014-07-01tracing: Change trace event sample to use strlcpy instead of strncpyZhao Hongjiang
Strings should be copied with strlcpy instead of strncpy when they will later be printed via %s. This guarantees that they terminate with a NUL '\0' character and do not run pass the end of the allocated string. This is only for sample code, but it should stil represent a good role model. Link: Signed-off-by: Zhao Hongjiang <> Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <>
2014-06-21tracing: Add __field_struct macro for TRACE_EVENT()Steven Rostedt
Currently the __field() macro in TRACE_EVENT is only good for primitive values, such as integers and pointers, but it fails on complex data types such as structures or unions. This is because the __field() macro determines if the variable is signed or not with the test of: (((type)(-1)) < (type)1) Unfortunately, that fails when type is a structure. Since trace events should support structures as fields a new macro is created for such a case called __field_struct() which acts exactly the same as __field() does but it does not do the signed type check and just uses a constant false for that answer. Cc: Tony Luck <> Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <>
2014-05-14samples/kobject/: avoid world-writable sysfs files.Rusty Russell
In line with practice for module parameters, we're adding a build-time check that sysfs files aren't world-writable. Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <> Signed-off-by: Rusty Russell <>
2014-04-03samples/seccomp/Makefile: do not build tests if cross-compiling for MIPSMarkos Chandras
The Makefile is designed to use the host toolchain so it may be unsafe to build the tests if the kernel has been configured and built for another architecture. This fixes a build problem when the kernel has been configured and built for the MIPS architecture but the host is not MIPS (cross-compiled). The MIPS syscalls are only defined if one of the following is true: 1) _MIPS_SIM == _MIPS_SIM_ABI64 2) _MIPS_SIM == _MIPS_SIM_ABI32 3) _MIPS_SIM == _MIPS_SIM_NABI32 Of course, none of these make sense on a non-MIPS toolchain and the following build problem occurs when building on a non-MIPS host. linux/usr/include/linux/kexec.h:50: userspace cannot reference function or variable defined in the kernel samples/seccomp/bpf-direct.c: In function `emulator': samples/seccomp/bpf-direct.c:76:17: error: `__NR_write' undeclared (first use in this function) Signed-off-by: Markos Chandras <> Reported-by: Paul Gortmaker <> Cc: Ralf Baechle <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-12-03kobject: fix kset sample error pathBjorn Helgaas
Previously, example_init() leaked a kset if any of the object creations failed. This fixes the leak by calling kset_unregister() in the error path. Signed-off-by: Bjorn Helgaas <> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <>
2013-11-15kfifo API type safetyStefani Seibold
This patch enhances the type safety for the kfifo API. It is now safe to put const data into a non const FIFO and the API will now generate a compiler warning when reading from the fifo where the destination address is pointing to a const variable. As a side effect the kfifo_put() does now expect the value of an element instead a pointer to the element. This was suggested Russell King. It make the handling of the kfifo_put easier since there is no need to create a helper variable for getting the address of a pointer or to pass integers of different sizes. IMHO the API break is okay, since there are currently only six users of kfifo_put(). The code is also cleaner by kicking out the "if (0)" expressions. [ coding-style fixes] Signed-off-by: Stefani Seibold <> Cc: Russell King <> Cc: Hauke Mehrtens <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-09-06Merge git:// Torvalds
Pull Tile arch updates from Chris Metcalf: "These changes bring in a bunch of new functionality that has been maintained internally at Tilera over the last year, plus other stray bits of work that I've taken into the tile tree from other folks. The changes include some PCI root complex work, interrupt-driven console support, support for performing fast-path unaligned data fixups by kernel-based JIT code generation, CONFIG_PREEMPT support, vDSO support for gettimeofday(), a serial driver for the tilegx on-chip UART, KGDB support, more optimized string routines, support for ftrace and kprobes, improved ASLR, and many bug fixes. We also remove support for the old TILE64 chip, which is no longer buildable" * git:// (85 commits) tile: refresh tile defconfig files tile: rework <asm/cmpxchg.h> tile PCI RC: make default consistent DMA mask 32-bit tile: add null check for kzalloc in tile/kernel/setup.c tile: make __write_once a synonym for __read_mostly tile: remove support for TILE64 tile: use asm-generic/bitops/builtin-*.h tile: eliminate no-op "noatomichash" boot argument tile: use standard tile_bundle_bits type in traps.c tile: simplify code referencing hypervisor API addresses tile: change <asm/system.h> to <asm/switch_to.h> in comments tile: mark pcibios_init() as __init tile: check for correct compiler earlier in asm-offsets.c tile: use standard 'generic-y' model for <asm/hw_irq.h> tile: use asm-generic version of <asm/local64.h> tile PCI RC: add comment about "PCI hole" problem tile: remove DEBUG_EXTRA_FLAGS kernel config option tile: add virt_to_kpte() API and clean up and document behavior tile: support FRAME_POINTER tile: support reporting Tilera hypervisor statistics ...
2013-09-06Merge branches 'for-3.12/devm', 'for-3.12/i2c-hid', 'for-3.12/i2c-hid-dt', ↵Jiri Kosina
'for-3.12/logitech', 'for-3.12/multitouch-win8', 'for-3.12/trasnport-driver-cleanup', 'for-3.12/uhid', 'for-3.12/upstream' and 'for-3.12/wiimote' into for-linus
2013-09-04HID: uhid: improve uhid example clientDavid Herrmann
This extends the uhid example client. It properly documents the built-in report-descriptor an adds explicit report-numbers. Furthermore, LED output reports are added to utilize the new UHID output reports of the kernel. Support for 3 basic LEDs is added and a small report-parser to print debug messages if output reports were received. To test this, simply write the EV_LED+LED_CAPSL+1 event to the evdev device-node of the uhid-device and the kernel will forward it to your uhid client. Signed-off-by: David Herrmann <> Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <>
2013-08-30tile: support kprobes on tilegxTony Lu
This change includes support for Kprobes, Jprobes and Return Probes. Reviewed-by: Masami Hiramatsu <> Signed-off-by: Tony Lu <> Signed-off-by: Chris Metcalf <>
2013-08-20HID: samples/hidraw: add .gitignore filePaul Gortmaker
To fix: # Untracked files: # (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed) # # samples/hidraw/hid-example as seen in git status output after an allyesconfig build. Signed-off-by: Paul Gortmaker <> Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <>
2013-03-27HID: hidraw: warn if userspace headers are outdatedJiri Kosina
Put a warning into sample hidraw code in samples/hidraw/hid-example.c in case the userspace headers are missing the necessary defines and need to be updated. Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <>
2013-02-19Merge branch 'perf-core-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// Pull perf changes from Ingo Molnar: "There are lots of improvements, the biggest changes are: Main kernel side changes: - Improve uprobes performance by adding 'pre-filtering' support, by Oleg Nesterov. - Make some POWER7 events available in sysfs, equivalent to what was done on x86, from Sukadev Bhattiprolu. - tracing updates by Steve Rostedt - mostly misc fixes and smaller improvements. - Use perf/event tracing to report PCI Express advanced errors, by Tony Luck. - Enable northbridge performance counters on AMD family 15h, by Jacob Shin. - This tracing commit: tracing: Remove the extra 4 bytes of padding in events changes the ABI. All involved parties (PowerTop in particular) seem to agree that it's safe to do now with the introduction of libtraceevent, but the devil is in the details ... Main tooling side changes: - Add 'event group view', from Namyung Kim: To use it, 'perf record' should group events when recording. And then perf report parses the saved group relation from file header and prints them together if --group option is provided. You can use the 'perf evlist' command to see event group information: $ perf record -e '{ref-cycles,cycles}' noploop 1 [ perf record: Woken up 2 times to write data ] [ perf record: Captured and wrote 0.385 MB (~16807 samples) ] $ perf evlist --group {ref-cycles,cycles} With this example, default perf report will show you each event separately. You can use --group option to enable event group view: $ perf report --group ... # group: {ref-cycles,cycles} # ======== # Samples: 7K of event 'anon group { ref-cycles, cycles }' # Event count (approx.): 6876107743 # # Overhead Command Shared Object Symbol # ................ ....... ................. .......................... 99.84% 99.76% noploop noploop [.] main 0.07% 0.00% noploop [.] strcmp 0.03% 0.00% noploop [kernel.kallsyms] [k] timerqueue_del 0.03% 0.03% noploop [kernel.kallsyms] [k] sched_clock_cpu 0.02% 0.00% noploop [kernel.kallsyms] [k] account_user_time 0.01% 0.00% noploop [kernel.kallsyms] [k] __alloc_pages_nodemask 0.00% 0.00% noploop [kernel.kallsyms] [k] native_write_msr_safe 0.00% 0.11% noploop [kernel.kallsyms] [k] _raw_spin_lock 0.00% 0.06% noploop [kernel.kallsyms] [k] find_get_page 0.00% 0.02% noploop [kernel.kallsyms] [k] rcu_check_callbacks 0.00% 0.02% noploop [kernel.kallsyms] [k] __current_kernel_time As you can see the Overhead column now contains both of ref-cycles and cycles and header line shows group information also - 'anon group { ref-cycles, cycles }'. The output is sorted by period of group leader first. - Initial GTK+ annotate browser, from Namhyung Kim. - Add option for runtime switching perf data file in perf report, just press 's' and a menu with the valid files found in the current directory will be presented, from Feng Tang. - Add support to display whole group data for raw columns, from Jiri Olsa. - Add per processor socket count aggregation in perf stat, from Stephane Eranian. - Add interval printing in 'perf stat', from Stephane Eranian. - 'perf test' improvements - Add support for wildcards in tracepoint system name, from Jiri Olsa. - Add anonymous huge page recognition, from Joshua Zhu. - perf build-id cache now can show DSOs present in a file that are not in the cache, to integrate with build-id servers being put in place by organizations such as Fedora. - perf top now shares more of the evsel config/creation routines with 'record', paving the way for further integration like 'top' snapshots, etc. - perf top now supports DWARF callchains. - Fix mmap limitations on 32-bit, fix from David Miller. - 'perf bench numa mem' NUMA performance measurement suite - ... and lots of fixes, performance improvements, cleanups and other improvements I failed to list - see the shortlog and git log for details." * 'perf-core-for-linus' of git:// (270 commits) perf/x86/amd: Enable northbridge performance counters on AMD family 15h perf/hwbp: Fix cleanup in case of kzalloc failure perf tools: Fix build with bison 2.3 and older. perf tools: Limit unwind support to x86 archs perf annotate: Make it to be able to skip unannotatable symbols perf gtk/annotate: Fail early if it can't annotate perf gtk/annotate: Show source lines with gray color perf gtk/annotate: Support multiple event annotation perf ui/gtk: Implement basic GTK2 annotation browser perf annotate: Fix warning message on a missing vmlinux perf buildid-cache: Add --update option uprobes/perf: Avoid uprobe_apply() whenever possible uprobes/perf: Teach trace_uprobe/perf code to use UPROBE_HANDLER_REMOVE uprobes/perf: Teach trace_uprobe/perf code to pre-filter uprobes/perf: Teach trace_uprobe/perf code to track the active perf_event's uprobes: Introduce uprobe_apply() perf: Introduce hw_perf_event->tp_target and ->tp_list uprobes/perf: Always increment trace_uprobe->nhit uprobes/tracing: Kill uprobe_trace_consumer, embed uprobe_consumer into trace_uprobe uprobes/tracing: Introduce is_trace_uprobe_enabled() ...
2013-02-05samples/seccomp: be less stupid about cross compilingArnd Bergmann
The seccomp filters are currently built for the build host, not for the machine that they are going to run on, but they are also built for with the -m32 flag if the kernel is built for a 32 bit machine, both of which seems rather odd. It broke allyesconfig on my machine, which is x86-64, but building for 32 bit ARM, with this error message: In file included from /usr/include/stdio.h:28:0, from samples/seccomp/bpf-fancy.c:15: /usr/include/features.h:324:26: fatal error: bits/predefs.h: No such file or directory because there are no 32 bit libc headers installed on this machine. We should really be building all the samples for the target machine rather than the build host, but since the infrastructure for that appears to be missing right now, let's be a little bit smarter and not pass the '-m32' flag to the HOSTCC when cross- compiling. Signed-off-by: Arnd Bergmann <> Acked-by: Kees Cook <> Cc: Heiko Carstens <> Cc: James Morris <> Acked-by: Will Drewry <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>